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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 51
  • Optimal FIR and IIR Hilbert transformer design via LS and minimax fitting

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 847 - 852
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    A method for the design of both finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse resonant (IIR) digital Hilbert transformers, based on a parameter estimation method for linear systems, is presented. The first approximation is performed in a least-squares (LS) sense in the complex domain. An iterative extension of the algorithm is also presented. It results in an approximation in a minimax (Chebyshev) sense and is also in the complex domain. The procedures described can be used for the design of digital filters other than Hilbert transformers since the desired frequency response is given point by point View full abstract»

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  • A unified framework for knowledge based spectrum analysis

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 827 - 834
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    A unified approach for the development of a knowledge-based spectral analysis system is presented. Most knowledge available in the literature is based on the comparison of one method with a few competing methods. This problem is offset by setting up performing indexes on a common framework. The importance of using psychometric tools during knowledge acquisition is discussed, and the repertory grid and ADCLUS (additive clustering) model are shown to yield adequate results. A framework for representing knowledge in spectral analysis is provided. The use strategy provides an environment where spectral analysis methodological research can be constructed View full abstract»

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  • The microprocessor measurement of low values of rotational speed and acceleration

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1014 - 1017
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)  

    An algorithm and its microprocessor implementation for the measurement of low values of rotational speed and acceleration/deceleration of rotating machinery are presented. This measuring technique was developed for the special application where the speed reference signal is derived from a pulse train at a frequency of only 1 pulse/r. This fact places severe constraints on the resolution and measuring time of the instrument because an inverse relationship exists between these two parameters. A special feature of this instrument is that it can estimate speed and rate-of-change of speed in between the speed reference pulses by extrapolation of historic data. The instrument is implemented using standard microprocessor components and supporting circuitry View full abstract»

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  • Two-dimensional current density imaging

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1048 - 1053
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    Imaging of electrical current by measuring the magnetic field which it produces requires the solution of the magnetic inverse problem. For a current restricted to a plane, the inverse problem can theoretically be solved by a linear spatial filtering method. Experimental results indicate that currents restricted to the surface of a printed circuit board can be imaged using this method. To measure the magnetic field, a magnetic resonance imaging technique is used. The reconstructed current density images illustrate that a tradeoff exists between the spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The currents were restricted to the surface of a printed circuit board set in the xy plane. The circuit board was bathed in a nonconducting mineral oil to provide a magnetic resonance (MR) signal. The z component of the magnetic field produced by the current was measured using the magnetic resonance technique, and a spatial filtering technique was used to find the current density (J). The spatial resolution with which one can measure electric current density depends strongly on the distance at which the magnetic field from these currents can be measured. Magnetic resonance imaging offers a way to measure magnetic fields noninvasively and thus the possibility of reducing this distance to zero (if the current flows in an appropriate medium). While less sensitive than a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), the MR imaging method might, under certain circumstances, be capable of higher spatial resolution View full abstract»

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  • Micro data-loggers lead to two new classes of chips

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 894 - 897
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    Micro-data-loggers are miniature autonomous systems intended to measure and memorize various physical parameters during a period of up to a few months or years. It is proposed that such devices be composed of only three main chips: a general management chip, a measurement chip, and a storage memory. The micro-data-loggers' context (including micropower) is discussed, and the main characteristics that such components must exhibit are described. The management chip has been realized and tested. The proposed structure of the measurement chip is based on the experience gained with several micro-data-loggers realized with standard components. The emphasis is on the programmability of the chips, which allows a broad range of applications View full abstract»

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  • Design for testability using behavioral models

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 881 - 885
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB)  

    A systematic approach to analog design-for-testability is presented. This approach uses behavioral models for fault simulation so that objective comparisons can be made between alternative test configurations. Design tradeoffs involved in circuit positioning are discussed. Its suitability for use with application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design strategies is demonstrated. This technique is especially well suited to an ASIC environment because the models can be reused and combined to form a library. The fault models should improve with time as more data is collected for a given block. The behavioral models can also be used to decide what specifications a block will need to function properly in a given system, which is very useful in the design phase for determining how well blocks will fit together or how much linearity or signal swing a given block will need to achieve a certain high-level system specification View full abstract»

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  • Voltage calibration systems using Josephson junction arrays

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 972 - 975
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    The realization of the SI definition of the volt depends on experiments that relate the primary electrical units to mechanical units of length, force, and power. The development of large arrays of Josephson junctions is allowing an ever increasing number of laboratories (currently 25) to maintain intrinsic Josephson voltage standards at an accuracy near 0.05 ppm. The fundamentals of Josephson voltage standards and how computer control makes these standards simple to use in a variety of applications are reviewed. The accuracy and stability of voltage standards based on the Josephson effect far surpass those of all other voltage-standard devices. The voltage generated is independent of environmental and material characteristics because it is based on a fundamental constant, the ratio of the elementary charge to Planck's constant. International agreement on the value of this constant ensures uniformity and reproducibility throughout the world View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of frequency response functions in noisy environments

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 905 - 909
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    The geometric mean is proposed as an alternative averaging technique for frequency response function (FRF) measurements of a linear system. It is shown that it produces almost unbiased measurements even if the input and output measurements are both disturbed with (normal distributed) noise. The properties of the arithmetic and geometric mean of expression are compared to those of the H1 and H2 methods. It is shown that if the S/N ratio on the input and the output measurements is higher than 3 dB, then it is possible to generate measurements without systematic errors View full abstract»

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  • On the measurement and the modeling of the correlated noise sources corrupting the marine geological echosounding experiments

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1018 - 1023
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    The application of well-established time-series analysis techniques to the modeling of echogram noise processes present in acoustic measurements obtained in a marine environment is examined. Starting from short data records, which are obtained by applying an appropriate Dirichlet-type time window to the sampled reflectogram in such a way that only the noise signals are acquired, it is shown that low-order parametric models are adequate to describe the observed and measured noise sources. The obtained noise models allow the validation of the synthetic generated echograms, which describe the current acoustic-wave propagation phenomena in the marine environment studied View full abstract»

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  • Amplitude-only versus amplitude-phase estimation

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 818 - 823
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)  

    The feasibility of transfer function estimation based on amplitude-only measurements is verified. Its properties are compared to those of a full complex estimation using both the magnitude and the phase information of the estimated transfer function. The Fisher information matrix is used as a basis of comparison. It is found that the amplitude-only estimation has a larger standard deviation on the transfer function parameters. Optimal excitation for the analyzed examples is calculated for both methods. The main difference between them is that amplitude estimates require more energy further in the transition band. The variance of the amplitude estimates is highly dependent on the excitation bandwidth used. Care has to be taken to provide sufficient excitation in the transition band(s) of the device under test to obtain sensible results with amplitude estimates View full abstract»

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  • The implementation of a digital sine wave oscillator using the TMS320C25: distortion reduction and applications

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 870 - 873
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    The implementation of a digital sine wave oscillator using the TMS320C25 digital signal processor (DSP) is described. The system is implemented with the Dalanco Spry model 25 DSP board, and a software system is designed whereby an IBM PC host computer provides control of the waveform generator functions and parameters. Waveforms are generated using the lookup-table (LUT) method. The methods of direct LUT and linear interpolation of missing samples are implemented and compared with a method that uses a trigonometric identity to reduce the harmonic distortion of the sine wave by effectively increasing the table length of the direct LUT method. The results of an experiment performed in the digital domain are presented without consideration of the problem of analog reconstruction. The oscillator can produce a sine wave without the nonuniform sampling distortion associated with fractional addressing, over the range of 7.2 Hz to 58.8 kHz, with a resolution of 7.2 Hz using 384 data words. The trigonometric identity method uses less data memory than other methods for the same distortion levels. Waveforms for the sum of two sine waves, a frequency swept sine wave, amplitude modulation (AM), and frequency modulation (FM) signals are shown as applications of the waveform generator View full abstract»

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  • Modeling a self-calibrating thermocouple for use in a smart temperature measurement system

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 898 - 901
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    A finite-difference computer simulation program is developed to explain the thermodynamic behavior of the self-calibrating thermocouple under varying parameters. Based on a literature review and simulation analysis, a method is developed to recognize which point on the time-temperature curve is the calibration point. A description of the model and results of parameteric studies are given. The parametric studies described show that although different factors affect the shape of the plateau differently, the initial point of the plateau, either in heating or cooling, is the calibration temperature of the self-calibrating thermocouple. The program can be a powerful tool to the thermocouple designer because it demonstrates the effects of thermojunction location and mass and heat of fusion of the encapsulated metal. It can also assist the applications engineer by showing the behavior of the thermocouple under varying conditions of heating rates and heat transfer coefficients View full abstract»

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  • Experimental requirements for the measurement of excess carrier lifetime in semiconductors using microwave techniques

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1054 - 1058
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    Experimental requirements for an accurate evaluation of the excess carriers lifetime in semiconductors using nondestructive microwave reflection techniques are presented. A relationship between the observed exponential decay time constant and the excess carrier lifetime is derived. It is shown that the microwave transient decay time constant could be either the lifetime or half of the lifetime depending on the arrangement of the measurement setup. The theory of the lifetime measurement has been corroborated by the microwave measurements taken on silicon and semiinsulating gallium arsenide (Si-GaAs) wafers and by an independent photovoltage decay method on silicon solar cells View full abstract»

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  • Software for personal instruments

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 860 - 863
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    When a personal computer (PC) is used as the computing system of an intelligent instrument, software devoted to measurement process control and to measurement process outputting can be specially developed to assist the operator throughout the measurement process in a friendly way. When these conditions are met, the intelligent instrument is called a personal instrument (PI). The main features of a PI are discussed, and the requirements for PI software are given. The performance of an original software package for PI is illustrated, showing how all the requirements are satisfied. This software, coupled to a good commercial data acquisition system, features high-precision measurement and a high level of friendliness and can be useful for lab tests and educational purposes. For lab tests, this software is a good basis for an automatic test station with extended help facilities. It ensures better performances than that of a digital scope because it allows dedicated measurement routines to be developed and executed. The software is effective for educational applications, since it allows direct application of all capabilities offered by computers in instrumentation, when associated with suitable A/D (analog/digital) conversion hardware View full abstract»

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  • An algorithm analog-to-digital converter using unity-gain buffers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 886 - 889
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)  

    An algorithmic stage for bipolar 1-b analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion using a unity-gain buffer is proposed. Cyclic and pipeline A/D converter architectures using this stage iteratively or in cascade are also described. Error analysis and SPICE simulations show that a conversion accuracy higher than 8-b and a conversion rate up to 10 Mb/s are attainable with presently available 3-μm CMOS technologies. Video frequency operation is also possible with finer linewidths. The component requirement is minimum, and thus it is best suited for an analog interface in application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC). A prototype cyclid A/D converter built using discrete components confirms the principles of operation View full abstract»

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  • New strategies for fast ADC circuits

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 878 - 880
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)  

    A modified strategy for successive approximation is discussed. A four-bit multilevel converter of one-cycle conversion time is first described. Approximation is carried over at two levels handling two bits at a time. This results in a relative speed improvement of five times over the conventional method for the four-bit scheme. The four-bit multilevel converter is modified for flash conversion. Experimental results for the four-bit flash converter are presented. Eight-bit converters, as extensions of the four-bit schemes presented, are also proposed. Practical results of the four-bit multilevel flash converter display good linearity. The worst-case conversion time was found to be about 650 ns View full abstract»

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  • A microstep controller of a DC servomotor

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 867 - 869
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)  

    A microstep controller of a DC servomotor is developed for accurate positioning and smooth movement at low-speed rotation. It consists of digital and analog positioning loops. Dividing one period of quadrature sinusoidal signals generated by an incremental encoder attached to a motor shaft into quarter sections, the digital loop controls the movement between the sections. The analog loop divides each section further into N equiangle segments to control the movement within each section. The effective angle resolution is thus 90°/MN with M being the number of slits etched on an incremental encoder. A prototype controller assembled using monolithic and hybrid integrated components has confirmed the principles of operation. Positioning accuracy was 0.009°±0.002°. A further improvement is possible with this controller by increasing the number of slits on the encoder and reducing the interpolation step size. Positioning accuracy is dominated ultimately by the amplitude fluctuation of quadrature sinusoidal outputs, and thus an automatic amplitude control should be incorporated into the encoder. The controller was first intended for applications such as crystal-pulling apparatus, astronomical observation systems, and tracking radars, which require smoothly rotating mechanisms, but it can also be applied to fine-positioning mechanisms in scanning electron and tunneling microscopes and semiconductor manufacturing equipment View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of AM to PM conversion in medium wave AM transmitter

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 910 - 913
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    A method for measuring AM (amplitude modulation) signal distortion caused by AM to PM (phase modulation) conversion at the output of an AM radio transmitter is presented. A novel type of measuring instrument is also presented for testing the phase distortion which may occur in an AM radio transmitter when an AM modulation signal is applied. The down-converted AM signal is first divided into the inphase and orthogonal-phase components, and these signals are processed by an operational circuit to obtain phase distortion, which is the angle between the orthogonal-phase and inphase components. A phase angle of 10° or more is detected in the prototype version View full abstract»

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  • Venous occlusion plethysmography using a load cell as the sensing element

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 987 - 990
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    An application of the load cell as a sensor in venous occlusion plethysmography, which is a well-established method for limb or digit blood-flow measurements is presented. In this method, the limb volume changes that follow venous occlusion are transferred into the volume change of a water pool. The hydrostatic pressure as well as the water surface level are measured and used for the calculation of the volume change. By using this method, the influence of water pressure on limb blood flow is avoided together with drift and leakage of the sensing element. The load cell has the advantage that it measures the weight of the displaced water volume, which simplifies the design principles of the plethysmography. The plethysmography is found to be sensitive, highly linear, and easy to handle. The results of using a manufactured water-displacement plethysmography to determine actual blood-flow measurements in forearms and fingers are presented View full abstract»

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  • Real-time analysis signal processor for ultrasonic nondestructive testing

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1024 - 1029
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB)  

    Hilbert transform processors were developed to improve flaw detection in parts by sensing the rate of total energy arrival. Analytic signal processing is used to improve pulse resolution. A real-time analytic processor was built using single-sideband (SBB) AM techniques. An upper sideband processor using the filter method to maximize signal bandwidth and in which the lower sideband aliases was built. This processor has a transducer bandwidth of 0.5 to 20 MHz and can resolve echoes 90-ns apart. The spurious products of practical mixers and amplifiers make the aliased approach impractical due to high noise and distortion. By using a bandpass filter after the mixer, distortion is reduced. A processor built with a lower sideband filter method yielded the lowest distortion and noise. The lower sideband processor has a bandwidth of 2 to 42 MHz and can resolve echoes 60-ns apart. With a single-cycle tone-burst processor input, ringing in the IF filter causes temporal asymmetry of the output pulse, while ringing in the detector filter causes ringing in the output pulse. Performance is expected to improve through the design of optimized filters. The ringing is less with ultrasonic echoes, because they do not start and stop as abruptly as a tone burst View full abstract»

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  • Real-time integration and differentiation of analog signals by means of digital filtering

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 923 - 927
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB)  

    A novel filter design method for broadband recursive digital integrators and differentiators is presented. The performance of the digital infinite-impulse response (IIR) filters designed with the method is compared with that of finite-impulse response (FIR) filters and that of classical numerical integration and differentiation. The common conviction that IIR filters with excellent amplitude characteristics always have poor phase behavior is refuted. It is shown that it is possible to design easily realizable IIR integrators and differentiators with an arbitrarily small amplitude and phase error. While there is no FIR alternative for IIR integrators, both FIR and IIR methods give competitive results for differentiators View full abstract»

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  • A new time-domain approach for determining the complex permittivity using stripline geometry

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 940 - 944
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    A time-domain approach for determining the complex permittivity of materials using stripline geometry is presented. The technique uses time-domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements and computer simulation to determine an optimum lossy transmission-line model characterizing the stripline under test. The line model is then used for determining the complex permittivity of the dielectric material. The validity of the technique is demonstrated by using a stripline constructed from Rogers RT/Duroid composite laminate and one constructed from thick-film paste. Accurate estimates for both the Duroid's and the thick film paste's dielectric constant were obtained. The technique is incapable of determining the loss tangent if the mismatch between the step generator and the stripline under test is very high and the loss tangent is fairly small View full abstract»

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  • Design optimization of a high precision microwave complex permittivity instrumentation system for use with high loss liquids

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 964 - 968
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)  

    The design of a microwave instrumentation system developed to measure the complex permittivity of high-loss liquids such as water at 9 GHz in the temperature interval from 0°C to 90°C with a 1 σ precision of approximately 0.03% is described. Previous instrumentation allowed a precision of approximately 1% to be attained at 9 GHz. The design is accomplished in a sequence of stages as various unexpected and subtle sources of random and systematic errors are identified and minimized. The statistical precision and repeatability of the measurement data have improved as these error sources are identified and eliminated. The identification and resolution process which allows the improved precision to be achieved is described View full abstract»

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  • Regularized differentiation of measurement data using a priori information on signal and noise spectra

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 824 - 826
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)  

    An algorithm previously proposed by the authors (see Proc. of Conf. EMISCON, Prague, 153-5, June 13-15, 1989) for real-time differentiation of discrete measurement data is further developed and studied. The effectiveness of this algorithm depends on a regularization parameter whose value should be fitted to the level of disturbances to which the data are subject. A simple method for choosing this value is proposed which requires only scanty a priori information on the data, namely an estimate of the signal bandwidth and an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated using synthetic data and computer experimentation methodology. It is shown that the attainable accuracy of differentiation is very close to the optimum which may be reached by empirical optimization of the parameter of regularization View full abstract»

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  • Precision measurement of rotor angle of a microsynchronous alternator

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1045 - 1047
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)  

    A precision instrument used for the measurement of rotor angles of a laboratory microalternator is described. The measurement is performed by integrating digital signals derived from a phase-locked loop (PLL) reference (i.e. laboratory infinite busbar or the terminals of another machine in a multimachine system) and an optical encoder mounted on the shaft of the machine. The integration is executed by synchronous up-down binary counters. A 12-b digital-analog converter enables both transient and dynamic movement of the rotor to be displayed on an oscilloscope or other suitable recorder. When used on a four-pole 3-MVA microalternator, the resolution of the encoder is 0.2 electrical degrees. Relatively slow and fractional movements of the rotor angle arising from dynamic power imbalances as well as fast and large rotor excursions arising from severe transient disturbances, which sometimes result in pole slipping, are reliably and precisely recorded. It is possible to obtain constant information on the stability or lack thereof for the machine under every operating condition. With appropriate transducers, the principle may easily be applied to continuously monitor changes in the rotor angle of large alternators in interconnected power systems View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
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alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
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