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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Miniature hybrid microwave ICs using a novel thin-film technology

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1949 - 1956
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)  

    A novel thin-film technology for miniature hybrid microwave ICs is presented. All passive components, such as resistors and capacitors, are fully integrated on ordinary alumina ceramic substrates using the thin-film technology with very high yield. The numbers of parts and wiring processes were significantly reduced. This technology was applied to the fabrication of Ku-band solid-state power amplifiers. This thin-film technology offers the following advantages: (1) a very high yield fabrication process for thin-film capacitors having excellent electrical characteristics in the gigahertz range (ε=3.6, Q=230 at 12 GHz) and reliability; (2) two kinds of thin-film resistors having different temperature coefficients of resistivity (TCRs) and a lift-off process to integrate them with thin-film capacitors; and (3) a matching method using the thin-film capacitor View full abstract»

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  • High-gain, low-noise monolithic HEMT distributed amplifiers up to 60 GHz

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2016 - 2017
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)  

    Ultra-broad-bandwidth distributed amplifiers with cutoff frequencies of 45 and 60 GHz have been developed utilizing 0.25-μm AlGaAs and InP cascode HEMTs (high electron mobility transistors) with a mushroom gate profile. A measured gain a high as 10±1 dB from 5 to 50 GHz and a gain of 8±1 dB from 5 to 60 GHz have been achieved from amplifiers using AlGaAs HEMTs. Amplifiers fabricated on InP HEMT material have demonstrated a gain of 15±1 dB from 5 to 50 GHz and 12±1 dB from 5 to 60 GHz. The measured noise figure for these amplifiers is approximately 2.5-4 dB in the Ka-band. The measured P1 dB is around 12.5 dBm at 40 GHz. The chip size is 2.3×0.9 mm2 View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear circuit analysis of harmonic and intermodulation distortions in laser diodes under microwave direct modulation

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1906 - 1915
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB)  

    A microwave nonlinear circuit analysis technique which can account for all known steady-state responses has been developed and applied to the large-signal characterization of directly modulation laser diodes. An equivalent circuit derived from the rate equations is used to model the laser diode. The proposed technique is based on a harmonic balance algorithm which represents two-tone inputs by describing frequencies. Second-harmonic and third-order intermodulation distortion results for a single-mode GaAlAs diode have been compared with corresponding measured data to validate the method. Aperiodic responses are detected by means of bifurcation theory prior to the harmonic balance analysis and are simulated in the time domain. Simulated results are shown to agree well with published measurements, and indicate the capability of using this approach for the computer-aided design of microwave fiber-optic transmitters View full abstract»

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  • A novel coupled method for dual-mode dielectric resonators and waveguide filters

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1885 - 1893
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)  

    A novel method for coupling dual-mode waveguide or dielectric resonator cavities is described and analyzed. The method has advantages of providing a practical, flexible, economic means of replacing irises, of offering easy tunability of the coupling over a wide range of coupling values, and of reducing the length of the coupling structure. Calculation of the resonator's coupling parameters using the mode-matching method yields accurate results and is verified by measurements. Experimental four-pole dual-mode elliptic function filters using the coupling method for empty cavities and dielectric-resonator-loaded cavities were constructed and tested. The test results showed excellent agreement with theoretical analysis View full abstract»

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  • A novel aperture isolation circuit for use in phased array systems

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1994 - 2000
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB)  

    A novel electronically controlled matching network has been demonstrated as an aperture isolation circuit. This approach offers smaller size, lower weight, and potentially lower cost than circulators. An X-band MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) realization of this circuit has comparable loss to a circulator. An S-band hybrid realization demonstrated reductions in insertion loss of up to 2.3 dB for antenna VSWRs (voltage standing wave ratios) of up to 5:1 lying within a 100° sector on the Smith chart. One disadvantage of this approach is that it increases the complexity of controlling and calibrating the module View full abstract»

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  • Multiplexing and double band filtering with common-multimode cavities

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1862 - 1871
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB)  

    A novel multiplexing and double band filtering (DBF) method is established. DBF refers to two-port equipment which serves two transmit frequency channels simultaneously. The methods build on frequency-independent resonance modes, excited within a common multimode cavity (CMC), which are assigned to different channel filters. The design principles are presented for cylindrical CMCs by way of example. It is shown that combining CMCs with advanced coupling methods produces a multitude of new design variants. Initial experimental results are presented for a diplexer and DBF equipment that are both realized with only two double-dual TE112/TM110 CMCs and a novel iris-providing four intercavity couplings-to perform two four-pole elliptic function filter responses View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic sampling head IC

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1980 - 1985
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    A monolithic sampling head IC composed of a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) for the sampling pulse generator and Schottky barrier diodes for the sampling bridge has been developed. The RTD was made using an In 0.53Ga0.47As-AlAs structure (pseudomorphic strained superlattice). For this type of high switching voltage RTD, a peak-to-valley ratio (P/V ratio) of 9 at 202°C peak-to-peak switching voltages of 1.5 V or more at room temperature were achieved. The Schottky barrier diodes were made from an (In0.53Ga0.47As)0.5(In0.52Al 0.48As)0.5 compound. A frequency bandwidth of at least 26 GHz was obtained. When attempting to use a quantum effect device (such as an RTD) in a practical application, the most important factor to consider is its reliability. Good results were achieved in an endurance test of this device, in which it was made to continuously oscillate between 600 MHz to 1 GHz at 90°C for more than 1000 h View full abstract»

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  • An automated 60 GHz open resonator system for precision dielectric measurements

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1845 - 1853
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    An automated open resonator system was designed and constructed for precision measurement of the loss tangent and dielectric permittivity of low absorbing materials at 60 GHz. The use of a high-Q hemispherical Fabry-Perot cavity together with highly stabilized synthesized phase-locked Gunn oscillator sources and a superheterodyne receiver made it possible to measure loss tangent values as low as 10 μrad. Both cavity length variation and frequency variation techniques were utilized to provide precise data View full abstract»

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  • Design technique for MESFET mixers for maximum conversion gain

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1972 - 1979
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    A design technique for MESFET mixers is described. This technique is based on a mixer analysis program (MIXAN) designed to obtain the value of conversion gain and evaluate the influence of the embedding impedances for any local oscillator power and DC bias, in order to optimized the mixer performance. The MIXAN program, which uses SPICE as a subroutine to determine large-signal current and voltage waveforms, is able to obtain the operating conditions for maximum conversion gain. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results for X-band drain and gate mixers proves the validity of the design technique View full abstract»

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  • Propagation characteristics of MIS transmission lines with inhomogeneous doping profile

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1872 - 1878
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    The authors present a hybrid-mode analysis of slow-wave MIS (metal-insulator-semiconductor) transmission lines with a gradually inhomogeneous doping profile. In general it was found that, in comparison with homogeneously doped semiconductor layers, a Gaussian-type doping distribution results in lower losses for the slow-wave mode in both thin- and thick-film MIS CPWs. While the effect of the doping profile is more pronounced in thin-film structures which support a slow-wave mode only up to 3 GHz, it is less significant in thick-film structures. On the other hand, numerical analysis indicates that thick-film structures can support a slow-wave mode at moderate loss up to 40 GHz. The behavior of MIS microstrip lines is similar to that of MIS CPWs, except that for thick-film transmission lines an increase in losses can be observed when the doping profile becomes inhomogeneous. The numerical investigation was carried out using the method of lines. Several transmission lines have been investigated, and results are presented for microstrip, coupled microstrips, and coplanar lines View full abstract»

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  • Transient analysis of distortion and coupling in lossy coupled microstrips

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1894 - 1899
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    The transient response of lossy coupled microstrips is studied using the spectral-domain approach (SDA) to rigorously compute the dielectric losses. The dielectric loss coefficient is computed using the SDA with a complex dielectric constant, and results are compared with those obtained by the formula advanced by M.V. Schneider (1969) using a finite-difference approximation for the partial derivative. Transient coupling is formulated in the frequency domain by an even/odd mode approach, showing how differences in either the modal loss coefficients or modal propagation constants can be responsible for coupling between lines. Results for pulse distortion on a semiconductor substrate are presented, showing how losses reduce the signal amplitude without significantly distorting the shape View full abstract»

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  • Broad-band GaAs monolithic equalizing amplifiers for multigigabit-per-second optical receivers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1916 - 1923
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)  

    The authors discuss the development of ICs (integrated circuits) for a preamplifier, a gain-controllable amplifier, and main amplifiers with and without a three-way divider for multigigabit-per-second optical receivers using a single-ended parallel feedback circuit, two (inductor and capacitor) peaking techniques, and advanced GaAs process technology. An optical front-end circuit consisting of a GaAs preamplifier and an InGaAs p-i-n photodiode achieves a 3-dB bandwidth of 7 GHz and -12-dBm sensitivity at 10 Gb/s. Moreover, a gain-controllable amplifier obtains a maximum gain of 15 dB, a gain dynamic range of 25 dB, and a 3-dB bandwidth of 6.1 GHz by controlling the source bias of the common-source circuit. Gain, 3-dB bandwidth, and output power of the main amplifier with the three-way divider are 17.4 dB, 5.2 GHz, and 5 dBm, respectively. These ICs can be applied to optical receivers transmitting NRZ signals in excess of 7 Gb/s View full abstract»

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  • Intermixing optical and microwave signals in GaAs microstrip circuits for phase-locking applications

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1924 - 1931
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    The microwave modulation of the interference generated by optical beams that are reflected from the top and bottom surfaces of GaAs substrate adjacent to a microstrip line is studied. The detected modulation is used to directly characterize the electrooptic effect. This optical-microwave intermixing technique is applied to phase-lock a free-running microwave oscillator with picosecond laser pulses. One potential application of this technique is for the optical on-wafer characterization of MMICs (monolithic microwave integrated circuits) View full abstract»

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  • A minaturized broad-band MMIC frequency doubler

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1932 - 1937
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)  

    A miniaturized broadband balanced MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) frequency double, composed of a common-gate FET and a common-source FET directly connected to each drain electrode, has been proposed and demonstrated. The doubler is designed and fabricated as a miniaturized function module using a conventional two-gate FET configuration, active trapping, and active impedance matching. The doubler design has been performed through phase error estimation, gate width optimization, and gate-source voltage optimization. The phase error estimation in a nonlinear condition has eliminated phase error compensation circuits. The fabricated chip size is only 0.5 mm×0.5 mm, which is about 1/10 the area of previously reported doublers. A conversion loss of 8-10 dB, a fundamental frequency suppression better than 17 dB, and an input return loss better than 8 dB are obtained in the output frequency range from 6 to 16 GHz. The broadband doubler as a miniaturized MMIC function module can be applicable to small-size oscillator MMICs and multifunction MMICs View full abstract»

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  • A 10 Gb/s optical heterodyne detection experiment using a 23 GHz bandwidth balanced receiver

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1900 - 1905
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)  

    A balanced receiver for multigigabit-per-second coherent optical transmission systems is described. A balanced optical receiver with a frequency bandwidth of 23 GHz is achieved by connecting an InGaAs twin-p-i-n photodiode to a 0.5-30.0 GHz GaAs monolithic distributed amplifier fabricated with a soldier bump flip-chip interconnection technique. An experiment which demonstrated that this receiver has the potential for use in 10-Gb/s optical CPFSK (continuous-phase frequency shift keying) heterodyne detection systems was conducted View full abstract»

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  • 5-100 GHz InP coplanar waveguide MMIC distributed amplifier

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1986 - 1993
    Cited by:  Papers (44)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    A single-stage 5-100-GHz InP MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) amplifier with an average gain of more than 5.5 dB has been developed. This MMIC distributed amplifier has the highest frequency and bandwidth of operation (5-100 GHz) reported to date for wideband amplifiers. The average associated (not optimized) noise figure of the MMIC amplifier was approximately 5.8 dB measured over 4-40 GHz. The active devices in this seven-section distributed amplifier were 0.1-μm mushroom gate, InGaAs-InAlAs lattice-matched HEMTs (high electron mobility transistors) on a semi-insulating InP substrate. A coplanar waveguide was the transmission medium for this 100-GHz MMIC with an overall chip dimension of 500 μm by 860 μm View full abstract»

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  • Optimum field theory design of broad-band E-plane branch guide phase shifters and 180° couplers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1854 - 1861
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)  

    Optimum rectangular waveguide E-plane branch guide phase shifters and 180° branch guide couplers are designed with the rigorous method of field expansion into normalized eigenmodes. The design includes both the higher order mode interaction between the step discontinuities and the finite step and branch heights. The phase shifter design applies the Schiffman principle to branch guide couplers where two ports are short-circuited. The 180° coupler design combines the advantage of the broadband potential of multiple-branch couplers with the low-insertion-loss qualities of E-plane stub-loaded phase shifters. A computer-optimized phase shifter prototype for the waveguide Ku-band (12-18 GHz) shows a 90°±1° differential phase shift with reference to an empty waveguide within about 23% bandwidth. Five-branch three-stub coupler prototypes, designed for 3±0.2 dB coupling, for the waveguide Ku- and Ka-bands (26-40 GHz) achieve a 180°±1° differential phase shift at the output ports within about 19% bandwidth, as well as more than 30 dB isolation and return loss. The theory is verified by measured results View full abstract»

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  • The transition region between bound-wave and leaky-wave ranges for a partially dielectric-loaded open guiding structure

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1831 - 1836
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    Most modes on partially dielectric-loaded open guiding structures are purely bound in some frequency range and leaky in another. The transition region between them is complicated and interesting, including a section where the dispersion curve doubles back because it connects a complex nonspectral (leaky-wave) solution with a real spectral (bound-wave or surface-wave) solution. The physical nature of this type of transition region is discussed qualitatively, where some anomalous features are considered; then numerical values for a specific example, a recently proposed novel leaky-wave antenna structure, are presented View full abstract»

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  • Modeling MESFETs for intermodulation analysis of mixers and amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1964 - 1971
    Cited by:  Papers (46)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    The problem of modeling GaAs MESFETs for calculations of intermodulation and spurious responses is examined. It is shown that an adequate model must express not only the absolute I/V characteristics of the device, but also the derivatives of those characteristics. It is demonstrated that these derivatives are dominant in determining intermodulation levels, and that the common approaches to modeling MESFETs do not model those derivatives very well. Finally, a new model for the MESFET gate I/V characteristic (the dominant nonlinearity in most FETs) that is accurate through at least the third derivative is proposed View full abstract»

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  • Losses in GaAs microstrip

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1957 - 1963
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB)  

    Newly measured data for the loss of microstrip on 4 mil GaAs from DC to 40 GHz are presented. These data were taken from transmission measurements of lightly coupled, multiple-half-wave-length resonators. A comparison of the loss data with the predicted losses from three popular CAE (computer-aided engineering) tools is provided. The loss models provided by two out of three software vendors agree fairly well with measured data through 40 GHz. Since the measured loss roughly follows a square-law frequency relationship through 20 GHz, it should be possible to adjust the loss below this frequency and above 1 GHz by modifying the resistivity of the conductor in the simulator View full abstract»

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  • Full-wave analysis of lossy quasi-planar transmission line incorporating the metal modes

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1792 - 1799
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    The authors present a novel full-wave mode-matching approach to accurately analyze the dispersion characteristics of millimeter-wave and microwave transmission lines with finite conductivity, metallization thickness, and holding grooves. The approach is quite general, but only the results for a unilateral finline are presented. The accuracy of the solution depends primarily on the correct and complete description of eigenfunction expansions in each of the uniform (stratified) or nonuniform layer regions. The latter consists of metallized strips of finite conductivity, which in turn produce the so-called metal modes (eigenmodes). The metal mode exists in the metallized region with high conductivity for the most part and decays sharply in the air region. Without incorporating the metal modes, the convergence studies will fail and the accuracy of the field theory solution deteriorates. Since the accuracy of the proposed approach is established, the composite effects of the finite conductivity and metallization thickness can be studied rigorously View full abstract»

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  • An analysis of an N-port microstrip planar disk device with an arbitrarily located short circuit post of arbitrary radius

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1823 - 1830
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    An analysis technique is presented which allows the performance of a multiport microstrip planar disk device with an arbitrarily located internal short circuit (S/C) post of arbitrary radius to be predicted. The analysis approach does not rely on the determination of eigenvalues and yields analytical expressions which are ideal for CAD implementation. The technique allows the electromagnetic fields at the periphery of the disk to be dramatically altered by an appropriate choice of post size and offset. Since the operation of N-port devices is dependent on the peripheral fields, this technique offers a potentially very powerful design tool for the production of planar disk devices View full abstract»

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  • Multifunction small-signal chip set for transmit/receive modules

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2007 - 2015
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (892 KB)  

    Design and test results for small-signal multifunction MMICs (monolithic microwave integrated circuits) for C-band transmit/receive (T/R) modules are presented. This chip set includes the entire receive path and a portion of the transmit path (seven stages of amplification and 11 passive circuits) in just four chips. These ICs, fabricated with the multifunction self-aligned gate (MSAG) process, demonstrate a high level of integration, excellent performance, and a good yield. The variable-gain low-noise amplifier has 30±1 dB gain and 2.5 dB noise figure, the phase shifter SPDT (single-pole double-throw) switch has 8±1 dB loss, the T/R buffer amplifier has 6.5±0.2 gain and 3.5 dB noise figure, and the variable gain buffer amplifier has 8.5±0.5 dB gain and 2.5 dB noise figure View full abstract»

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  • A rigorous dispersive characterization of microstrip cross and T junctions

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1837 - 1844
    Cited by:  Papers (53)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)  

    A full-wave spectral-domain analysis is applied to the characterization of multiport microstrip discontinuities. This method uses the moment method to find the currents in the microstrip circuits and subsequently the scattering parameters of the junctions. In this approach, all the physical effects are considered, including radiation and surface waves. The numerical results for a T- and a cross-junction are presented and agree well with the quasi-static values at low frequencies. The S-parameters of a T-junction are further compared with the measured results, with excellent agreement. The utilization of a shaped T-junction as a broadband equal-power divider is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Microwave active filters based on coupled negative resistance method

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1879 - 1884
    Cited by:  Papers (62)  |  Patents (37)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB)  

    A novel coupled negative resistance method for building a microwave active bandpass filter is introduced. Based on this method, four microstrip line end-coupled filters were built. Two are fixed-frequency one-pole and two-pole filters, and two are tunable one-pole and two-pole filters. In order to broaden the bandwidth of the end-coupled filter, a modified end-coupled structure is proposed. Using the modified structure, an active filter with a bandwidth up to 7.5% was built. All of the filters show significant passband performance improvement. Specifically, the passband bandwidth was broadened by a factor of 5 to 20 View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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