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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan 1988

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 50
  • Summary of the `Guide for abnormal frequency protection for power generating plants' ANSI/IEEE C37.106-198X

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 153 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    The hazards of operating generation equipment at abnormal frequencies are described and acceptable protective schemes are summarized. The discussion covers: generator and turbine over- and underlying capability; underfrequency protection methods for steam turbines; generator-transformer overexcitation considerations; nuclear generating plants; and combustion-turbine underfrequency operation View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the harmonic distortion resulting from the interaction between synchronous machines and HVDC convertors

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 325 - 332
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    The harmonic voltage distortion caused by static convertors can be greatly affected by the presence of local salient-pole synchronous generators or compensators. Such machines act as harmonic converters and are sensitive to the sequence of the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. An accurate equivalent circuit for the synchronous machine in the multiharmonic space is provided. The model used is integrated with other AC system components, and an iterative sequential algorithm is presented for deriving harmonic interaction between the synchronous machine and static convertor View full abstract»

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  • Performance of the ±250 kV HVDC Skagerrak submarine cables. Further development of the HVDC paper-insulated, mass-impregnated (solid type) submarine cable

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    A review is given of the performance of the ±250 kV HVDC mass-impregnated, solid-type submarine cables installed between Denmark and Norway. The cables, which have been partly overloaded, have successfully met all requirements. Three mechanical failures have occurred, two due to heavy beam trawls and the third during stormy weather. On two occasions the cables were repaired in stormy weather. They have been hit by a great number of trawlboards and fisherboats' anchors without any significant damage. Tests and investigations of the insulation have demonstrated that this type of cable can be used for far higher voltages than assumed before. Migration of the impregnant is of less significance than previously believed. The cable can tolerate very high mechanical strains, such as those arising during layering at very great sea depths. Bending tests were made on cable pieces at tensions up to 72 metric tons; the results of the subsequent electrical tests were excellent, and no visible traces of damage of the insulation were found. The design stresses are considered, and suggestions are made for the design of cable for very deep waters View full abstract»

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  • Relay setting considerations and operational experience of a long 500 kV transmission line

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 111 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB)  

    The large capacitive susceptance, large load magnitude, and substantial phase unbalance before and after a single-pole trip operation have a substantial effect on the performance of the protective relaying systems of the Minneapolis-Duluth 500 kV line. Computer simulation studies show that correct operation of the relays can be assured if these effects are taken into consideration in determining relay settings. The selection, performance, and operation of the primary and secondary relay system are discussed, indicating that the relaying protection used achieved substantial security and dependability View full abstract»

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  • Effective grounding mesh calculation technique

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 173 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    Efficient potential calculation techniques for the grounding mesh analysis are proposed. Proposals are presented for: an easy treatment of the image currents that appear in the single-layer and two-layer earth; an efficient series image summation technique; and the approximation technique of a rectangular conductor by means of an equivalent cylindrical rod. The validity of a conventional approximation in which the rectangular conductors have been replaced by cylindrical conductors of equal-cross-section areas is examined and shown to be acceptable View full abstract»

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  • Wet tests under AC voltage and switching impulses procedure and significant parameters

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 298 - 306
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    The lack of reproducibility of wet tests, especially under AC voltage, has been a critical problem for acceptance tests or sampling tests. For this reason a task force was established to improve the wet-test procedure. The test program is described. The role played by the precipitation distribution along the insulator is demonstrated, and consequences for rain intensity measurements and requirements are drawn with respect to the IEC Publication 60 revision. Data on the dielectric strength of post insulators under switching impulses are given for design purposes View full abstract»

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  • A study on effects of conducting particles in SF6 gas and test methods for GIS

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 197 - 204
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB)  

    The effects of conducting particles in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) on insulation performance were investigated. The objective was to recognise the relationship between the length of conducting particles and AC impulse flashover voltages. The data showed that the minimum harmful length of conducting particles at various voltages applied to GIS in service is governed by lightning surge amplitude corresponding to the basic impulse insulation level (BIL). The size of minimum harmful conducting particles was also estimated for various GIS ratings. To further improve the reliability of GIS, factory and on-site test methods are suggested for preventing insulation failures caused by conducting particles View full abstract»

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  • Development of new 500 kV laminated paper insulated self-contained oil-filled cable and its accessories

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 47 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1428 KB)  

    The development of a self-contained 500 kV oil-filled cable that is insulated with a cellulose-paper/plastic-film/cellulose paper laminate, and its accessories, is described. The dielectric loss of this cable has been confirmed to be about one-third that of conventional kraft paper cable. By reducing the insulation thickness to 25 mm, rather than the 33 mm used for conventional cables, the cable has been made very compact. This was possible because of the high dielectric strength of the laminate. As a result, the shipping reel length of the proposed cable, which is about 10% lighter in total weight and 10% smaller in overall diameter than conventional cables, can be greatly increased. The reliability and the stability of the cable have been demonstrated in a 1-1/2-yr field test View full abstract»

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  • Elimination of closing resistors on EHV circuit breakers

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 223 - 231
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB)  

    Closing resistors can be eliminated from EHV power circuit breakers when staggered (pole) closing or polarity closing is used on transmission lines that have metal oxide surge arresters (MOSA) only at the terminals. The results of computer studies and field tests that valid the concept are reported. Techniques for statistical studies of specific cases are described. It is concluded that 500 kV lines up to 320 km long can be successfully energized without the use of closing resistors View full abstract»

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  • Development of custom LSIs for protective relays and their evolution to new static relays

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 130 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    A relay LSI and a filter LSI are developed for static distance relays. The relay LSI is based on the phase-comparison scheme and applicable to a reactance relay, a mho relay, an offset mho relay, and an ohm relay. Key technologies used to meet the relay requirements are CMOS switched-capacitor technologies. Circuit compositions and characteristic test results are described. A prototype relay unit demonstrated superiority to a conventional unit in terms of its compactness. High reliability (because of the small number of parts), high accuracy, and very low power dissipation View full abstract»

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  • AC and DC breakdown versus thickness characteristics for rubber gloves

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 384 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    Experimental data for AC and DC breakdown characteristics of rubber gloves used for live-line maintenance are presented. Samples of class II, III, and IV gloves were tested (in an oil-bath vessel) to determine the AC and DC breakdown voltages VB. Sample thicknesses were measured with a micrometer. With these two sets of results, the equivalent uniform electric field strength E B required to cause electrical breakdown (puncture) of the glove material is established. This information facilitates detailed comparative study of the electrical aspects of various classes of gloves. The breakdown field strength EB also gives a measure of the dielectric strength of the glove material. Collected results indicate that, in general, tested gloves meet the minimum requirements imposed by existing standards. At the same time, it is observed that VB does not vary linearly with glove material thickness (that is, EB is not a constant parameter), indicating the conclusion that the electrical performance of rubber gloves depends not only on the material thickness, but also on other factors. The procedures can be extended to cases for which experimental data are not available and to other products and materials View full abstract»

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  • Application and development of a ceramics resistor for use as a neutral grounding resistor (NGR)

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 183 - 186
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)  

    A super-compact SF6 gas insulated neutral grounding resistor (NGR) is presented that uses recently developed high-power resistors made of a novel ceramic material. The microstructure, voltage-current characteristics, and current-carrying characteristics of the resistor element are examined. The composition and features of the NGR are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Enhancement of AC/DC system performance by modulation of a proposed multiterminal DC system in the southwestern US

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 307 - 316
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)  

    Modulation of power transmitted over a proposed multiterminal DC system to provide effective stability enhancement of a large AC system in the southwestern US is demonstrated. This system, connecting the Phoenix, Mead, and Los Angeles areas, would be in parallel with an extra-high-voltage (EHV) AC transmission network that could be operating at heavy loading conditions. Studies have indicated that the utilization of large power and reactive power modulation on the DC system can provide transient stability enhancements and improved AC system damping. The application of modulation permits the release of converter station VArs to support the AC system voltage and thus ease demands on the capability of voltage support devices View full abstract»

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  • Digital impedance protection of power transmission lines using a spectral observer

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 102 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    A recursive discrete-time filter for calculating the impedances from digitized voltage and current samples at relay location is derived. From an interpolating signal model comprising a delaying DC component and components of fundamental harmonic frequencies, an interpolating spectral observer is constructed to give the desired Fourier coefficients recursively. The interpolators are also useful for sampling rates other than Nyquist rate and unevenly spaced samples. The proposed algorithm is tested using fault data recorded at the Saskatchewan Power Corporation, resulting in fast and reliable tripping conditions. The performance of the spectral observer is enhanced by suitable placement of poles of the observer, producing a fast operation of the digital relay. The performance of the protection scheme with evenly spaced data samples is presented View full abstract»

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  • Effects of artificially loading distribution line carrier networks

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 83 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)  

    Propagation irregularities are frequently viewed as obstacles to using distribution line carrier (DLC) as a means of implementing distribution automation. A solution to this problem that involves the installation of artificial loads to condition the network is presented. The effectiveness of this approach is investigated by measuring signal propagation in a de-energized distribution network with and without loading. The analysis is based on calculating the network transimpedance, and it is determined that the improvements in system performance due to loading is a function of minimum network transimpedance required by the system. A statistical method of predicting system performance has been developed to aid in system design View full abstract»

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  • Results of an investigation on the overvoltages due to a vacuum circuit-breaker when switching an HV motor

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 205 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    The results of a study of overvoltages arising when an HV motor is switched by a vacuum circuit breaker are presented. A laboratory test circuit was devised that would reproduce the actual network conditions in a generating plant, and special measurement and acquisition systems were used to enable the switching-surge amplitude and waveform to be recorded with accuracy. Statistical processing of the data was followed by estimation of the probability of occurrence of overvoltages and by evaluation of the number of the surges impinging on the motor-winding during its operating life. The results are discussed, and a number of conclusions are drawn View full abstract»

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  • Digital simulation of source-insulator interaction in HVDC pollution tests

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 405 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    A technique is presented for digital computer simulation of the interaction between a polluted insulator and a high-voltage, direct-current test source. Both uncontrolled and feedback-controlled voltage-double sources are considered. The polluted insulator is represented by one or more arcs in series with the wet conducting layer. The arc is represented by a simple dynamic equation, and an attempt is made in the model to account for thermal phenomena in the unbridged wet layer. The simulation technique is then used to investigate the effect of the DC source parameters on the error obtained in the insulator flashover voltage. Both the effects of maximum and mean dynamic voltage drops are studied. It is shown that the approach applies well for both controlled and uncontrolled sources, while the effect of an external damping resistor is treated separately. Wherever possible the simulation results are compared to experiments, and in view of the complexity of the problem, the agreement is satisfactory View full abstract»

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  • Behaviour and effect of conducting spiral particles under AC voltage in a gas insulated electrode system

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 159 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)  

    The behavior and effect of various spiral particles made of conducting wires in an SF6 insulated electrode system, exposed to AC voltages, are presented. The conducting spiral particle is an idealized form of the helical particles found in practice in the gas-insulated system. The results obtained for particles made of copper and aluminum wires show that the lift-off voltage of the particle is independent of the particle length, whereas the crossing and breakdown voltages are affected by the particle length. The longer the particle, the lower the crossing and the breakdown voltages. The lift-off, crossing, and breakdown voltages decrease when the particle diameter or pitch increases or when the diameter or the density of the wire from which the particle is made decreases, within the pressure ranges examined (1 to 5 bar). The lift-off and crossing voltages for particles with the same overall dimensions but with different pitches are not influenced appreciably by the gas pressure View full abstract»

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  • Influence of an insulating spacer on the V-t characteristics of a coaxial gas-insulated cable. II. Tests on EHV buses

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 26 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.3, no.1, p.16-25 (1988). The V- t characteristics of EHV buses were evaluated for two configurations with rated voltages of 550 and 800 kV. The bus dimensions were 6 m in length and 17.8/53.3 cm and 20.3-61 cm in diameter, respectively. They were each fitted with two tripod-type epoxy spacers. The results show a pronounced influence of the supporting spacers on the V-t characteristic, corresponding to a reduced withstand voltage and less dispersion in the measured breakdown voltages. A statistical method is presented for deriving the V- t characteristics of a gas-insulated system from those of the individual components View full abstract»

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  • Voltage distribution characteristics of series connected SF6 gas and vacuum interrupters immediately after a large AC current interruption

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 241 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    Transient voltage distribution characteristics of a hybrid interrupter module have been examined using an experimental model of a hybrid breaker. Tests were conducted to study the voltage distribution between the SF6 gas and the vacuum interrupters immediately after a long current interruption. It is found that the voltage distribution is determined by the resistive impedances of respective interrupters during the post arc current flow and by the capacitive impedances of the interrupter's contact gaps after the post arc current diminishes View full abstract»

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  • Four-parameter transient recovery voltage circuits appropriate for testing of extra high voltage circuit breakers

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 232 - 240
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    Economical four-parameter transient-recovery-voltage (TRV) circuits for testing high-power circuit breakers have been obtained. The principles of four-parameter TRV-producing phenomena are introduced, and preliminary experiments to confirm these principles are reported. Calculations for simulation of current interruption taking into account arc voltages and parallel capacitances of circuit breakers are presented. The calculations show good agreement with experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Development of radial-flow type internally oil-cooled oil-filled cable

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 39 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)  

    A radial-flow type, internally oil-cooled, oil filled, paper-insulated cable has been developed. The oil flows radially through the paper insulation, decreasing the thermal resistance of the insulation. The decreased thermal resistance as well as the cooling effect of the oil flow in the central oil duct and the outer oil duct under an aluminum sheath increase the current capacity. A method for calculating the cooling characteristics is introduced. The results of initial electrical tests and a long-term field test, confirming the stability of the cable and accessories, are presented View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of arc resistance and dielectric breakdown voltage at intermittent grounding of 6.6 kV distribution CVT cable

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 363 - 367
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)  

    Overvoltage in power distribution system due to intermittent ground faults was studied by measuring dielectric voltage and resistance. The dielectric breakdown voltage was low at the initial stage of the ground fault, became higher than the system voltage with time, and decreased to a lower value. The arc resistance of the fault point was almost 10 Ω. Agreement between these and calculated results are obtained View full abstract»

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  • Capacitor switching and transformer transients

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 349 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)  

    The impact of capacitor switching on transformer transients is evaluated. Two specific transformer failure events are described. Each of these failures coincided with the switching of a capacitor bank some distance away from the transformer. The causes of these failures are evaluated, and field-test transient voltage waveforms are duplicated by computer simulations. The simulation capability is extended to determine system conditions that are susceptible to these transient voltages as well as the means to minimize them View full abstract»

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  • A digitally-controlled, real-time, analog power-system simulator for closed-loop protective relaying testing

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 138 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1276 KB)  

    A power-system simulator is described that uses a control computer to configure an electronic analog model of a three-phase symmetrical power system and to set the model parameters. The model closely represents the dynamics of the real world up to 3 kHz. Precision high-power amplifiers convert the low-level analog signals to supply the protective relays under test. The design has been influenced by the key feature of closed-loop operation, with the relays functioning dynamically and in real time with the model. Nonlinearities are represented where significant, including the fault, transformer, arrester, and series-capacitor protection modules. The long-line transmission models represent the traveling-wave phenomena. Numerous system configurations can be selected. The data-acquisition system utilizes four digital computers, storing analog data at up to 25 kHz rate. The computers also analyze and manipulate the analog and event data and control a color plotter and printer. The emphasis of the discussion is on the analog models and the power amplifier designs View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Installation and operation of apparatus, equipment, structures, materials and systems for the safe, reliable and economic generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, measurement and control of electric energy.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Wilsun Xu
Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dept. Electrical and Computer Eng.
University of Alberta
(9107 - 116 Street)
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 Canada
wxu@ualberta.ca
Phone:780-492-5965
Fax:780-492-1811