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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 2  Part 1 • Date February 1972

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 51
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A coupled-mode analysis of mode locking in homogeneously broadened lasers

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 29 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1380 KB)  

    The coupled-mode equations are solved for homogeneously broadened lasers modulated near the axial mode separation frequency. The character of the oscillations changes rapidly when the modulation period is tuned through the round-trip delay at the group velocity. Specifically, this is the region in which phase modulation leads to pulsing and loss modulation leads to pulsing at normal power. The present method agrees with the results of Kuizenga and Siegman for this region, but gives a countable set of supermodes in addition. There is some reason to believe that these other modes have already been observed. When the group velocity condition is not satisfied, a more complete description is given than has been previously reported. Most importantly, the dependence of laser power on modulator drive and frequency can be predicted. View full abstract»

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  • An investigation of gases for Stark modulating the CO2laser

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 34 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A number of gases are reported that extend the range of CO2laser lines able to be modulated by means of the molecular Stark effect. Data are presented on external modulation of the 00\deg 1-10\deg 0 band in the R branch by methyl fluoroform and in the P branch by 1-1 difluoroethane. The gases fluoroethane, mono-methylamine, and methyl mercaptan and the vapors methanol and trichloroethylene are reported to modulate lines in the P branch of the 00\deg 1-02\deg 0 band. View full abstract»

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  • A simplified model for predicting gain, saturation, and pulse length for gas dynamic lasers

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 46 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    A single time-scale model is developed to describe the 10.6-μ laser energy extraction from an initially inverted N2-CO2catalyst mixture where the energy is stored primarily in the N2vibration. This condition is typical of high-pressure gas dynamic lasers, but the methods are general and applicable to other systems. In the absence of external pumping, the nitrogen can be regarded as an energy source that is depleted on a time scale \tau = \tau NAT(1 + I_{0}/I), \tau NAT being the minimum possible time scale governed by collisional processes, τ determines the pulse time for Q -switched laser mixtures or the required streamwise cavity length for CW gas dynamic lasers. The derived saturation intensity I0also appears in the expression for saturated gain (for collision broadened cases) g = g_{0}/(1 + I/I_{0}) , where g0is approximately the small signal gain at a given nitrogen vibrational temperature, g0decays on the same intensity-dependent time scale τ as the nitrogen vibrational energy. View full abstract»

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  • The time behavior and spectra of relaxation oscillations in a high-gain laser

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 69 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    It is found that under appropriate conditions the high-gain 3.51-μ xenon laser may exhibit relaxation oscillations in the frequency range of 1 to 10 MHz. Experimental investigations have been conducted in both the time and frequency domains. Most of the observed features of these fluctuations are in good agreement with theoretical considerations. View full abstract»

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  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 97
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Laser generation of conductor patterns

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 126 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
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    A laser pattern generation system has been developed to define gold conductor patterns on ceramic substrates. Such patterns are used as interconnection circuitry for silicon integrated circuits. The system consists of a mechanical positioning device for the substrates, a numerical control system, and an Nd:YAG laser to evaporate the gold selectively to form the desired pattern. Rotational motion is used to position the substrates in order to achieve high pattern generation rates. The positioning system uses a drum around whose periphery are mounted the substrates. Associated with each substrate is a code plate, which chops an auxiliary laser beam to provide timing signals to the control system. The substrates are rotated at constant speed past a lens assembly, which is advanced by one address unit in the orthogonal direction after each revolution to produce a sequential scan of the substrates. The laser acoustooptic Q switch is operated in synchronism with the timing pulses from the moving code plate, and patterns are written by use of an extracavity acousto-optic lead molybdate deflector synchronized to the Q switch. The energy source is a krypton-pumped Nd:YAG laser. In order to machine at a rate of 17 s/cm2of substrate the laser is Q switched at 25 kHz. Laser mode control and stability were found to be decisive parameters to obtain uniform patterns. Output in the TEM00mode was found to be necessary. Suitable patterns may be made with a 4.9-W TEM00output. The system has a 14-μm resolution. Test patterns that demonstrate the feasibility of laser pattern generation at economical rates are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of a CO laser

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 150 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    Some characteristics of CO laser operation are reported. A discussion of the roles of the various ingredients necessary for optimization of the gas compositions is given and measurements of efficiency, spectral output, small signal gains, and saturation intensity at various temperatures are reported. Important mechanisms that dominate the kinetics of the molecules and electrons in electrical discharge systems are described briefly. Several experimental observations are presented to support the interpretations and conclusions that have been drawn regarding the pumping processes and optimum operating characteristics. The possibility of high-power operation of the CO laser with high efficiency is demonstrated by the attainment of laser efficiencies up to 47 percent with small signal gain coefficients of nearly 0.5 percent/cm and a saturation intensity of 15 W/cm2at a gas temperature of 200°K. View full abstract»

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  • A survey of integrated optics

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 199 - 205
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2222 KB)  

    In order for optical transmission systems to compete successfully with other techniques, the circuits must be comparably small, comparably rugged, and comparably priced. The avenue to achieving these characteristics is via miniature guided-wave structures in contrast to beam-mode propagation via lenses and mirrors. Passive miniature transmission lines with satisfactory losses have been formed in glass and fused silica using ion bombardment and reactive sputtering. Certain crystalline systems seem well adapted to thin-film non-linear interactions at low absolute-power levels. Nonlinear liquids in hollow glass fibers can be used to achieve interaction lengths of a meter or more with the field concentrated to a few wavelengths width in the transverse direction. Photolithographic techniques based on visible or ultraviolet exposure of the photoresist yield waveguide-edge roughness greater than that needed for optical circuitry. However, electron beam exposure of the photoresist seems capable of yielding satisfactory results. View full abstract»

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  • Wave propagation in thin-film optical waveguides using gyrotropic and anisotropic materials as substrates

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 212 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1604 KB)  

    Wave propagation in optical waveguides on substrates of magnetic, optically active, or birefringent material is analyzed. The conditions for TE \Leftrightarrow TM mode conversion are derived and computer calculations showing the characteristic of a quartz-substrate mode converter is obtained. A mathematical analysis of a gyrator using two mode converters in series is given and the schemes for an isolator, modulator, optical switch, and optical read-out devices are mentioned. View full abstract»

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  • Stimulated emission in multiply doped Ho3+:YLF and YAG - A comparison

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 225 - 230
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1285 KB)  

    A comparison of threshold and slope efficiency is made for 2-μm laser action in Ho3+-doped YLF and YAG hosts at room temperature. Spectroscopic and laser properties of these materials are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • 2.1-µm laser of 20-W output power and 4-percent efficiency from Ho3+in sensitized YAG

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 231 - 234
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1334 KB)  

    The most efficient lamp-pumped laser yet reported has been obtained from the 2.1-μm transition of Ho3+in Er3+-Tm3+sensitized YAG at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Multimode CW output of 20 W, efficiencies up to 4 percent, and 5-W TEM00at 1 percent resulted when tungsten-iodine pump lamps were utilized. View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band laser communications in space

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 263 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Candidate wide-bandwidth (1-Gbit/s) satellite laser communications systems are compared on two different bases. First, a comparison is made with projected component technology to establish relative performance between the various approaches based on the fundamental system parameters. From this comparison it appears that the CO2(10.6-μm) system offers a signal-to-noise advantage over the Nd:YAG (1.06-μm) or doubled Nd:YAG (0.53- μm) system for a comparable satellite burden. Second, a comparison is made based upon the concept that launch cost for equivalent systems comprises an optimizing criterion. From this comparison it appears that the launch costs for the CO2and doubled Nd:YAG systems can be similar, but the latter is very sensitive to the projected weight of a large lightweight "photon bucket" receiving aperture. In general, the relative deficiency in signal-to-noise ratio for the Nd:YAG system can only be accommodated through adoption of an open-loop pointing system with an accuracy of 1 μrad or less, as compared to a closed-loop pointing system with relaxed accuracy for the CO2system. The most critical technology problem for the CO2system is that of Doppler compensation. These and other critical technologies for both approaches are listed and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Experiments with a pulsed CO2gas dynamic laser

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 161 - 163
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1056 KB)  

    We report operation of a pulsed combustion-heated gas dynamic CO2laser. The pulsed version is compared with the continuous gas dynamic laser. Variation of the pulse energy with the stagnation pressure of the gas, the shape of the expansion nozzle, and output mirror transmittance is discussed. Observed laser pulse energy of 110 J is compared with theoretical estimates of maximum obtainable energy. View full abstract»

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  • Extension of TEA CO2laser capabilities

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 163 - 165
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Results obtained to date with TEA CO2lasers in both single-pulse and high-repetition-rate operation are described. The special cathode arrangement for triggered discharge permits output energy of more than 18 J/1 of excited volume, with overall efficiency of 17 percent without arcing. Preliminary results obtained with a gas recirculating loop are 100 pulses/s at a 20-J/pulse level. View full abstract»

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  • High-intensity laser-induced vaporization and explosion of solid material

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 106 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    Material removal from the front surface of a solid by a high-intensity laser beam is analytically treated. The model used allows for transmission of laser energy past the front surface and for transient phenomena. It is found that for certain laser and material parameters subsurface temperatures will exceed the surface temperature. Under such conditions, explosive removal of material could occur resulting in very rapid and efficient material removal. These predictions are compared to previously published experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of laser mode structure on damage in quartz

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 54 - 57
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    Observations are reported of the differences in the damage properties of crystalline quartz for ruby laser pulses having different mode structures. The damage threshold values for the multimode laser are found to depend on the propagation and polarization directions of the incident laser pulse. The threshold values for the TEM00laser are independent of propagation and polarization directions. The damage patterns produced when either of the two lasers is focused within the sample show a distinct characteristic dependence on the laser propagation direction within the crystal. A phenomenological model is developed to explain the differences in the damaged properties produced by the two lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal analysis of laser drilling processes

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 112 - 119
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2368 KB)  

    A model has been developed that uses a continuous, distributed, and moving heat source to describe the temperature profile and thermal stress propagation for laser drilled holes in high-purity fired-alumina ceramic substrate material. The temperature profile and the tangential stress distribution of the laser-formed hole are calculated to indicate the magnitude of those factors that can influence the potential fracture of the alumina material. These factors are of interest in order to help establish optimum laser-drilling parameters. Experimental data are obtained from the ruby and CO2lasers operated in the pulsed mode. The experimental results are found to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Birefringence in dielectric optical waveguides

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 222 - 225
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    The linear and circular birefringent properties of low-loss single-mode glass fibers are found to depend upon length. Depolarization is about 1 percent/km. Some anomalous behavior can be explained in terms of properties varying locally along the fiber and a resultant upper information rate of over 1012bits/s is estimated. Very small stress distributions or core ellipticities could give rise to the observed effects. View full abstract»

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  • Single-mode operation of a high-power pulsed N2/CO2laser

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 136 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A pulsed electric N2/CO2laser is used to investigate the power extraction capabilities of stable and unstable cavity resonators. Under conditions of the same resonator output coupling and coverage of the laser mediums no appreciable difference in power extraction is measured between the stable and unstable resonators. When focused, the unstable resonator produced focal point power densities measured to be within 60-90 percent of that calculated for an ideal diffraction-limited spot. View full abstract»

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  • Transient gain measurements on laser dyes

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 98 - 101
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    Measurements were made of the time-dependent gain in flashlamp-pumped rhodamine 6G/ethanol solutions saturated with air and with nitrogen. Fitting of transient gain data to theory showed that dissolved oxygen increased the rate of triplet generation as well as accelerating the return of triplets to the ground state. Large transient absorption was observed in fluorescein solution at all oxygen concentrations but it was removed by adding anthracene or cyclooctatetraene. View full abstract»

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  • The use of light converters to increase the power of flashlamp-pumped dye lasers

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 92 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The peak power output of flashlamp-pumped dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate laser rods can be increased through the use of "light converters." This general technique provides a means of increasing the flashlamp pumping efficiency of organic dyes. View full abstract»

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  • High-repetition-rate xenon laser with transverse excitation

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 166 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1392 KB)  

    Pulsed laser action has been obtained in neutral xenon in the infrared at a repetition rate of 1.4 kHz by using a transversely excited helium-xenon discharge. This high PRF was made possible by the use of a transverse gas flow to remove the residual ions from the discharge region. We have been able to obtain 5.2 W of average power from an 80-cm-long closed-cycle device in which the flow velocity is 30 m/s. The xenon pressure is 0.1-1 torr, which is 10-100 times greater than that for CW xenon lasers. Pulses of 104W peak power and 0.5 μs duration are obtained with spectral components at 2.027, 3.508, and 3.652 μ. View full abstract»

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  • Intracavity CdTe modulators for CO2lasers

    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 173 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2744 KB)  

    The use of cadmium telluride as an electrooptic material for intracavity modulation of CO2lasers is described. Included are the predicted and measured effects of CdTe intracavity modulators on laser performance. Coupling and frequency modulation are discussed and experimental results compared with theoretically predicted performance for both techniques. Limitations on the frequency response of the two types of modulation are determined. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University