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IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems

Issue 3 • Date March 1975

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s): 161
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Digital image restoration under a regression model

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):252 - 266
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1824 KB)

    In this paper, image-restoration techniques based upon a regression model are analyzed and verified by computer simulation. A regression model is formulated to describe image blurring, additive noise, physical image sampling, and quadrature representation. Classical estimation methods utilized for image restoration are described and related to one another. Restorations obtained by these classical ... View full abstract»

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  • Decision-directed recursive image enhancement

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):286 - 293
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)

    A nonlinear method of estimating pictorial data from noisy observations is considered. The data is assumed to be composed of an object with one texture in the background. An edge detection technique using likelihood functions is used to decide if an incoming picture element is a member of the object or the background. Then, the picture element is directed to one of the two Kalman filters designed ... View full abstract»

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  • Digital simulation and processing applied to coherent imaging systems

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):293 - 303
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB)

    A synthetic-aperture system, such as a coherent sidelooking radar, records a quasi-hologram of the scene which is illuminated by the transmitted radiation. Conventionally, the recorded pattern is converted to an image using optical processing. However, optical processing does not always provide the flexibility, dynamic range, or accuracy necessary to produce optimum images. Digital processing offe... View full abstract»

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  • Stability criteria for two-variable polynomials

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):185 - 189
    Cited by:  Papers (46)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)

    Recursive algebraic algorithms are developed for testing various stability properties of two-variable polynomials in a finite number of steps. Stability is tested with respect to either the half-plane or the unit circle applying only two times the equivalent of the Routh or Marden test, regardless of the degree of the polynomial. View full abstract»

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  • Limit cycle oscillations in first-order two-dimensional digital filters

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):246 - 251
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)

    In first-order two-dimensional digital filters, limit cycles can occur as a result of rounding off after multiplication. Such limit cycles are discussed for the case of fixed point arithmetic. The period and bounds for the amplitude of the limit cycles existing in the rows, columns, and diagonals are obtained. It is proved here that the bound obtained is the tightest possible bound for the amplitu... View full abstract»

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  • A unified analysis of multirate and periodically time-varying digital filters

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):162 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (201)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)

    A unified approach to the analysis of periodically timevarying digital filters is introduced. It is shown that this method may be used to describe both time and frequency domain responses. By considering multirate filters as a special class of periodically time-varying filters we have characterized the frequency response of a general multirate filter. A time domain synthesis procedure for periodic... View full abstract»

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  • Frequency domain criteria for the absence of zero-input limit cycles in nonlinear discrete-time systems, with applications to digital filters

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):232 - 239
    Cited by:  Papers (44)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (880 KB)

    On the basis of a theorem of Barkin, a number of criteria are derived which give sufficient conditions for the absence of zero-input limit cycles in discrete-time and especially digital systems. These criteria are formulated in the frequency domain and provide a possibility of investigating the absence of a zero-input limit cycle of a specific length N . Depend... View full abstract»

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  • An analysis of quantization error in digital filters based on interval algebras

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):223 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)

    Interval algebras are introduced as media in which to simulate digital filters for the purpose of analyzing quantization effects due to finite wordlength. The theory presented forms the basis of a computer-aided analysis scheme which generates confidence interval error bounds on the time domain response of a digital filter. The techniques are applicable to filters of arbitrary order and configurat... View full abstract»

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  • Finite-duration digital filter design by use of cubic splines

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):204 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)

    Cubic natural splines have been used to design finite duration digital filters. The design is carried out in the time domain. Cubic splines can now be used to design digital filters by a mere algebraic substitution in a formula. View full abstract»

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  • Restoration of motion degraded images

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):278 - 286
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1400 KB)

    A new recursive procedure, based on state-space techniques and the use of a Kalman-Bucy filter is presented to solve the restoration problem of images degraded by motion in one direction. Both the noisefree and the noisy cases are considered. View full abstract»

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  • Realizations of two-dimensional recursive digital filters

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):177 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (45)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)

    Algorithms are derived for realization of two-dimensional recursive digital filters using direct forms and continued fraction expansions. Included is a test for continued fraction expansion which at the same time determines the expansion coefficients. Transposed structures are also discussed, and a comparison is made of the various realizations. View full abstract»

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  • Suppression of parasitic oscillations in wave digital filters

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):239 - 246
    Cited by:  Papers (80)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB)

    Parasitic oscillations can occur in digital filters due to the granularity of the signal and to overflow. It is shown that for wave digital filters, the earlier concept of pseudopower leads to a function called stored pseudopower, from which a simple criterion guaranteeing absence of parasitic oscillations can be derived. For fixed-point two's-complement arithmetic, this criterion can be taken int... View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of spectrum shaping digital filters of recursive design

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):197 - 204
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)

    Several techniques are presented, both iterative and noniterative, for synthesizing a' recursive digital filter whose amplitude spectrum approximates a desired shape. The synthesis is carried out by implementing known algorithms for rational function approximation of a continuous function on a finite interval. In particular, techniques for synthesizing the best rational function approximation in t... View full abstract»

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  • Low-sensitivity digital ladder filters

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):168 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (110)  |  Patents (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB)

    A class of low-sensitivity digital ladder filters may be realized in the voltage-current domain by direct analogy with the continuous resistively terminated LC ladder filter. The problem of unrealizability that is implied by delay-free loops in the discrete signal flow graph is overcome by using transformations that correspond to LC elements that exhibit finite Cube factors. The resultant deterior... View full abstract»

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  • Timing jitter in digital filtering of analog signals

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):218 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)

    Effects of timing jitter in digital filtering of analog signals are analyzed. Jitter may be introduced into the system when the incoming analog signal is being sampled and when the samples of the output of the digital filter are being read out for reconstruction back into an analog signal. These two jitters are called readin and readout jitters, respectively. General expressions are derived for th... View full abstract»

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  • Computer enhancement of scanning electron micrographs

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):267 - 278
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1688 KB)

    This paper deals with the digital restoration of scanning electron micrographs. The properties of the signal and noise generated when recording a micrograph are analyzed and used to develop the optimal Wiener filter for enhancing the image. The transfer function of the display device, as well as the frequency foldover produced by sampling the image are included in the model. The mean-square-error ... View full abstract»

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  • A new statistical approach to the coefficient word length problem for digital filters

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):190 - 196
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB)

    A statistical approach is proposed for estimating the necessary coefficient word length of a digital filter. With this statistical word length definition, an optimization procedure is then proposed for minimizing the statistical word length for a given filter structure and a given set of maximum error constraints. It is shown that by minimizing this statistical word length, the actual coefficient ... View full abstract»

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  • Chebyshev approximation for two-dimensional nonrecursive digital filters

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):208 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (56)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1240 KB)

    The Remez exchange algorithm is extended for the design of two-dimensional nonrecursive digital filters approximating circularly symmetrical low-pass specifications according to a weighted Chebyshev error norm. Since the approximating function does not satisfy the Haar condition, the optimal solution is not necessarily unique and a straightforward extension of the one-dimensional exchange method m... View full abstract»

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