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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IRE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 1956

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  • [Front cover and table of contents - Jul. 1956]

    Page(s): f1 - f2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Biography - E. L. Ginzton

    Page(s): 135
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    Born in Russia in 1915, in Ekaterinoslav, now Dnepropetrovsk, Edward L. Ginzton came to the United States when he was 13. He attended the University of California, receiving the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering. With the encouragement and assistance of Dr. F. E. Terman, he transferred to Stanford University for graduate work in radio engineering, receiving the E.E. degree in 1938 and the Ph.D. degree in 1940, after specializing in the study of negative feedback and the theory and application of stabilized negative impedances. View full abstract»

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  • Microwaves--Present and Future

    Page(s): 136
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    Many of us are so immersed in the ever-narrowing branches of electrical engineering that it is difficult to take stock of the accomplishments in the field as a whole or to visualize the possibilities and limitations of future developments. For those of us engaged in teaching and research, and who expect to remain in the field, such an assessment is necessary if we are to guide our students properly and anticipate the probable roles of our own specialties. I will review briefly present-day microwave applications indicating some of the spectacular developments during the past twenty years and try to make an appraisal of potential limitations in microwave research per se, and point to a possible profitable avenue of research for the future. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid Measurement of Dielectric Constant and Loss Tangent

    Page(s): 137 - 140
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    The problem of evaluating dielectric constant and loss tangent by the short-circuited-waveguide technique has been encountered continually in recent years in the study of artificial dielectric media and radome materials. In general, practical measurements have involved materials with low loss and dielectric constants less than 10. The analytical method normally applied to data on such materials requires laborious computation. The available graphical methods have not completely eliminated computation and have provided answers of unsatisfactory accuracy. The present paper describes rapid graphical techniques for evaluating dielectric constant and loss tangent from the quantities normally measured with the slotted line, using samples of arbitrarily chosen length. It begins with equations previously derived for the case of low-loss media. By use of a new parameter, the relationship between dielectric constant and the measured shift in standing-wave minimum is plotted in such a way that all possible values of dielectric constant within any predetermined range are read directly from the graph with no computation whatsoever. A graph can be readily prepared to apply over a full range of frequency to all sizes of rectangular waveguide. View full abstract»

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  • Propagation in Ferrite-Filled Transversely Magnetized Waveguide

    Page(s): 140 - 143
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    A solution to the problem of propagation of higher modes in a transversely magnetized ferrite-filled rectangular waveguide has been found. The solutions to the problem are expressed in the form of four rigorous nonlinear algebraic equations which characterize the problem and are ready for numerical solution. The dependence of the fields in the direction of magnetization is the same as for the classical modes. View full abstract»

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  • Currents Excited on a Conducting Surface of Large Radius of Curvature

    Page(s): 143 - 145
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    The nature of the electromagnetic field of an antenna in the vicinity of a surface of large radius of curvature is discussed. Assuming a spherical surface, the solution for a dipole source in the form of the Watson residue series is transformed to a more rapidly converging series which is preferable at short distances. Using this result, numerical data is presented in graphical form for the currents induced on the spherical surface. The curves are applicable to both a stub and slot antenna mounted on the conducting surface. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on Noise Temperature

    Page(s): 145 - 151
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    The effective noise temperature of the output impedance of a Iossy passive network at an arbitrary noise temperature connected to one or more resistive loads at arbitrary noise temperature lies between the highest and the lowest of these noise temperatures, as determined by the losses between the output terminals and the loads. The determination of the effective noise temperature of a gas-discharge noise generator over a wide frequency range is simplified by the substitution of a loss measurement for the more difficult noise temperature measurement. For minimum-noise radar applications care must be used in considering the excess noise of crystal mixers and gas-discharge duplexers. The influeuce of galactic radiation on a receiving system is such that there is an optimum frequency in the region of 200 to 600 mc for minimum "operating noise figure." Typical examples of radio-astronomy measurements are amenable to analysis of the type given. Finally, several corrections to measured noise figure are analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Microwave Single-Sideband Modulator Using Ferrites

    Page(s): 152 - 155
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    This paper describes a single-sideband modulator for shifting the frequency of an x-band signal by means of a rotating magnetic field transverse to a ferrite differential half-wave section. The device is one of the first practical applications of the double-refraction properties of ferrites. Improvements over an earlier model include reduction in size and continuous operation without drift. An efficient and compact magnetic structure has been designed for producing the rotating magnetic field. Excessive heating of the ferrite and voltage breakdown of the coils is eliminated by a forced-air cooling system. The modulator shifts the microwave-carrier frequency of 9375 mc by plus or minus 20 kc. With a rotating field of approximately 200 oersteds the microwave insertion loss is 1.0 db. The undesired sideband suppression is above 40 db while the carrier suppression is 23 db. For a frequency bandwidth of 500 mc, the insertion loss remains below 5 db. View full abstract»

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  • A Semi-Infinite Array of Parallel Metallic Plates of Finite Thickness for Microwave Systems

    Page(s): 156 - 166
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    An array of parallel metallic plates of finite thickness are useful in microwave lenses. The effect of finite thickness in the idealized situation of a semi-infinite array of perfect conductivity, is treated theoretically and experimentally for normal incidence of a uniform plane wave on the plane interface separating the medium from free space. The theoretical discussion involves the approximate variational method and a procedure is given for estimating the order of magnitude of the error in the final result. It is shown that it can be advantageous to use plates of finite thickness since the reflection from the interface can be reduced from that existing for infinitely thin plates. View full abstract»

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  • The Characteristic Impedance of Trough and Slab Lines

    Page(s): 166 - 172
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    A variational method is used to develop an expression for the characteristic impedance of a "trough line" consisting of a circular cylinder mounted inside and parallel to the walls of a semi-infinate rectangular trough. The "slab line" consisting of a circular cylinder between infinite, parallel plates is treated as a special case of the trough line in which the bottom of the trough is taken to be infinitely remote from the circular cylinder. The solution has not been restricted to cylinders that are mounted exactly half way between the parallel walls of the trough; a simple formula is presented for calculating the tolerances which must be placed on the "centering" of the center conductor for a given allowable error in the characteristic impedance. The expression for the characteristic impedance is presented as the sum of three terms. The first is a "zero order" logarithmic term, the second a "second order" correction term which vanishes as the center conductor becomes infinitely small, and the third is an "off-center" correction term which arises when the cylinder is not exactly half way between the parallel walls of the trough. The second order correction term amounts to about 0.3 ohms when the characteristic impedance is of the order of 50 ohms. A fourth order approximation using the same method changes this by about 0.001 ohm. View full abstract»

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  • A Simplified Calibration of Two-Port Transmission Line Devices

    Page(s): 173 - 175
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    During the evaluation measurements of several two-port junction devices over a wide band of frequencies the authors found that the method of shorts as described in three previous papers was too laborious to be practical. By reinterpreting and combining the ideas of earlier authors, a valuable simplification was obtained. Since this paper is based upon the previous articles, no fundamental proofs will be given except to show the necessary extensions involved. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance and polarization-ratio transformations by a graphical method using the isometric circles

    Page(s): 176 - 180
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    The isometric circles for the direct and inverse linear fractional transformations can be used for transformations of impedances and polarization ratios. In the Ioxodromic case an inversion is performed in the isometric circle of the direct transformation, followed by a reflection in the symmetry line of the two circles, and a rotation around the origin of the isometric circle of the inverse transformation. In the nonloxodromic case only the first two operations have to be applied. Three illustrative examples are given: the first shows the transformation of the right half of the complex impedance plane into the unit circle (Smith Chart); the second gives a circular proof of the Weissfloch transformer theorem; the third shows an example of cascading, Iossless, two terminal-pair networks. View full abstract»

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  • A Broad-Band Dual-Mode Circular Waveguide Transducer

    Page(s): 181 - 183
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    This paper describes a broad-band dual-mode waveguide transducer designed to couple two orthogonal TE11 circular waveguide modes in separate rectangular waveguide ports. A compact, rugged, and economical junction has been developed to operate from 8600 mc to 9600 mc with a vswr of less than 1.15 at the rectangular port and a mode isolation of 50 db or greater. Developmental models are described to indicate the evolution from theory to the final model. Some problems encountered in attaining a small physical size are discussed in detail. The new junction has application to mode multiflexing, circular waveguide ferrite devices, circular polarization, and as a circular wave guide magic-T. View full abstract»

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  • A Switch Detector Circuit (Correction)

    Page(s): 183
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    Franklin S.CoaIe, author of the paper "A Switch Detector Circuit", which appeared on pages 59-61 of the December, 1955 issue of Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, has requested that the following information, omitted in his manuscript, be published by the editors. The work for the paper was accomplished while Mr. Coale was a member of the Sperry Gyroscope Company under an Air Force Contract. P.J. Sferrazza, of Sperry, developed a band-pass crystal switch at 3300 mc which gave a dynamic switching of greater than 44 db over a 10 mc bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence

    Page(s): 184
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Determination of the Parameters of Cavities Terminating Transmission Lines (Correspondence)

    Page(s): 184
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    The method of measuring cavity parameters outlined in the above paper has been used successfully for some time by our laboratory for measuring parameters of cavities at X band having Q's as high as 150,000. For improved accuracy in these measurements, an additional refinement has been made in the method which makes all measurements independent of the law of the crystal detectors used. View full abstract»

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  • Planar Transmission Lines--II (Correspondence and Rebuttal)

    Page(s): 184
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    I would like to call your attention to a certain mistake in the above paper. Park's transmission line, consisting of two parallel strips between two wide plates [Fig. 1(a)], has to be changed to the line geometry indicated in Fig. 1(b) in order to maintain the results of the mentioned paper. View full abstract»

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  • A Low VSWR Matching Technique (Correspondence)

    Page(s): 184 - 187
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    A variation on the method described by Feller and Weidner for abtaining low standing wave ratios over a frequency band has proven to be very useful in the design of low vswr microwave components. If curve A in Fig. 1 represents the input admittance of the device to be matched, the method described by Feller proceeds as follows: 1) Insert a value of susceptauce which causes the curve to lie along a constant vswr circle (curve B). 2) Move toward the generator until the frequency sensitivity of the line length causes the curve to reduce to a point (point C). 3) Move to the nearest intersection with the g=1 circle (curve D). 4) Insert a value of susceptance which transforms the admittance plot to the center of the chart; i.e., a matched condition (curve E). View full abstract»

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  • Freely Available from IEEE
  • Russian Edition of "Principles and Applications of Waveguide Transmission" (Correspondence)

    Page(s): 187
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    This book was written by the well-known American specialist in the uhf field who was one of the pioneers of waveguide techniques. As the author mentions in his preface, the book does not pretend to encompass fully the subject; however, in addition to a description of the fundamentals of the theory of waveguide transmission it contains extensive material devoted to the design and operation of various waveguide components and assemblies and also of electron apparatus applied in conjunction with waveguide apparatus. A part of this material was published earlier in periodicals but is being published row for the first time in book form. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Equipment for College Laboratories (Correspondence)

    Page(s): 187
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    I should like to take advantage of this correspondence column to discuss briefly a problem which we at Clarkson College may have in common with many other private colleges. We believe that our undergraduate curriculum should include a course in microwaves and that this course to be effective must include some laboratory work. The problem is that it is very dificult to equip a microwave laboratory on the sort of budget existing in a small college. Commercial equipment is, in general, much too expensive and is really much higher quality than is required for simple student laboratory work. We have been able to meet our needs in part by constructing our own waveguide components and in part through the generosity of several concerns which have given us used or rejected equipment or made it available to us at very low cost. We have been given a variety of microwave tubes plus some oscillators and a number of waveguide and coaxial components which make it possible for us to operate our laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover - Jul. 1956 (T-MTT)]

    Page(s): b1 - b2
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1962. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques.

Full Aims & Scope