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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 8 • Date August 1973

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A ray-optical analysis of thin-film polarization converters

    Page(s): 795 - 800
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    A compact formula is given for the Goos-Haenchen shifts occurring for total internal reflection of light from anisotropic media. This is used in a coupled-wave analysis of polarization conversion in thin-film waveguides deposited on optically birefringent substrates. A numerical example illustrates the considerable influence of the Goos-Haenchen shifts on the conversion length. View full abstract»

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  • A frequency-tunable mode-locked CW Nd:Glass laser

    Page(s): 807 - 813
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    Mode locking and frequency tuning of a CW light-focusing Nd : glass laser called the SELFOC Nd : glass laser were achieved. Using an acoustooptic modulator having a modest degree of modulation (about 3 percent), almost perfectly mode-locked pulses as short as 49 ps were obtained. Pulsewidth was measured with an intensity-correlation method using the second-harmonic generation in KDP. Most of the observed shapes of the intensity-correlation curves were in agreement with theories previously presented by several authors. When the laser was mode locked, the long-term averaged optical spectrum was observed to narrow considerably. Some experimental evidence that the CW SELFOC Nd:glass laser could be considered to have a homogeneously broadened line was also found. Frequency tuning was achieved by using a tilted etalon in a cavity. When a 50-μm-thick etalon was used, the tuning range was more than 40 Å. Pulses obtained from a frequency-tuned mode-locked laser were as short as about 100 ps. View full abstract»

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  • A stripe-geometry double-heterostructure amplified-spontaneous-emission (superluminescent) diode

    Page(s): 820 - 828
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    A superluminescent diode (SLD) which simultaneously generates incoherent optical radiation and amplifies this radiation has been made from double-heterostructure (DH) AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs material previously used to make lasers and light-emitting diodes having superior characteristics. The device configuration was similar to that of the stripe-geometry DH injection laser, except that optical feedback was suppressed by providing absorption for the backward waves in the cavity. A single-pass gain device resulted. The stripe contacts were 12.5 μm or 25 μm in width, and from 0.125 to 1.5 mm in length. The single-pass gain was found to be proportional to ( e^{\beta L} -1)/\beta , where β is a gain coefficient depending on the pump current and L is the stripe length. The structure was found to favor low-order modes, and the half-power radiation beam angle in the junction plane was measured to be 6-10\deg . The radiation field was slightly TE polarized, and it exhibited a spectral width of 50-85 Å. When operated in the pulsed mode, the longest diodes (1.5 mm) radiated 60-mW peak power at a peak-current density of 6.5 kA/cm2(2.5-A current) and about 10 mW at 3 kA/cm2. The external differential quantum efficiency was 3.5 percent. Due to the relatively narrow radiation pattern of the SLD, more than 80 percent of the radiation from this source has been coupled into a multimode optical fiber with a numerical aperture of 0.63. These measured characteristics were found to conform to those calculated on the basis of a simple model. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of the 4-methylumbelliferone laser dye

    Page(s): 833 - 843
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    The emission characteristics of the coumarin-dye 4-Methyl-umbelliferone (4-MU) are investigated by studying the low-intensity fluorescence spectra and the laser-pumped gain spectra for various solvents and pump powers. A total of five different forms were found to exist, each of which can be isolated in a proper solvent. Of the five species, I is the neutral molecule, two others (II and V) are results of ground-state reactions, while two (III and IV) are produced by excited-state reactions and do not have a stable ground state. By proper adjustment of the solvent a number of combinations of the five forms can coexist and lase together, giving rise to a variety of gain spectra and allowing the possibility of "tailoring" a desired gain curve over most of the visible spectrum. Comparison of the gain and fluorescence spectra indicates the presence of triplet or excited-state losses in some of the forms, yields comparative values of emission parameters, and reveals an acidity-dependent quenching of one of the excited-state species. View full abstract»

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  • A study of the CW 28-µm water-vapor laser

    Page(s): 843 - 851
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    The low signal gain of a CW water-vapor laser at 28 μm was measured as a function of the discharge current and pressure. Together with the measurement of other quantities such as the axial electric field and the concentration of OH, a partial interpretation of the mechanisms involved in pumping the 28-μm transition was possible. Thermal equilibrium between the ν0, 2\nu_{2} , and ν3vibrational levels will result in a large absorption at the elevated gas temperatures observed (800-1000 K). The strong dependence of gain on the electron temperature strongly suggests that the vibrational excitation proceeds through electron-impact excitation. Only the electron-impact excitation of H2O is quantitatively capable of overcoming the large thermally induced absorption. Although vibrational-excitation transfer from H2to H2O seems insufficient, by itself, to overcome this absorption, it may provide appreciable additional gain. Pumping of the 28-μm line through electron-ion recombination and by reactions involving OH can be ruled out. View full abstract»

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  • A short high-power TE nitrogen laser

    Page(s): 853 - 854
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    A simple transversely excited N2laser of novel electrical design, working at relatively high pressure and only 45-cm active length, has been constructed. It produces about 0.5 mJ/pulse of UV radiation at 337 nm and has a peak power in excess of 200 kW. Optimization data and parameters of the excitation circuit are presented. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Second-harmonic generation of several argon-ion laser lines

    Page(s): 859 - 861
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    Second-harmonic generation of the 496.5-nm, 501.7-nm, and 514.5-nm lines of the argon laser has been achieved. This was done by 90° phase matching in an ADP crystal at temperatures of -93.2°C, -68.4°C, and -10.2°C, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • CW CO2at atmospheric Pressure

    Page(s): 828 - 833
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    The operation of a CW CO2laser is reported in which a flow-conditioning technique is used to produce a uniform discharge at atmospheric pressure with a specific input in excess of 500 J/g. In this technique the premixed gas is introduced radially at sonic velocity through a narrow gap adjacent to the upstream electrode. A theoretical and experimental examination of the conditions for the appearance in the discharge of fine filaments, which can be regarded as incipient arcs, gave an insight into the method of operation of the technique. A laser is described that uses a cascade of six 0.2-m-long 19-mm-ID discharge tubes in which the gas flow, discharge, and optical axes are along the length of the tubes. The output power of 530 W at about 5-percent efficiency was limited by the difficulty of power extraction from the low-gain, high-saturation-flux medium. View full abstract»

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  • Second harmonic generation in 90º phase-matched KDP isomorphs

    Page(s): 855 - 856
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    Experimentally determined 90° phase-matching temperatures, as a function of optical wavelength, for second harmonic generation in a number of KDP isomorphs are discussed. The data are applicable for SHG of tunable dye laser radiation to cover the UV spectral range of about 260-360 nm. View full abstract»

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  • Beat-frequency between measurements between C12O216and C12O218lasers

    Page(s): 862
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    Several beat frequencies in the range below 6 GHz have been measured using a C12O216laser and a C12O218laser operating on several pairs of closely spaced lines in the 9.3-μm region. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrahigh resolving electrooptic prism array light deflectors

    Page(s): 791 - 795
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    A type of light deflector that shows ultrahigh resolving power is proposed. This light deflector consists of arrayed electrooptic prisms. The resolving power of this deflector is N times larger than that of a single electrooptic prism, where N is the number of arrayed prisms. If the voltages applied on each crystal are all the same, the deflecting angle is discontinuous. But if the voltages are not equal to each other, it can be continuous. Experiments were done using a simple deflector. The experimental results agreed with the theory. The experimental deflector showed 50 resolved individual spots when maximum applied voltages were ± 600 V. It is clear that we can have a light deflector that shows over 600 resolvable spots easily. Current techniques are sufficient to manufacture such deflectors. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical considerations of time delays in semiconductor lasers

    Page(s): 814 - 819
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    Calculations have been made of time delays in semiconductor lasers, using a rate-equation approach to describe the transient behavior of photon and electron populations. Three possible models were considered in order to try to explain the delays: a) saturable absorption via conduction-band tail states in equilibrium with the band, with the lasing emission occurring via transitions from the band states; b) saturable absorption via conduction-band tail states not in equilibrium with the band; and c) absorption due to loss of waveguiding as a result of hole injection into the n-type regions of diode lasers. It was found that only the model b) was capable of satisfactorily accounting for the known properties of time delays. View full abstract»

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  • Parameters of a pulsed He-Kr+ion laser

    Page(s): 854 - 855
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    The output properties of a pulsed He-Kr+ ion laser have been investigated as a function of partial gas pressure and discharge current. Variations of the time delay between the peak of current and laser power suggest that population inversion is not only ruled by upper-level pumping but also by the decay of lower laser level. View full abstract»

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  • Polarization of fluorescence and bleaching of dyes in a high-viscosity solvent

    Page(s): 787 - 790
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    The behavior of the degree of polarization of the fluorescence and transmission versus intensity of complex molecules in high-viscosity solvents has been studied. We show that, in the usual case, when the electronic transition can be represented as a linear oscillator, molecules excited at low field have an anisotropic distribution; then, at high field, the distribution becomes isotropic. So, the relation between the transmission of the solution with intensity differs significantly from the transmission versus intensity relation derived by using the mean value of the cross section. View full abstract»

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  • Copper-vapor laser with closed-cycle tranverse vapor flow

    Page(s): 856 - 857
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    Fast closed-cycle transverse flow can be achieved in metal-vapor lasers by means of an evaporation-condensation cycle, with gravity return of the condensate. A small double-pulsed copper-vapor laser utilizing this technique operates at rates in excess of 5 \times 10^{4} pps. View full abstract»

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  • He-Cd-Se gas laser

    Page(s): 857 - 859
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    An He-Cd-Se laser has been constructed [1]. It provides a possibility for the separate and simultaneous oscillation of Cd II-4416-Å and Se II-4976-, 4992-, 5068-, 5176-, and 5227-A lines. View full abstract»

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  • Transerve-excitation pulsed HCN laser

    Page(s): 851 - 852
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    A pulsed HCN laser with transverse excitation is described. The variation of the output energy with length of the active medium is in agreement with the theory for homogeneously broadened lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Pressure-tuned GaAs diode-laser absorption spectrocopy of xenon hyperfine structure

    Page(s): 800 - 807
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    The high-resolution and broad tuning-range capabilities of semiconductor lasers under hydrostatic pressure are demonstrated. GaAs diode lasers operating under pulsed chirped mode conditions at 77 K are used to obtain Doppler-limited absorption spectra of several 6s \rightarrow 6p transitions in xenon atoms excited in a hollow-cathode discharge. The hyperfine structure so obtained is in agreement with previous spectral studies of xenon isotopes using conventional emission interferometric and RF beam techniques. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University