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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 1991

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • Future directions for traffic management systems

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 4 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB)  

    An emerging form of traffic control system that is based on the use of microprocessors, interconnected in a local area network (LAN), is described, and its future evolution is examined. These networked systems provide the ability for multiple users to access system databases and to offer an enhanced suite of capabilities including online signal optimization, maintenance management, and traffic management. They are useful for both signal and freeway control applications. Their operation requires more sophisticated local control equipment to provide the backup and local timing features for reliable operation and to take advantage of the central system's capabilities. The microprocessor is rapidly replacing the minicomputer as a central control processor because of its lower cost, user friendliness, and the availability of numerous off-the-shelf software packages to enhance its operation.<> View full abstract»

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  • Optimizing networks of traffic signals in real time-the SCOOT method

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 11 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (84)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB)  

    The evolution of the SCOOT urban traffic control system from research by the British Government's Transport and Road Research Laboratory on the TRANSYT method of optimizing networks of fixed time signals is described. The key principles of the SCOOT online traffic model and real-time signal optimizers are explained. The results of surveys on the effectiveness of SCOOT are reviewed, applications are summarized, and some recent developments are outlined.<> View full abstract»

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  • The Los-Angeles Automated Traffic Surveillance and Control (ATSAC) System

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 16 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)  

    The Los Angeles Automated Traffic Surveillance and Control (ATSAC) System is described, emphasizing those features that provide a powerful and flexible capability to manage traffic. Many traffic detectors are used to collect data used for critical intersection control, traffic responsive control in networks, real-time surveillance of traffic conditions using color-graphic monitors, real-time evaluation of system performance, and automated generation of traffic signal timing plans. Closed-circuit television is used to provide additional information regarding the cause of congestion. Manual control of intersections from the control center is used to correct nonrecurring congestion. The hierarchical system architecture consists of a very fast supervisor computer networked with the control console, color-graphic monitors, and area computers that communicate with up to 400 intersections and 1600 detectors each. An evaluation of system performance concluded that stops were reduced by 35%, intersection delay by 20%, travel time by 13%, fuel consumption by 12.5%, and air emissions by 10%. The benefit/cost was 9.8:1, and the system paid for itself in less than one year.<> View full abstract»

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  • Vehicle detection video through image processing: the Autoscope system

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 21 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (71)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)  

    Recent worldwide developments concerning the use of vehicle detection for wireless large-scale data collection and implementation of advanced traffic control and management schemes such as vehicle guidance/navigation are briefly discussed, and the system developed in the US, Autoscope, is described. Early work on Autoscope, leading to its present advantages over other emerging devices, and recent progress, such as preproduction line prototype development, field testing, and plans for extensive field validation and verification, are examined. The aforementioned plans include two large demonstration projects recently initiated in Minneapolis. In the first project, Autoscope will be used for incident detection over a section of Interstate 394. The second project involves implementation of the machine vision system at a signalized intersection.<> View full abstract»

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  • Advanced driver information systems

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 31 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1137 KB)  

    It is predicted that over the next 20 years, advanced driver information systems for North America will evolve through three stages: the information stage, the advisory stage, and the coordination stage. For each stage, the likely goals, vehicle equipment and infrastructure, expected benefits, research and development required, deployment issues, and obstacles and constraints are discussed. A series of operational field tests is defined for evaluating the systems at each stage. Standards are briefly discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • The Travelpilot: a second-generation automotive navigation system

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 41 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    The Travelpilot IDS, a second-generation automotive drive-guidance system that uses dead reckoning and map matching for navigation, is described, covering its hardware, software, and navigation method, the maps it produces, and its expandability. The system can also find destinations and display them to the driver.<> View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic route guidance and interactive transport management with ALI-SCOUT

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 45 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB)  

    The operation of the ALI-SCOUT dynamic route guidance system for automotive traffic is explained. Onboard equipment receives routing information from a centrally located traffic guidance computer when passing infrared communications beacons installed at selected traffic signal lights and other strategic locations. The received information consists of a route tree giving the best routes based on current traffic conditions for traveling from the beacon location toward various destination zones. The onboard equipment selects from the route tree according to the destination input by the driver and issues route-guidance instructions along the way by means of a simplified graphic display and synthesized voice. Navigation between beacon locations is accomplished by dead reckoning with map-matching, and travel times for road links along the route are communicated to the beacons to augment the traffic information database of the central traffic guidance computer.<> View full abstract»

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  • RF data communications considerations in advanced driver information systems

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 51 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (517 KB)  

    Advanced Driver Information Systems (ADIS)P, a subset of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS), are considered. Some of the communications technologies that may be considered for IVHS/ADIS implementation are described, with an emphasis on wide-area RF data communications. The discussion covers communications between the infrastructure and the vehicle fleet, and not the connections between the roadside equipment and the traffic management center. The steps in designing an RF data system for IVHS/ADIS are reviewed, and design tradeoffs are discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • The application of a novel two-way mobile satellite communications and vehicle tracking system to the transportation industry

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 57 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (907 KB)  

    A two-way mobile satellite communications and vehicle position reporting system currently operational in the US and Europe is described. The system characteristics and service operations are described in detail, and technical descriptions of the equipment and signal processing techniques are provided. The application of this technology to the land transportation industry, specifically the over-the-road truckload motor carrier segment, and the types of benefits being derived by the current users are described.<> View full abstract»

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  • The utilization of real-time traffic information by the trucking industry

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 64 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB)  

    TRANSCOM (Transportation Operations Coordinating Committee) is a coalition of the 14 transportation and traffic enforcement agencies in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area. One of TRANSCOM's main responsibilities is to serve as coordinator of real-time traffic information among its member agencies as well as some 30 to 40 other local and county police and transportation agencies. The author discusses how the availability of real-time traffic information could aid the trucking industry by increasing the fleet productivity, improving customer service, improving the environment for their drivers, and reducing their costs, and ultimately affecting their bottom line. An American Trucking Associations (ATA) Foundation demonstration being carried out by TRANSCOM to quantify these improvements is described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Optimization models and algorithms: an emerging technology for the motor carrier industry

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 68 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1412 KB)  

    Optimization models and algorithms for transportation are reviewed with the intent the providing lay management with at least a feeling of the range of technologies that are available and a sense of the strengths and weaknesses of each. The different types of applications of optimization to transportation that have evolved are described, and it is indicated how different methods are suited to different types of problems. Special attention is given to real-time optimization for truckload motor carriers. An interactive graphic simulation system, called MIDAS (micro dispatch and simulation), that was developed for demonstrating optimization methods is reported. It allows the user to compete against the optimization model in a real-time framework.<> View full abstract»

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  • An overview of systems studies of automated highway systems

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 82 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (61)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2194 KB)  

    A comprehensive systems study of the factors influencing the design, development, and deployment of an intelligent vehicle highway system is summarized. Candidate system concepts and system implementation strategies that have a high potential for successful deployment with a minimum of disruptive influence and cost impact on the current highway system are identified and analyzed. A system concept is recommended together with a plan for its development and deployment.<> View full abstract»

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  • Automated highway studies at the Ohio State University-an overview

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 100 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1897 KB)  

    A long-range program on various aspects of automated highway operations conducted at The Ohio State University (OSU) from 1964 to 1980 is described. This program included studies on headway safety policy, longitudinal control, lateral control, and highway system operations. The principal emphasis was on the design and development of reference system/controllers for both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control. Relate activities ranged from the theoretical development of control concepts to their realization and field testing. The policy and system operation studies guided the vehicle control activities and provided overall program direction. These resulted in a requirement for a 6.4-km, automated vehicle control facility that was almost completed when this work was terminated in 1980.<> View full abstract»

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  • Automated vehicle control developments in the PATH program

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 114 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (183)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1693 KB)  

    The accomplishments to date on the development of automatic vehicle control technology in the Program on Advanced Technology for the Highway (PATH) at the University of California, Berkeley, are summarized. The basic principles and assumptions underlying the PATH work are identified, and the work on automating vehicle lateral (steering) and longitudinal (spacing and speed) control is explained. For both lateral and longitudinal control, the modeling of plant dynamics is described, and the development of the additional subsystems needed (communications, reference/sensor systems) and the derivation of the control laws are presented. Plans for testing on vehicles in both near and long term are discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Road transport informatics in Europe-major programs and demonstrations

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 132 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (963 KB)  

    A brief summary is given of the more significant developments leading toward the widespread implementation of road transport informatics (RTI), or intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS) as they are known in the US. The discussion covers route guidance system implementations in Berlin and London, and it includes descriptions of the major research programs, DRIVE and PROMETHEUS. The numerous current, or proposed, field trials and full implementations of RTI are summarized. Some of the issues surrounding the implementations of RTI systems in Europe are examined.<> View full abstract»

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  • Two major programs and demonstrations in Japan (in-vehicle information systems)

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 141 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (653 KB)  

    Activities to promote development of in-vehicle information systems in Japan are described. Two major projects, Advanced Mobile Traffic Information and Communications System (AMTICS) and Road/Automobile Communication System (RACS), and their social backgrounds are described. Some of the results and findings of RACS experiments are briefly presented. The status of the projects and future problems in developing more advanced systems are indicated.<> View full abstract»

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  • The Heavy Vehicle Electronic License Plate Program and Crescent Demonstration Project

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 147 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB)  

    The Heavy Vehicle Electronic License Plate (HELP) Program and Crescent Demonstration Project, a binational, multistate cooperative study and demonstration project involving government and industry, is discussed. The project, which involves 14 US states, a Canadian province, one US port authority, and national transportation agencies and trucking industry representatives of both Canada and the US, is investigating technologies that have the potential to provide an integrated heavy vehicle management system with applications to both highway and vehicle systems. An overview of the program and the components of the implementation plan is provided. Potential applications are discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Advanced traffic management in California

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 152 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB)  

    The development of the smart corridor concept of traffic management in Los Angeles is discussed. This concept, which aims to more nearly balance traffic demands with available roadway capacity, involves extensive placement of detectors on the streets and highways to transmit traffic data to the traffic control center so that appropriate traffic management can be implemented. The Santa Monica Freeway Smart Corridor Demonstration project, a multiagency cooperative project that will test various current and advanced technology methods for coordinated traffic management, is described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Performance of a mobile data communication system

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 161 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (761 KB)  

    Evaluating the performance of a mobile data communication system by calculating the system response time as a function of the system load is considered. When the system load is raised, the response time increases. When the system load reaches a certain level (the maximum throughput), the response time approaches infinity. Consequently, throughput comes as a byproduct of the response time calculations. The system response time is the total time a transaction spends in the system. An iterative method is used to calculate the time a transaction spends on the radio channel. The elapsed time of the transaction at other system components is calculated using either M/M/1 queueing or nonpreemptive priority queueing formulas. A specific system is used to demonstrate the calculations. Contention, received signal level, short-term fading, power-up time, unequal message lengths, multisite receivers, and service area are included in the radio channel calculations. Results indicate that multiple sites improve the RF channel performance in that fewer retries are needed for each message transmission.<> View full abstract»

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  • Efficiency of packet reservation multiple access

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 170 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (244)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB)  

    Packet-reservation multiple access (PRMA) is viewed as a merger of slotted ALOHA and time-division multiple access (TDMA). Dispersed terminals transmit packets of speech information to a central base station. When its speech activity detector indicates the beginning of a talkspurt, a terminal contends with other terminals for access to an available time slot. After the base station detects the first packet in the talkspurt, the terminal reserves future time slots for transmission of subsequent speech packets. The influence of several variables on PRMA efficiency, defined as the number of conversations per channel, is examined. The number of channels is the ratio of transmission rate to speech coding rate. It is found that with 32-kb/s speech coding and 720-kb/s transmission (22.5 channels), PRMA supports up to 37 simultaneous conversations, or 1.64 conservations per channel. The number of conversations per channel is at least 1.5 over a wide range of packet sizes (8 ms of speech per packet to 34 ms) and for all systems with 16 or more channels (transmission rate >or=512 kb/s, with 32-kb/s speech coding). Other factors studied are the sensitivity of the speech activity detector, the retransmission probability of the contention scheme, and the maximum time delay for the transmission of speech packets.<> View full abstract»

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  • Outage control in digital cellular systems

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 177 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1028 KB)  

    The use of convolutional, BCH, and Reed-Solomon codes to improve the spectral efficiency of digital cellular mobile radio systems is investigated. Optimal code rates are obtained as a function of the allowable outage, under the assumption of ideal interleaving. The outage predictions themselves are obtained by computer simulation. Of the codes considered, the block codes are more effective than convolutional codes for improving spectral efficiency. One major problem observed with error-correction coding is its ineffectiveness for channels with very slow fading.<> View full abstract»

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  • Channel assignment for cellular radio using neural networks

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 188 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (100)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB)  

    The channel assignment problem, i.e. the task of assigning channels to radio cells in a spectrum-efficient way, is solved by a neural network algorithm. This algorithm is inherently parallel and does not rely on a particular structure of the interference graph. The results obtained so far indicate that the algorithm can be used to obtain an optimum solution. It was applied successfully for inhomogeneous interference conditions and channel demand. Cochannel and cosite constraints were taken into account, and the extension to any other technical restrictions will be possible in an obvious way. The examples studied to date are of a relatively small size; the question remains of how the algorithm behaves when applied to larger and more complex examples. The disadvantages of the algorithm are its long calculation time compared to graph coloring algorithms and the difficulty of finding appropriate parameters. However, the algorithm was not optimized for speed, and the parameter search may be a question of experience.<> View full abstract»

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  • A multi-DSP implementation of a broad-band adaptive beamformer for use in a hands-free mobile radio telephone

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 194 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (974 KB)  

    An implementation of a broadband adaptive array on a multiprocessor digital signal processing system for use in a hands free mobile radio telephone is described. This implementation of a five-microphone adaptive Griffiths-Jim array can handle FIR filters with up to 128 taps behind each microphone at a sampling rate of 8 kHz. The filter structure makes it possible to combine an adaptive array with a noise canceler. The near-field problem has been solved by using focusing, a speech-controlled adaptive algorithm, and a short hourglass. Preliminary measurements indicate a considerable potential for this technique in hands-free mobile telephony. The array gives a 20-30 dB suppression of a broadband jammer covering 300-1100 Hz, even with three reflecting walls surrounding the microphone.<> View full abstract»

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  • Radio propagation at microwave frequencies for line-of-sight microcellular mobile and personal communications

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 203 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (161)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)  

    A propagation experiment has been designed and conducted at 900 MHz and 11 GHz to characterize microcell channels using various antennas at two distinct frequencies. It is found that propagation in rural areas is dominated by interference between the direct, line-of-sight ray and a specular roadway-reflected ray. In urban areas, the addition of four specular wall-reflected rays adequately represents microcell propagation. The dependence of mean power falloff, measured mean power and calculated power on distance was determined. The lambda /2 scale microvariations of the received power are reduced compared to the variations in present cellular radio systems. For urban sites using omnidirectional base and mobile antennas, the RMS delay spread due to road- and wall-reflected rays was obtained from a six-ray model. Using a 20-dB horn for the mobile antenna can reduce this delay spread.<> View full abstract»

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  • Attenuation and diffraction effects from truck blockage of an 11-GHz line-of-sight microcellular mobile radio path

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 211 - 215
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (530 KB)  

    The blockage effect of a large box truck passing through the line-of-sight path in a typical 11-GHz microcellular mobile communications link was measured. The results show that attenuation and diffraction effects can be significant when the truck is close to the relatively low antenna on the mobile unit. At a distance of 13 ft, this attenuation can be as much as 35 dB, depending on the type of mobile antenna. As the distance between the truck and the mobile increases, the attenuation decreases. At a distance of 140 ft, the attenuation is insignificant. It is shown that attenuations calculated for this path using the unified theory of diffraction agree very well with measured data. On the basis of this agreement, the theory is used to estimate the attenuation caused by truck blockage, as a function of truck distance to the mobile unit, for frequencies between 1 and 40 GHz.<> View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida