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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 11 • Date November 1970

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Reduction of CO2-laser-induced thermal lensing in CS2with a DC electric field

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 669 - 672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (499 KB)  

    Reduction of CO2-laser-induced thermal lensing in liquid CS2by the application of a dc electric field is reported. The electric field is found to destroy the effect of natural convection on the thermal lens and induce convection patterns dependent upon field orientation that enhance heat transfer and reduce the negative lensing effect. The experimental results are found to be consistent with calculations of electric forces present in fluids with a radially decreasing electrical conductivity. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Kr and Xe flashlamps for Nd:YAG lasers

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 684 - 687
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    Linear krypton and xenon flashlamps (6-mm bore, 3-inch arc) having various fill pressures between 450 torr and 4 atm have been operated in a single elliptical gold-plated pump cavity to excite a Nd:YAG laser rod (0.25-inch diameter, 3 inches long). Here we describe laser operation as a function of lamp fill, for electrical input energies ranging from 2 to 40 joules (120-μs pulse duration) and for pulse repetition rates from single shot to 20 Hz. We have found that Kr lamps are generally superior to Xe lamps for pumping Nd: YAG except at high current densities. Specifically, for this system (the parameters of which are suitable for commercial and military applications), the optimum Kr fill pressure is approximately 700 torr, while the optimum Xe fill pressure is roughly 1000 torr. The threshold with the 700-tort Kr lamp is 58 percent of that with the 1000-torr Xe lamp; the crossover energy (for equal absolute efficiencies) is 40-joule input, which in our system corresponds to about 375-mJ output. View full abstract»

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  • FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser - Part I: Theory

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 694 - 708
    Cited by:  Papers (113)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1506 KB)  

    A new general analysis for mode-locked operation of a homogeneously broadened laser with either internal phase (FM) or amplitude (AM) modulation is presented in this paper. In this analysis, a complex Gaussian pulse is followed through one pass around the laser cavity. Approximations are made to the line shape and modulation characteristics to keep the pulse Gaussian. After one round trip, a self-consistent solution is required. This yields simple analytic expressions for the pulse length, frequency chirp, and bandwidth of the mode-locked pulses. The analysis is further extended to include effects of detuning of the modulator, in which case analytical expressions are obtained for the phase shift of the pulse within the modulation cycle, the shift of the pulse spectrum off line center, the change in pulse length, and the change in power output. Numerical results for a typical Nd:YAG laser are given. In the case of the FM mode-locked laser it is found that there is a frequency chirp on the pulse and that this causes pulse compression and stretching when the modulator is detuned. Etalon effects and dispersion effects are also considered. View full abstract»

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  • FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser - Part II: Experimental results in a Nd:YAG laser with internal FM modulation

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 709 - 715
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (972 KB)  

    In Part I of this paper [1], a theoretical analysis of the mode-locked homogeneous laser was given. In this part we present experimental results for the Nd:YAG laser with internal phase modulation. LiNbO3was used as the modulator crystal, and a method to measure the single-pass phase retardation of the modulator accurately at 1.06 μ is described in detail. The pulsewidth and spectral width of the mode-locked laser were measured as a function of depth of modulation, and good agreement with theory was obtained. Etalon effects in the laser were observed, and the results agreed very well with the theory. Mode-locked spectral bandwidths of up to 16 GHz, implying mode-locked pulses as short as 40 ps, were obtained. View full abstract»

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  • About unidentified ionized Xe laser lines

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 745 - 747
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB)  

    Observation of eleven unknown spontaneous spectral lines explains the appearance of corresponding laser lines. View full abstract»

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  • New CW ion laser transitions in argon, krypton, and xenon

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 757 - 758
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    First Page of the Article
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Long-pulse laser emission from rhodamine 6G

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 716 - 725
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1168 KB)  

    The properties of the rhodamine 6G flashlamp-pumped circulating dye laser with cyclooctatetraene and cycloheptatriene as triplet-state quenchers are described. Particular attention is given to such observables as pulse duration, frequency sweep, and early termination of the laser pulse. From the experimental results and the theory of dye lasers, it is concluded that the thermal effects may not play a dominant role in such lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Study of the Nd: Glass laser radiation

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 725 - 743
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2424 KB)  

    The Nd:glass laser has become one of the most useful sources of light pulses a few picoseconds in duration. In this paper, we review the results of an extensive study of the time and spectral structure of the Nd:glass laser radiation. The time structure was studied by means of two-photon fluorescence (TPF) patterns: these were scanned by a very thin (28-μ) cell containing the fluorescent dye, the fluorescence being monitored by a photomultiplier. When the Nd:glass laser is Q switched by a rotating mirror or when it is free running, we find TPF patterns fully consistent with a model where the laser emission has the character of Gaussian noise (thermal light), i.e., a model where the modes are randomly phased. When the laser was simultaneously Q switched and mode locked we made two observations : 1) the TPF patterns show that the ultra-short pulses observed previously have an overall duration of ∼8 ps, but also possess an internal substructure containing peaks 0.4-0.8 ps in duration; 2) the spectral width of these pulses is <20 cm-1at the beginning of the Q -switched train and expands to ∼80 cm-1in the middle of the train. This rapid spectral broadening during pulse buildup is attributed to self-phase modulation in the laser glass matrix due to a nonlinear index n2which we evaluate as n{2}= (2 \pm 1) \times 10^{-22} m2/V2(or 1.8 \times 10^{-13} esu). Gain limiting due to this effect and self-focusing become very important at power densities above 1 GW/cm2, presenting a serious limitation on the energy density (J/cm2), which one may hope to extract from Nd: glass laser systems. View full abstract»

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  • Saturation of infrared absorption in SF6

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 678 - 684
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)  

    An analysis of the saturable absorption of SF6at 10.59 μ is presented. A model for the absorber is developed and experiments have been performed to determine the value of the saturation parameter. It is shown that at pressures above 0.1 torr, the saturation parameter varies linearly with the pressure and is governed by the relaxation time of the lowest level ν6. Effects of temperature on the absorption are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Collisionally induced lasing in CO2and N2O using vibrationally excited CO

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 754 - 756
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    Continuous-wave oscillation has been observed on a number of P-branch transitions belonging to the View full abstract»

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  • Statistical amplitude and phase variations in mode-locked lasers

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 687 - 693
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)  

    The influence of statistical amplitude or phase variations in the modes of a mode-locked laser on the time-dependent output intensity and on the relative efficiency of nonlinear optical processes is investigated. The ensemble-averaged intensity, the time-dependent distribution of the resulting complex amplitude, and the second-order moment of the intensity distribution are calculated and discussed for both types of variations. As long as no systematic amplitude or phase changes are introduced, the pulse shape is maintained, but superimposed on a fluctuating background, and the efficiency for nonlinear optical processes is reduced. For random phase fluctuations over 2π the pulse behavior disappears completely and the output becomes Gaussian or chaotic light. View full abstract»

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  • New laser emission from ionized xenon

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 757
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)  

    Laser action was observed on six more lines of ionized xenon. View full abstract»

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  • Temperature dependence of pulsed laser threshold in YAG:Er3+, Tm3+, Ho +

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 750 - 751
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    The variation of pulsed laser threshold with temperature is graphically presented for YAG: Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+over the range from 90 to 300°K. The active ion is Ho3+and threshold for the 2.13-micron line varies between 4 and 60 joules over this temperature range. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time oscilloscope observation of an ultrafast photodiode response to mode-locked laser pulses

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 744 - 745
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    Pulses of 100 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) have been displayed on a direct current to 5-GHz real-time oscilloscope. The 100-ps duration includes contributions from the oscilloscope, the photodetector, and the laser pulse,Maximum current in the linear regime of the photodiode is ≈3 amperes so that electric pulses of ≈70 ps FWHM and ≈150 volts can be obtained with the laser-detector combination. Results of a simple optical method for determining the exposure time of high-speed electronic cameras are also briefly given. View full abstract»

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  • Continuous self-mode locking of infrared gas lasers

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 749 - 750
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    Observation of continuous self-mode-locked pulses induced only by the nonlinearity of the laser medium is reported for the 10.6-μ CO2, 3.39-μ He-Ne, and 3.508-μ He-Xe laser transitions. Optical spectra of these pulses were taken with a scanning Fabry-Perot intefferometer. Attainment of self-locking was strongly dependent on the second-order spatial Fourier component of the excitation density in the optical cavity. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of intensity correlation functions from photoelectric counting distributions

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 661 - 668
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB)  

    Two techniques are described for obtaining information about the intensity correlation function of an optical field, from measurements of photoelectric counting distributions. The first method is based on double differentiation of the second factorial moment with respect to the counting time. It requires very accurate data, but is shown to be quite feasible, and yields the intensity-correlation function explicitly. The second procedure is less sensitive to inaccuracies and allows the correlation time and certain other parameters to be determined from the factorial moments. In addition, it yields some information about the general form of the correlation function, but no explicit function. The procedures are illustrated and compared by application to photoelectric counting measurements of a laser far below the threshold of oscillation. View full abstract»

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  • Reactive Q switching in a CO2multimode-multipass laser oscillator

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 753 - 754
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    Experiments with a CO2-N2-He multipass laser having a movable-end mirror are described. At constant mirror velocities ranging from 0.5 cm/s to 40.0 cm/s, pulsing was observed with repetition rates between 1-60 kHz and with apparent peak-pulse amplitudes of 10 times the CW output. Measurements were made for various cavity optical path lengths. View full abstract»

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  • FM-laser operation of the Nd:YAG laser

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 673 - 677
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)  

    The FM-laser or frequency-sweeping mode of laser oscillation has been demonstrated in a Nd :YAG 1.06-μ laser with an intracavity LiNbO3phase modulator. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical expression \Delta = (\Delta \Omega /\Delta \nu) (\delta /\pi) where δ= peak single-pass phase retardation in the modulator, \Delta \Omega = axial mode spacing, \Delta \nu =modulator detuning, and Δ=resulting FM index of the laser output. Modulation indices as large as \Delta \approx 230 rad have been obtained, in which case the instantaneous laser frequency is sweeping over a full spectral range of 2\Delta \cdot f_{m} \approx 120 GHz (≈ 4 cm-1) at a repetition frequency f_{m} \approx 260 MHz, with a time-bandwidth product per period \approx 2\Delta \approx 460 . The coherently mode-locked spectral bandwidth thus obtained in the FM-laser case is very much wider than can be achieved in the pulsed mode-locked case with the same Nd:YAG laser. Some possible ways of using this broad-band coherent FM spectrum are suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Vibrating mirror as a repetitive Q switch

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 747 - 749
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    A continuously pumped Nd:YAG laser has been repetitively Q switched with a vibrating mirror at repetition rates up to 10 kHz. Peak powers of 70 kW and pulsewidths of 60 ns have been observed. The Q switch is comprised of a mirror attached to one end of a torsional rod driven at its mechanical resonance frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Time synchronization of a single-mode-locked Nd:glass laser pulse with a Q -switched ruby-laser pulse

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 751 - 752
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    Using two Pockels cells, a single-picosecond-duration light pulse generated by a mode-locked Nd:glass laser was time synchronized with a 50-100-ns-duration Q -switched ruby-laser pulse. The picosecond pulse was reliably placed in the early part of the rise of the Q -switched pulse, and could be delayed to any later time. View full abstract»

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  • One-year operation of sealed-off CO2laser

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 756 - 757
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    Continuous operation of a sealed-off CO2laser oscillator has been achieved over a period of one year. The power output of the oscillator at the conclusion of the test was 4.1 watts compared to its original power of 6.5 watts. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University