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Robotics and Automation, IEEE Journal of

Issue 4 • Date December 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 10 of 10
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Performance sensitivity to routing changes in queuing networks and flexible manufacturing systems using perturbation analysis

    Page(s): 165 - 172
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    A new approach for estimating the throughput sensitivity with respect to routing probabilities in queueing networks and flexible manufacturing systems is proposed. The approach converts the problem to a problem of calculating the sensitivity of throughput with respect to service distributions using perturbation analysis. View full abstract»

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  • A multiprocessor-based controller for the control of mechanical manipulators

    Page(s): 173 - 182
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    A cost-effective architecture for the control of mechanical manipulators based on a functional decomposition of the equations of motion of a manipulator are described. The Lagrange-Euler and the Newton-Euler formulations were considered for this decomposition. The functional decomposition separates the inertial, Coriolis and centrifugal, and gravity terms of the Lagrange-Euler equations of motion. The recursive nature of the Newton-Euler equations of motion lend themselves to being decomposed to the terms used to generate the recursive forward and backward equations. Architectures tuned to the functional flow of the two algorithms were examined. An architecture which meets our design criterion is proposed. The proposed controller architecture can best be described as a macro level pipeline, with parallelism within elements of the pipeline. The pipeline is designed to take maximum benefit of the serial nature of the Newton-Euler equations of motion. View full abstract»

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  • A hexapod walking machine with decoupled freedoms

    Page(s): 183 - 190
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    Legged locomotion over irregular terrain is composed of body-propelling motion and terrain-adapting motion. Although conventional walking machines with three degrees-of-freedom for each leg can adapt their feet on irregular ground using flexible leg freedom, such machines generally require a tremendously complex control scheme for the body-propelling motion. A walking machine with decoupled freedoms is based on the idea that body-propelling motion is realized by only one degree-of-freedom, and this freedom can be perfectly decoupled from the freedoms for terrain adaptability. As an application of such a walking machine, a hexapod walking machine using an approximate straight line mechanism was developed and several basic experiments were performed to demonstrate the properties of this type of walking machine. View full abstract»

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  • Feature extraction techniques for recognizing solid objects with an ultrasonic range sensor

    Page(s): 191 - 205
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    Ultrasonic range sensing has attracted attention in the robotics community because of it simplicity in construction and low cost. However, determining range direction rather than just range magnitude is made difficult by the expanding signal beam of the sensor. This direction ambiguity can be reduced to some extent by increasing the operating frequency or diameter of the sensor, but some ambiguity will still remain. A technique is described for obtaining the true direction to a planar surface using three sensors or three positions of one sensor. A direct solution of the vector equation is discussed to illustrate the solution complexity in direct form. A simplifying transformation applied to the direct form and a further simplifying sensor configuration are described which greatly reduces the solution complexity. An alternate formulation of the problem is described from which a geometrical insight can be obtained. This alternate solution also lends itself to the generation of tangential constraint surfaces for bounding curved object surfaces. These local feature extraction techniques are extended to perform surface tracking for the extraction of global surface features. The connectivity of local features provides additional information. From this information classification of solid objects is possible. View full abstract»

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  • Computing the friction forces associated with a three-fingered grasp

    Page(s): 206 - 210
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    A procedure is presented for computing the friction forces required to satisfy static equilibrium, given a set of normal contact forces exerted by a three-fingered mechanical hand. The contact between the fingers and the object is modeled as "point contact with friction. "This means the fingertip is free to rotate about the point of contact, but sliding along its surface is resisted by a friction force. Comparing these friction forces to the maximum friction force, which can be sustained between the contacting surfaces, it must be determined whether the object slips from the grasp and further the instantaneous motion of the impending movement. Two examples are solved in detail to illustrate the procedure. View full abstract»

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  • On grasping planar objects with two articulated fingers

    Page(s): 211 - 214
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    The grasps attainable by mechanical hands with two opposing articulated fingers are examined. Such grasps are called planar, since all forces lie in plane defined by the contact points and the center of mass of the object. Assuming that the contact interaction can be modeled by point contact with Coulomb friction, the equilibrium equations for the grasped object are obtained. Satisfaction of force and moment equilibrium leads to the development of a compatability condition that relates object shape, contact locations and surface roughness as characterized by the coefficient of static friction μ. The set of all possible equilibrium grasps is determined for some examples and the results are presented as curves in a friction angle space. This representation permits choosing a grasp that is optimum in accordance with an independently developed criterion such as minimum dependence on friction forces. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to robotics

    Page(s): 215
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Recent advances in robotics

    Page(s): 215
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    First Page of the Article
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

This Journal ceased production in 1988. The current retitled publications are IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering and IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Full Aims & Scope