IEEE Transactions on Communications

Issue 4 • April 1974

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  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s): 0
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  • Historical Background and Introduction to the Special Issue on Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):353 - 354
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (277 KB)

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  • Dedication to Janis Galejs

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s): 355
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  • Guide to Papers in This Issue

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):356 - 359
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (503 KB)

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  • Early Development of the Project Sanguine Radiating System

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):364 - 371
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (933 KB)

    The Project Sanguine system is the result of many years of research and analysis into radiating system configurations. The paper describes the early portions of this search, the recognition of equivalences among several of the candidate systems, the conduct of an early transmission experiment, and the initial efforts at system optimization and choice of the radiating system configuration. The earl... View full abstract»

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  • Surface Impedance and the Efficiency of Horizontal-Dipole Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Antenna Arrays

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):399 - 401
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)

    The effective conductivity of a potential antenna site is a measure of the field strength that an antenna built on the site would radiate. Only in special cases, however, is this same measure suitable for characterizing the power that the antenna would dissipate. It is shown that in the case of a current-sheet antenna built on a horizontally stratified half-space, a measure that characterizes both... View full abstract»

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  • Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Propagation Measurements Along a 4900-km Path

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):452 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (485 KB)

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic wave propagation was investigated by measuring the amplitude of a CW signal transmitted from the Sanguine site in North Carolina to receiving sites located in New York State, Labrador, and Iceland. The attenuation factor α and the reciprocal of the excitation factorh_{i} (sigma_{e}S_{0})^{1/2}were determined. Data for daytime, nighttime... View full abstract»

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  • The Influence of Certain Ionoshperic Phenomena on Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Propagation

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):484 - 492
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1099 KB)

    A number of phenomena that may cause irregularities in extremely low frequency (ELF) ionospheric propagation are suggested. Geomagnetic anisotropy, path asymmetry due to different ionospheric characteristics on the darkened and sunlit hemispheres, effects of strong boundary discontinuities such as the twilight zone or northern latitude sporadicE, and the effects of geophysical trauma su... View full abstract»

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  • Stress-Induced Noise in Magnetic-Cored H-Field Antennas

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):543 - 548
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (423 KB)

    Work is being conducted at the Naval Underwater Systems Center in the design and development of low-noise,H-field antennas for incorporation in submarine antenna systems consisting of towed, horizontal, electric dipoleE-field antennas. Utilization ofE-field andH-field antennas in a common cable will permit omnidirectional extremely low frequency (ELF) re... View full abstract»

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  • A Quest for a Controllable ULF Wave Source

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):578 - 586
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    Natural geomagnetic phenomena indicate that wave generation and amplification processes occur spontaneously in the magnetosphere and may be available under certain conditions to permit the frequency band near 1 Hz to be used for communications. An ionospheric duct provides low-loss propagation for waves in this band to distances of thousands of kilometers, and their large skin depth in seawater pe... View full abstract»

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  • The Guest Editor's Past Interest in Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetics

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):587 - 588
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s): 0
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  • Wisconsin Test Facility Transmitting Antenna Pattern and Steering Measurements

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):412 - 418
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)

    During August and September 1971, the New London Laboratory, Naval Underwater Systems Center, performed pattern and steering measurements on the Wisconsin Test Facility (WTF) antennas. The pattern measurements were made at 13 locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin (covering approximately 120° of arc), while the far-field steering tests were taken in Maine and North Carolina. To be certain that ... View full abstract»

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  • Nighttime Variations of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Signal Strengths in Connecticut

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):474 - 476
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    A limited amount of extremely low frequency (ELF) horizontal magnetic field strength measurements have been taken in Connecticut during the past 3 years. The transmission source for these 1.6 Mm range measurements was the U. S. Navy ELF Wisconsin Test Facility. The principal result obtained from these measurements is that there are considerable variations in the ELF nighttime propagation parameter... View full abstract»

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  • Far-Field Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Propagation Measurements, 1970-1972

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):468 - 474
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)

    For the past 3 years, we have participated in various extremely low frequency (ELF) propagation tests. During these tests, receiving sites were located in Connecticut, North Carolina, Maine, Utah, Nova Scotia, California, Greenland, the Virgin Islands, Alaska, Norway, Hawaii, Greece, and Saipan. Measurements have also been taken sporadically in Connecticut since June 1970. At each location, the ho... View full abstract»

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  • Propagation Measurements in the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Band

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):457 - 467
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1176 KB)

    An experimental measurement program has been conducted to determine propagation parameters in the 40-50 and 70-80 Hz ranges. These measurements have utilized a transmitter in Wisconsin radiating a sinusoidal signal at radiated power levels of 0.5 W at 45 Hz and 1 W at 75 Hz. Sites have been located at Nova Scotia, California, Utah, Hawaii, Norway, Greenland, Greece, and Saipan. Using sites on the ... View full abstract»

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  • The Radiation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Waves

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):386 - 388
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)

    The excitation of extremely low frequency (ELF) waves by a horizontal electric dipole in the earth-ionosphere waveguide can be obtained by a heuristic approach based upon the observation of a relationship between a horizontal electric dipole and a horizontal magnetic dipole. Then multiple imaging takes into account the effect of the ionosphere. This approximate derivation preserves the physical pi... View full abstract»

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  • Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communication to Submarines

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):371 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB)

    An ELF (extremely low frequency) communication system has been proposed for communication from land to submerged submarines. We present an analytical study of conceptual feasibility of such a system and discuss some of its properties. We find no fundamental technical reason why such a system is infeasible. The present work yields the general structure of the receiver, and estimates for the importa... View full abstract»

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  • Correlation Loss with Optimized Receiver Delay for Band-Limited Communication

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):503 - 507
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)

    The degradation in correlation receiver performance due to signal distortion at the transmitting antenna is computed as a function of processing delay for simple but representative models of the Sanguine antenna and input waveforms. The optimum delay and minimum distortion loss are given parametrically in terms of the ratio of the 3 dB bandwidth of the signal process to that of the antenna. For th... View full abstract»

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  • Resistivity Surveying as an Aid in Sanguine Site Selection

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):389 - 393
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)

    A practical extremely low frequency (ELF) horizontal antenna requires a site of low effective conductivity. This paper describes the application of certain dc resistivity sounding methods in rapidly evaluating potentially useful areas within geologically interesting regions, and in determining both basement anisotropy and the direction of the principal (maximum) resistivity axis. Apparent resistiv... View full abstract»

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  • Measured Extremely Low Frequency Propagation Characteristics in a Simulated Earth-Ionosphere Model

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):492 - 496
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    The design and implementation of a physical model, simulating the earth-ionosphere space appropriate for extremely low frequency (ELF) wave propagation are described and propagation characteristics as derived from the measured model data over a propagation path up to 20 000 km and for a frequency range of 35-55 Hz are presented in this paper. Measured data on the ELF propagation in the form of amp... View full abstract»

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  • Propagation Theory and Calculations at Lower Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF)

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):438 - 451
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1168 KB)

    Propagation theory along the lines of Budden's terrestrial waveguide formalism is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on its application to the lower extremely low frequency (ELF) range for which a number of calculations have been made to demonstrate the relationship between propagation parameters and the physical constants of the ionosphere. Calculations performed with diffuse anisotropic ionosp... View full abstract»

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  • Some Early Historical Aspects of Project Sanguine

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):359 - 363
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)

    Early extremely low-frequency (ELF) research and the implementation of Project Sanguine to meet the Navy's need for secure transmission to submerged fleet ballistic missile (FBM) submarines are outlined. The 1963 "Intensive Test," which proved the feasibility of ELF reception by a submarine at operational depths, is highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Motion-Induced Noise in Electrode-Pair Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Receiving Antennas

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):540 - 542
    Cited by:  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)

    The pressure fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layer surrounding the towed antenna cable cause it to vibrate in the geomagnetic field and thereby generate noise. This noise mechanism is the dominant one in current long antennas. Its effect can be reduced only by increasing antenna diameter and length. Tension, stiffness, and damping have no effect. Noise voltage spectra derived from pressure ... View full abstract»

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  • Ground Anisotropy and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Transmitting Antennas

    Publication Year: 1974, Page(s):402 - 404
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)

    The surface impedance concept is used to examine the effect of ground anisotropy on the radiated field and power dissipation of a horizontal ELF transmitting array. The principal result, for a simple homogeneous but anisotropic ground, is that even though the ground skews the antenna pattern, any attempt to reorient the array to steer the pattern peak towards the receiver incurs an increase in pow... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Communications focuses on all telecommunications including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television by electromagnetic propagation.

 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Naofal Al-Dhahir
University of Texas at Dallas