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Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date October 1975

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial: Social Implications of Telecommunications

    Page(s): 1009 - 1011
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • "Open Planning" for Telecommunications

    Page(s): 1058 - 1064
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    Changes are occurring in the traditional philosophy and organization of public utilities to cope with planning for increasing social complexity, and to accommodate growing community aspirations for an active voice in decision making. The concept of open planning, with community participation, is examined against a range of decision areas relevant to telecommunications development. Some models for participation are discussed along with practical constraints, problems, and likely benefits of open planning. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Multidisciplinary Applications of Communication Systems in Teleconferencing and Education

    Page(s): 1104 - 1118
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    This paper describes a laboratory facility and the multidisciplinary research that has been carried out in it relevant to the application of communications technology in such areas as teleconferencing and education. This facility at Carelton University, Ottawa, Canada, provides multichannel multipoint audio and video communications, and information storage and control facilities to simulate a wide variety of uses. The research program, conducted by communication technologists, systems engineers, and social psychologists, is outlined and the results of a number of teleconferencing and educational experiments are presented. The forthcoming communications technology satellite (CTS) Stanford-Carleton Universities Curriculum-Sharing Experiment is described, as are the preparations for a project in the educational applications of communications technology. View full abstract»

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  • Communicating by Recorded Information--A Need for Changing Technology

    Page(s): 1065 - 1070
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    If one examines the need for the recording of information, it will emerge that for some classes of information it is essential that it be recorded, whereas for others, it seems only a matter of convenience, convention, or habit. The implications of this statement are discussed in this paper with the aim of determining whether a need exists for changing the present technology of recording information on paper for the purpose of communication. It is suggested that the problems arising from the continued use of this technology seem to be significant and that techniques are readily available for the development of alternative solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Telecommunications and Organizational Decentralization

    Page(s): 1142 - 1147
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    In recent years, several phenomena have caused significant pressures on the traditional, centralized urban structure. These phenomena include urban sprawl, separation of business and residential areas and concomitant dependence on transportation, the absence of effective or widespread mass transit, and declining oil reserves with rising energy costs. These conditions have made decentralization more attractive to many large organizations currently located in the central business districts (CBD's) of major urban areas. The increasing availability of sophisticated communications and computer technologies may encourage the continued growth and future decentralization of "information industries," thereby producing major urban changes. The telecommunicationsaugmented decentralization of a traditional, centralized organization to a diffused one with an intraorganizational telecommunications network is described. The key factors in this process are discussed: 1) the ability of new telecommunications and computer technologies to maintain or increase productivity for routine clerical and management functions, 2) their availability, and 3) their costs relative to urban transportation systems. Telecommunications-augmented decentralization can have significant impacts on transportation, telecommunications, labor, and land-use policies; specific areas of impact are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An Assessment Methodology for Evaluating Communications Innovations

    Page(s): 1045 - 1054
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    There has never been any shortage of ideas in the communications industry, only a problem of which to choose and which to reject. Building upon the thesis that to the extent a current innovation replicates the effects that past great innovations had on their host societies, an assessment tool is developed to aid in the design and decision processes. Three characterizations and two constraints are developed from an analysis of past great innovations that form the basis of the analysis technique. It has been found that this methodology can provoke new insights into old situations. View full abstract»

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  • Facilitating Organizational Decentralization Through Teleconferencing

    Page(s): 1098 - 1104
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    The New Rural Society (NRS) Project is determining how communications technology can be used to improve living conditions in rural areas. An important part of this research is concerned with encouraging the creation of employment in such areas. In conjunction with this objective, NRS has conducted a series of experiments leading to the development and field test of a teleconferencing system which would help facilitate the decentralization of employment by providing an electronic alternative for face-to-face meetings. This phase of the research is described. View full abstract»

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  • Using Discretionary Telecommunications

    Page(s): 1054 - 1058
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    The network telephone and broadcast video communications that blanket the nation are being exploited broadly for social purposes. Continuing technical effort can help reduce the cost and increase the flexibility of existing systems, thus making them even more attractive for such applications as improving education, increasing productivity, and delivering health care. Advances in technology can provide new opportunities, and there are promising results from R&D in broad-band transmission, image sensing, and graphic displays. However, there is no need to wait for new technology to use discretionary telecommunications for new social purposes. The biggest task is organizing institutions and procedures to use existing telecommunications effectively. And the most important measure of success for a novel application is likely not to be an abstract cost/benefit calculation, but rather the vital market place evaluation of whether anyone wants to support an operational version of an experimental system. View full abstract»

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  • Telecommunications Developments in the United Kingdom and Their Social Implications

    Page(s): 1071 - 1079
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    Advances in the technology and organization of telecommunication systems now taking place in the United Kingdom, in common with other highly industrialized countries, will significantly affect the future of telecommunications. Typical of these are new and large information handling capacity transmission media of very wide bandwidth such as waveguides and optical fibers exploiting pulsecode modulation (PCM) digital techniques, computer controlled switching systems using digital time-division switches, large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits, high-capacity and fast access memory devices, and new types of solid-state visual display and image sensing devices. These technological advances will not only contribute to the growth and improvement of telephone service, they will also make possible and economic a number of new telecommunication services such as fast data and facsimile transmission (including an electronic mail delivery service), conference television, videophones, and visual display (data access) information services. They could also enhance the range of entertainment sound and television services available in the home, and provide audio/visual services for education and community purposes via broad-band local distribution networks. These technological and system advances may well have significant social implications. Although the rate at which demand for the new services will develop is uncertain, the falling cost of electronics, the rising cost of energy, time and physical transport, the increasing size of the information handling sector of the economy, and the increasing share of business and household expenditure being devoted to communications, all point to an important long-term future for the new services. Whilst the operations of a telecommunications administration need to be based on economic market demand, there may well be significant social considerations with regard to some sections of the community, e.g., the poor, the handicapped, and the old, that must also be taken into account. Also relevant and needing further study is the extent to which enhanced telecommunications can provide an acceptable substitute for existing media such as newspapers, the letter mail, and face-to-face meetings between people. The costs of such substitution are o- ften difficult to determine in a meaningful way, nevertheless situations may arise where social reasons such as the need to improve the environment by reducing the need for business motivated travel and by facilitating the dispersal of industry may override narrow economic considerations. There is an interesting contrast between European countries such as the United Kingdom with a state-owned telecommunications monopoly where the integration of services into a common system may be more readily achievable, and the United States where antitrust legislation has developed a fragmentation of the telecommunication service industry. The United States environment generates a strong stimulus to innovation, whereas the European environment may enable innovation to be more effectively exploited. Of critical importance are the governmental regulatory processes by which an optimization of enhanced telecommunications from the economic, social, environmental, and commerical viewpoints may be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Potential Impacts of the Video Telephone

    Page(s): 1172 - 1176
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    The current status of video telephone technology is reviewed briefly, and the form of the video telephone of the future is projected. Likely impacts of these future devices are then described and assessed. The impacts considered are: influences on personal behavior; delivery of medical care; increased communication among the deaf; expanded educational opportunities; changes in the structure of organizations; limited substitution of communications for travel, short and long distance; economy of scale in transmission facilities; competition for investment capital; effect on balance of payments; and near outlooks in utility regulation. View full abstract»

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  • Review of the Impact of Telecommunications Substitutes for Travel

    Page(s): 1089 - 1098
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    This paper is a review of research and applications on the subject of telecommunications as a substitute for travel over the last few years. With the increased emphasis on methods to conserve energy, a great deal of attention has been put on increasing the use of telecommunications. A summary is made of those modes of travel that are susceptible to substitution followed by a description of selected applications in the United States. A critical evaluation is made of the social and economic impacts or lack thereof. Finally areas requiring further research before widespread use of telecommunications as a substitute for travel can become a reality are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • The Social Impacts of Electronic Funds Transfer

    Page(s): 1148 - 1155
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    The contents of this paper represent selected elements of a technology assessment, carried out by Arthur D. Little, Inc., for the National Science Foundation, of electronics funds transfer (EFT). After a brief placement of EFT into historical perspective, the paper describes what EFT is and what it does. Some EFT experiments and their results are discussed. A section on a spectrum of means by which EFT may be introduced is followed by the identification of some impacts that EFT might have on five areas of our society: the financial industry, privacy, loans and credit, security, and the family. View full abstract»

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  • A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Telecommunication Systems for the Delivery of Primary Health Care to Remote Areas

    Page(s): 1119 - 1126
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    Adequate health-care facilities are seldom available to persons physically remote from population centers. One method of relieving part of the problem is to provide facilities for diagnosing medical problems remotely via some form of communications technology. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of two-way communication systemscolor television, black-and-white television, and hands-free telephone-as an alternative to physical presence consultation. Our results indicate that the taken to complete the diagnostic consultation was essentially the same across all four modes. Furthermore, no significant differences were found among the three remote modes for accuracy of diagnosis and patient management effectiveness, and physical presence consultations were found superior only in discovering secondary medical problems. Nevertheless, the attitudes of both patients and doctors showed a preference for color television over black-and-white television over hands-free telephone. View full abstract»

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  • The Social Impact of Interactive Television

    Page(s): 1156 - 1163
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    This paper forecasts a wide range of economic, social, political, legal, and institutional changes that will occur in the next several decades when interactive television is widely applied throughout society. A time-budget analysis is included which projects in quantitative terms how interactive television will alter the amounts of time that citizens devote to various work, home, and leisure activities. View full abstract»

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  • Communication and Telecommunication

    Page(s): 1040 - 1045
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    In this paper we discuss the question of whether telecommunication experts are also experts in communication. Reviewing their profile of interest and their formal theories we are led to a rather negative conclusion. Further analysis shows that the knowledge of communication is rather inadequate anyhow: a long list of open questions can be presented. To find out more about these areas we find ourselves involved in sociotechnical research which is quite different from the technical research to which we are accustomed. This is illustrated by listing a number of weak points in the sociotechnical problem formulation. These characteristics reduce the possibility for early spectacular achievements as we are acquainted with in technical studies. The writer is not completely pessimistic however; he believes that an improved understanding of sociotechnical problems may be achieved by a close cooperation between telecommunication specialists and those trained in the humanities and social sciences. Three different strategies are discerned: basic research, field trials, and field work. The writer expresses some preference for the second approach. In conclusion, a reaction is given to the possible objection against sociotechnical studies, namely that divergencies in personal opinion about man and society might hamper agreement on objectives and interpretation. The writer gives a few considerations which he thinks are of general acceptance and sufficient for a common base of action. View full abstract»

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  • The Social Implications of Health Care Communication Systems

    Page(s): 1085 - 1088
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    This paper discusses some of the changes that might take place in this nation's health care system with the advent of national health insurance. These changes include structural reforms, planning and regulation, and the introduction of quality assurance mechanisms. The paper argues that a health care system will evolve that is both aggregated and regulated; and it foresees that computer and communication technologies will play significant roles in this evolution. The paper concludes by discussing some potentially harmful social consequences of these developments. View full abstract»

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  • The Third Revolution, Politics, and the Prospect for an Open Society

    Page(s): 1019 - 1028
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    This paper first attempts to characterize information technology as a political resource. How and in what respect, for example, does information technology compare in nature and significance to energy and other industrial capacities? What are the key differences, from the standpoint of politics? The paper then goes on to identify and assess a few particular impacts this technology is having and is likely to have on the future of American politics and government. Problems dealt with include: the problem of a new class division between those who know how and those who know; the problem of new forms of participation and their effect on the old; the problems of privacy and secrecy; and the future role of education. View full abstract»

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  • Social Aspects of Communication

    Page(s): 1012 - 1018
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    Communication services arise as a response to social needs, including personal interaction, collective behavior, learning and socialization, and organized communication. These are met by an increasingly varied range of biosocial and man-machine processes. By the year 2000, it is possible that 20 or more such processes will be in widespread use. The planning and provision of services in response to demand involves a complex set of relationships between industrial production, occupational groups, governmental and nongovernmental service industries and regulatory bodies, primary social groups, and formal institutions. Models of these relationships may be called sociotechnical systems. They are particularly necessary to avoid crude technological determinism, which is present in much writing on the future of telecommunications and overstates the ability of mechanical devices to deal with social issues. The capacity of telecommunications to replace face-to-face interaction, to substitute for transportation, or to revolutionize education is not borne out by the evidence. Research on the social role of the telephone is now producing firmer evidence on which to base policy decisions. View full abstract»

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  • Telecommunication Planning for Rural Development

    Page(s): 1177 - 1185
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    The major premise of this paper is that telecommunication services can play Important roles in rural development. The authors argue that the implementation of a telecommunication infrastructure should be a high priority for development planners. An analysis is presented of the application of telecommunication in rural economic development, sociopolitical organization, and the extension of basic social services. The authors cite examples of applications of two-way audio communication and conference-circuits for remote areas. The advantages of satellites for providing telecommunication services to rural settlements are presented, and communication policy options for developing regions are outlined. View full abstract»

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  • Congressional--Constituent Telecommunication: The Potential and Limitations of Emergent Channels

    Page(s): 1134 - 1142
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    The study reported here undertakes an exploratory inquiry into the potential use of selected emergent telecommunication channels for communication between congressmen and their constituents. The potential and limitations of each channel are identified through interviews with a stratified judgment sample of U. S. Representatives and senior staff from the 93rd Congress. The interview data then form the basis for an assessment of the political and public policy implications of using emergent channels for congressional-constituent telecommunication. Three channels-cable television, information retrieval, and the videoconference-are perceived by more than half of the congressmen and staff as being potentially useful for constituent communication. Possible adverse effects or serious limitations are also identified, especially for cable TV polling and the videophone. The study concludes that priority should be given to research and pilot studies on those configurations where the potential public benefits appear to far outweigh the possible public costs or risks, such as with legislative telecasting and the community information center. Given further research along with public education and the appropriate public policy decisions, emergent channels appear on balance to offer at least some realistic hope for improving democratic political processes. View full abstract»

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  • The Conceptual Framework of Information Economics

    Page(s): 1028 - 1040
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    Information economics is a new system of economics, overriding the classical school of economics, and at the same time it is a future economics. Three basic concepts of economics constitute the framework of information economics. The first of them is the spirit of giobalism-the ideas of spaceship, quality of time, and coexistentialism. The second is information productivity. The development of computer and communication technologies has made posible mass production of objective-oriented, logical, normative information. The third is time value-a new view of values. By time value is meant the value that is created through objective-oriented utilization of free time at the disposal of human beings. Just as each new theory of economics has a new vision, information economics has a vision-Global Futualization Society as the society where a large variety of voluntary communities will flourish on a global scale at a time, and the individual will seek to realize self-actualization in each community. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic "Town Meetings": Two Experiments in Participatory Technology

    Page(s): 1126 - 1133
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    Two experimental "electronic town hall" meetings were carried out to test the potential of cable television technology as a means of expanding democratic participation, particularly in populous, impersonal urban settings. On the basis of a statistical analysis of questionnaire responses, participants perceived the electronic town meetings as being, overall, highly enjoyable, an effective means of making a group decision, convenient to attend, and readily accessible to expression of individual views. Although the element of face-to-face interaction as well as the greater spontaneity of the "in-person" meeting were missed by many, these factors were not seen as serious drawbacks by most and, on a number of other evaluative dimensions including overall judgment, the electronic format was accorded preference over the face-to-face meeting by a majority of participants. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of Cable Television on Education

    Page(s): 1164 - 1171
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    We discuss the impact of an evolving cable television technology on educational practice. The possible performance levels of a broad-band cable system, the quality of televised instruction, and the demands televised instruction would place on cable capacity are outlined. Social factors affecting individual preference and institutional resistance to cable education are considered. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Communications focuses on all telecommunications including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television by electromagnetic propagation.

 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Robert Schober
University of British Columbia