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IEEE Spectrum

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1991

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Technology 1991: the media event Hubble Space Telescope

    Publication Year: 1991
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (814 KB)

    The unexpected problems suffered by the Hubble Space Telescope are discussed. A loop of cable on one of the two high-grain communications antennas turned out to be improperly tied to the antenna's mast, limiting the time during which the antenna could transmit data back to Earth. The solar panels vibrated for 3-6 min each time the spacecraft passed into or out of sunlight, throwing off the sensors... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: PCs and workstations

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):32 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (647 KB)

    Significant developments during 1990 in the areas of personal computers and workstations are discussed. Laptops and notebook-size machines composed the fastest growing segment of the personal computer marketplace. Other notable announcements including a broad range of engineering workstations, with RISC computers breaking the US $5000 barrier. Peripherals also spurred great activity. Hard-disk dri... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: data communications

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):48 - 51
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (727 KB)

    Significant developments during 1990 are examined, and future trends are delineated. Two major events were the rapid acceptance by end users of the 10BASE-T standard for Ethernet interconnections using unshielded twisted-pair wiring and the widespread acceptance of the fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) by corporate planners and MIS (management information system) people, as well as governmen... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: industrial electronics

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):59 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (287 KB)

    Progress in industrial electronics during 1990 is reviewed. Fuzzy logic, intelligent control, and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) are improving manufacturing flexibility and reducing costs. At the same time, advanced computer numerical control (CNC) based on a reduced-instruction-set computer (RISC) chip is expected to sharpen precision in high-speed machining. There were notable advances ... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: transportation

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):69 - 71
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB)

    Significant developments during 1990 are discussed. In particular, western European nations launched a project to unify and upgrade their air traffic systems in three stages from 1990 through 2005. The crash of an Indian Airlines Airbus A-320 was attributed to pilot error, a consequence of inadequate training. A new commercial aircraft, the MD-11 entered the market, while developments in rail tech... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: medical electronics

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):76 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Technology 1991: the specialities neural networks, TAPS, integrated document interchange

    Publication Year: 1991
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (143 KB)

    A number of significant events and trends during 1990 are reported. Interest in neural networks for diverse applications grew. A decision-technology concept called targeting and allocation of promotional spend (TAPS) was developed to improve budgeting. Curriculum revision received high priority in education. Attention increasingly focused on the need for better interchange of integrated documents.... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: aerospace/military

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):72 - 75
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)

    Significant events of 1990 are recounted. During the year the Cold War all but concluded, raising the prospect of cuts in military budgets and motivating defense contractors to look for commercial ventures. Arms-control pacts notwithstanding, turmoil in the Persian Gulf dominated the military realm in 1990. Two technology developments of the 1980s-night-combat capabilities and better control of el... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: software

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):36 - 39
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)

    Noteworthy software developments during 1990 are recounted. Amid rapid change, the overall direction seems clear: an ongoing battle among personal computer operating systems, the rise of object-oriented programming (OOP), the spread of computer-aided software engineering (CASE), and the proliferation of frameworks. In the area of operating systems, there are three strong candidates from which to c... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: solid state

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):52 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)

    Developments during 1990 and future trends in solid-state devices are discussed. 1990 saw the commercial introduction of microprocessor chips containing more than 1 million transistors, and 1991 will probably see microprocessor chips with well over 2 million transistors. Processor speeds are keeping pace; 50-60 MHz chips can be expected in the next generation. Digital signal processor chips are ad... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: minis and mainframes

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):40 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB)

    Developments in microcomputers and mainframes during 1990 are highlighted. The resurgence of the mainframe, with many new product introductions, was noteworthy. Advances in superconductor power were made. The superminicomputer arena saw a downturn, and the industry's response was a migration away from proprietary systems toward more standard (or open) architectures and operating systems-RISC and I... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: test and measurement

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):56 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)

    Developments during 1990 are highlighted. Boundary scan, a method for designing testability into microelectronics and printed-circuit boards, came to market in 1990 in an array or products ranging from application-specific ICs (ASICs) to logic analyzers. The field of communications testing was marked in 1990 by the bid of a new analysis technique, modulation domain analysis, for mainstream applica... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: the main event 64 Mb RAM

    Publication Year: 1991
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)

    The development of the first working 64 Mb RAM is discussed. Electron-beam lithography was used to define the 0.3 μm CMOS circuits needed. The size of the multilayer capacitor memory cells was shrunk to 1.3 μm2 by using tantalum oxide as the dielectric instead of the usual silicon dioxide. Some of the problems solved in developing these RAMs are examined View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: telecommunications

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):44 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (852 KB)

    Noteworthy trends and occurrences in telecommunication during 1990 are examined. half a dozen countries deregulated their telephone companies to admit competition in the hopes of accelerating technological development. One of the leading technologies to take off was mobile communications, particularly services based on digital transmission. A worldwide standard for the broadband integrated-service... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: power and energy

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):61 - 64
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)

    Import developments during 1990 are recounted. In the US the Clean Air Act was amended, a development that could cost industry US $22 billion over the next decade or so as provisions of the legislation are phased in. Mounting environmental pressures prompted major announcements related to electric vehicles last year. The big three auto makers have electric vehicle programs underway and have agreed... View full abstract»

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  • Technology 1991: consumer electronics

    Publication Year: 1991, Page(s):65 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)

    Significant events and issues during 1990 are examined. US advances in digital high-definition TV were announced, with FCC laboratory testing of all proposed systems set to begin in April 1991. Meanwhile, Japan and Europe are launching satellite delivery of analog advanced television signals. In the consumer electronics marketplace, the home theater concept, which combines large-screen video displ... View full abstract»

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