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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date June 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Foreword: Special Section on Packaging

    Page(s): 141 - 142
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Comparison of Wafer Scale Integration with VLSI Packaging Approaches

    Page(s): 184 - 189
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    A comparison is made of various high-density packaging approaches, including printed wiring board, thick-film hybrids, and wafer scale integration (WSI). Criteria include power dissipation, density, delays, and cost. It is concluded that thin-film hybrids using state-of-the-art VLSI chips have the potential for WSI density and performance. The requirement for fault tolerance, additional levels of metallization, excess power dissipation, process conservatism to achieve finite yield, and the nonoptimum nature of the Al/Si02transmission line for cross wafer communication have made WSI noncompetitive. View full abstract»

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  • Equations for Estimating Wire Length in Various Types of 2-D and 3-D System Packaging Structures

    Page(s): 190 - 198
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    Equations for estimating wire lengths in various types of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cell arrays are introduced'and applications of these equations are described. The singleplane packaging technique is compared with the stacked 2-D technique. The effect of increasing the number of edge connectors for Stacked 2-D designs is evaluated. Also the wire length in 3-D wafer computers is estimated. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Conduction Mechanisms of Barium-Titanate-Based Thick-Film Capacitors

    Page(s): 274 - 282
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    Electrical characteristics, including degradation, of high K (cong500) barium-titanate-based thick-film capacitors were studied. The leakage current of thick-film capacitors made from Ag/Pd thick-film conducting paste and high K dielectric has shown ohmic and super-ohmic (3/2 power voltage dependence) type behavior. Voltage independence of thermal activation energy and time dependence of leakage current were also observed. A healing effect by reversal of bias polarity and the effect of humidity on leakage current have also been studied. Models for leakage currents that increase with time are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Simple Method for Characterizing the Bondability of Metallization Surfaces

    Page(s): 232 - 235
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    A probing technique is described which measures breakdown voltages of contaminating films on metal surfaces. These breakdown voltages are correlated with the bondability and wettability of the surfaces. The probe setup consists of a fine gold wire with a ball terminal and a tungsten whisker. Three examples are described. The breakdown voltage on Al metallization on a Si chip and on plated Ag film on a leadframe both correspond to the ease of Au wire bonding. In contrast, the Au-Si eutectic layer demonstrating a large breakdown voltage features poor solderability and low bonding reliability. The An ball probe is confirmed to be a convenient tool for quality control in thin-film manufacturing and device assembly processes. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Particle Morphology and Rheological Behavior in Solder Paste

    Page(s): 224 - 231
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    Solder paste is an integral part of surface mount technology. An adequate understanding of its behavior and properties is essential to comprehend the relationship solder paste has to the overall manufacturing process. Techniques to characterize solder paste behavior adequately were explored. Particular emphasis was placed on characterizing solder particle size and shape as well as the viscous behavior of pastes. In all, 24 samples were characterized. Size and shape were effectively measured utilizing an image analysis technique which employs Fourier shape descriptors. The Shape AnalyzerTMwas the instrument employed. Viscous behavior was characterized over a range of shear rates. The behavior of the paste was found to fit a power law model. In addition, paste viscous behavior was found to he very complex. Metal loading and particle size affect the solder paste. The characterization schemes discussed could be adapted to the specification of solder paste parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Management of Air- and Liquid-Cooled Multichip Modules

    Page(s): 159 - 175
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    The state-of-the-art in air- and liquid-cooled multichip modules is examined. An effort is made to identify the salient features of eight distinct modules, define their thermal characteristics, and establish a consistent basis for comparing and evaluating their thermal performance. View full abstract»

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  • Stress Analysis of Partially Yielded Soldered Joint for Surface Mount Connectors

    Page(s): 236 - 241
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    A closed-form solution is derived for deformation of Partially yielded L-shaped joints commonly seen in surface mount connectors. The solder layer is modeled by one-dimensional elastic/ plastic foundation. The solution agrees well with a published result of an elastic problem as a special case and with a finite element analysis in an elastic/plastic case. This analysis provides a few useful conclusions in the design of soldering leads. They are 1) the soldering lead (but not the vertical portion) should be thick to distribute the load in a larger area, and 2) peel stress may be reduced by appropriately including a moment to counteract the effect Of vertical force. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Modeling of Interconnections in Multilayer Packaging Structures

    Page(s): 217 - 223
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    An effort toward modeling the interconnections in selected typical multilayer packaging structures is presented. The modeling is based on a quasi-static approximation to the associated electro-magnetic problems. A program for computing capacitance and inductance matrices and the numerical techniques used to improve the program efficiency are described. The results of numerical testing of the program are provided and discussed. The program was also compared with experimental data published in the open literature and the results are shown. The agreement between the model and the experiments is satisfactory. View full abstract»

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  • Buried Coaxial Conductors for High-Speed Interconnections

    Page(s): 204 - 208
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    In May of 1985, the basic work describing buried coaxial conductors in fine-line muitilayer polyimide substrates was reported at the 35th ECC Conference [10]. This unique construction provides a breakthrough technology for controlling electrical crosstalk in closely spaced high-density substrates. Such control is critical for high-speed designs operating in the 1-10-GHz frequency range. That work is expanded here, and a critique On advantages and disadvantages of this technology is provided. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Aluminum Ball Bonding Mechanism

    Page(s): 242 - 246
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    The effects of various factors, e.g., ball hardness, amount of ball deformation, thickness, and surface cleanliness of the aluminum electrode, which can influence bonding strength were investigated. Metallurgical bonding between balls and electrodes occurs by rupturing the oxide film existing on the aluminum electrodes and proceeds from outside, inwards to the center of the bonds. The bonding strength is found to be a linear function of the true bonded area between balls and electrodes. The factors increasing the true bonded area are a high ball hardness, a large amount of deformation, a thick aluminum electrode, and a clean electrode surface. In addition, a high strength ball bonding comparable to gold can be realized by using aluminum alloy wires containing magnesium. View full abstract»

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  • Cost-Density Analysis of Interconnections

    Page(s): 143 - 151
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    A very rapid increase in the conductor density of various interconnecting substrates makes it desirable to have a uniform method for evaluation of their relative density capabilities. The derivation of one such method of evaluation, based on conductor density per unit of total area of the substrate, is made. This method permits a uniform density analysis of the entire interconnection spectrum from printed to integrated circuits. It is also useful in derivation of a price-density analysis and other figures of merits for assisting in the comparison of various packaging techniques. A description of a generalized approach for development of such a graphic price-density analysis is provided. View full abstract»

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  • The Fundamental Limits for Electronic Packaging and Systems

    Page(s): 176 - 183
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    A systems analysis of the fundamental physical laws that will eventually restrict the evolution of all electronic systems is presented. To formulate the analysis, a logical framework based on a minimum set of three critical hardware parameters is constructed. These parameters serve as variables in the quantification of the physical laws as they affect electronic systems. The parameters to reduce the array of fundamental constraints to simple mathematical relationships have been chosen, which can be plotted into the space spanned by the parameter set. The mathematical relationships, together with operational criteria such as noise margins and package thermal resistance, partition this space into allowed and forbidden regions. By placing current systems into the allowed region, it is shown that current technology is approaching several fundamental limits simultaneously. It is clear from this analysis that the approach to systems design will have to be integrated to include all levels in the system package, in order to optimize the performance of the system as a whole. The properties that a systems package must possess if it is to successfully combat these approaching limits is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Study of Ag-W-Re Composite Materials Under High-Current Conditions

    Page(s): 283 - 289
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    The results of testing the properties of the new contact material silver-tungsten-rhenium under high current conditions are presented. Arc erosion, contact resistance, and statical welding characteristics have been investigated. The AgW50Re2 is the optimum variant of the materials. It has shown considerably less erosion than that shown by AgW(50) and it appeared to have nonwelding properties. It can be applied for low-voltage circuit-breakers. View full abstract»

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  • Investigations of Large PLCC Package Cracking During Surface Mount Exposure

    Page(s): 209 - 216
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    Surface mount technology imposes severe strains on plastic leaded chip carriers. An examination of package cracking during solder reflow and the factors that affect this problem are presented. The major factor inducing package cracking is found to be water vapor absorption from the ambient. It was found that the cracking problem could be circumvented by reducing the absorbed moisture level through a minimum 6 h 150°C air bake followed by surface mounting within 8 h to prevent reabsorption of water from the environment. Other factors affecting this problem are the absorptivity of the plastic encapsulant, the plastic brittleness, the rigidity of the lead frame flag, the plastic to lead frame bond strength, the package thickness, and the die size. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Intermetallic Compound Formation on In/Bi/Sn Solder Bumps Used in Pb-Alloy Josephson Chip Packaging

    Page(s): 263 - 266
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    An AuIn2intermetallic compound was discovered and its effect on bonding in Pb-alloy Josephson chip packaging was investigated. This was achieved by applying an In/Bi/Sn ternary alloy solder, which was characterized by X-ray and thermal analysis. Both bulk and vacuumdeposited In/Bi/Sn films were used, and in both cases the dominant compound was BiIn2. Indium,gamma-SnIn, andbeta-InSn were also detected. Bi3In5appeared as the In content decreased. The sequentially deposited thick solder film had a simple structure, but the structure at the interface between solder and Pd/Au was very complicated. The dominant compounds at this interface were AuIn2and Bi3In5. Joining strength using In/Bi/Sn solder depended on the solder-bump fabrication process. The fracture interface was analyzed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Fracture occurred at the interface between Pd and Au. It was found that AuIn2intermetallic compound formation reduced chip bonding strength. Low-temperature annealing of Pd/Au thin film before solder evaporation reduced AuIn2intermetallic compound formation. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence: Authors' Reply

    Page(s): 292
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    More detailed discussions are presented here, according to surface problems of the static contacts. View full abstract»

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  • Smell Identification Using a Thick-Film Hybrid Gas Sensor

    Page(s): 267 - 273
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    An analytical method and experimental results of identifying and quantifying smells using an electronic system composed of an integrated sensor and a microcomputer are described. The integrated sensor with six different elements on an alumina substrate was fabricated by using thick-film techniques. The elements are kept at around 400°C by a Pt heater mounted on the sensor back. Since each element was made from different semiconductor oxides, they possess different sensitivities to material odors and the integrated sensor can develop specific patterns corresponding to each odor as a histogram of conductance ratios for each element. The microcomputer identifies the scent on the basis of similarities calculated by comparing standard patterns stored in the memory and a sample pattern developed by the integrated sensor. The scent is then quantified by using the sensor element with the highest sensitivity to the smell identified. The experimental results show that smells can be successfully identified and quantified with the electronic System. View full abstract»

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  • High-Frequency Performance of TAB

    Page(s): 199 - 203
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    The high-performance capability of tape automated bonding (TAB) is explored by developing simple equivalent circuits that allow estimates of signal fidelity, crosstalk, power capabilities, and power signal interactions. A useful experimental technique for isolating cause and effect is used to illustrate power delta-I noise. Improvements in power and signal behavior are proposed, which result from careful attention to the placement of the signal I/O relative to the ground and power leads. Lastly, the performance limits encountered in chip-on-tape testing and how the signal fidelity can be improved by tape design and layout are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Micro-Corrosion of Al-Cu Bonding Pads

    Page(s): 252 - 257
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    Aluminum metallization films with copper additions are found to exhibit highly localized pitting in the presence of moisture. Galvanic action of aluminum surrounding Al2Cu theta phase particles causes localized aluminum corrosion. The thin layer of aluminum hydroxide corrosion product on the bonding pad creates an effective barrier to high-quality wire bonding. View full abstract»

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  • Water-Soluble Flux for Pb-Alloy Josephson Device Packaging

    Page(s): 258 - 262
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    A new water-soluble flux using a chelate system was developed for indium(In)-based low-melting-temperature solder alloys. Rosin fluxes, which are now widely used for reflow soldering processes, are not effective below 150°C. Therefore they can not be applied to Pb-alloy Josephson device chip interconnections. It was found that 5-sulfosalicylic acid compounds were very effective for In/33 percent Bi/16 percent Sn and In/48 percent Sn alloys. The new flux was active at temperatures as low as 70°C. A water-soluble flux system of dimethylamine and tartaric acid was also examined. This flux was active below 100°C, but it attacked the Pb/In/An alloy superconducting transmission lines; furthermore, it caused growth of Pb and In whiskers on the solder bumps. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Attach Chip Carriers for Conventional and High-Performance Applications

    Page(s): 152 - 158
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    Three types of surface attach chip carriers are available for systems use: leadless ceramic and plastic packages, leaded plastic and ceramic packages, and a new updated version of the leadless ceramic packages suitable only for socketing. These new packages have high lead count, copper leads, and provisions for internal decoupling capacitors. These three packaging types and the important role that sockets play in system design are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Water Adsorption and Surface Conductivity Measurements on \alpha -Alumina Substrates

    Page(s): 247 - 251
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    Water adsorption and surface conductivity on ceramic substrates are important parameters in the electrochemical corrosion of thin-film metallizations and the associated growth of dendrites in humid environments. The adsorption of water provides the necessary electrolyte through which ion migration and electrochemical corrosion is possible, and the surface conductivity of the adsorbed moisture layer is a direct measure of the ion migration capability. The water adsorption isotherm of or-alumina at 23°C was determined using thermo-gravimetric analysis. It is found to be of type III according to Brunauer's classification. Similar to results for other oxides, the water adsorption onalpha-alumina is much lower than that on metal surfaces. An equivalent of one monolayer of water is adsorbed when the relative humidity (RH) is about 35 percent. For RH's higher than 70 percent, water adsorption is more than five monolayers and increases dramatically with increasing water vapor pressure. The surface conductivity was measured using an interdigitated thin-film circuit of pure copper sputtered on analpha-alumina substrate. The results show that the conductivity of the water layer increases with the accumulation of water monolayers. A moisture film equivalent to less than five monolayers (RH less than about 70 percent) has a conductivity approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that of bulk water. At 95 percent RH, a water film of more than 20 monolayers has a conductivity which is still an order of magnitude lower than that of an equivalent film of bulk water. These results are attributed to a discontinuous or patchy nature of the water film on the surface of the substrate. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence: Comments on "1/f Noise in Metal Contacts and Granular Resistors"

    Page(s): 290 - 291
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    A model is presented in the above paper based on temperature fluctuations of the small conducting spots inducing conductivity fluctuations. The observed experimental results are in qualitative agreement with those of the model. In this comment arguments will be presented which are at variance with the temperature fluctuation model. Their experimental results can be described by the empirical 1/f noise relation. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope