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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 9 • Date September 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editorial announcement

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1546
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Introduction to the special issue on physics and applications of semiconductor quantum-well structures

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1609 - 1610
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Handbook of stochastic methods for physics, chemistry and the natural sciences

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1922
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    First Page of the Article
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Electric-field dependence of linear optical properties in quantum well structures: Waveguide electroabsorption and sum rules

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1816 - 1830
    Cited by:  Papers (44)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5456 KB)  

    We summarize the electric-field dependence of absorption and luminescence in quantum wells for fields perpendicular to the layers, present extended discussion of electroabsorption spectra and devices in waveguide samples, and derive sum rules for electroabsorption. Optical bistability, self-linearized modulation, and optical level shifting are demonstrated in self-electrooptic effect device configurations, with good modulation contrast and polarization-dependent properties. The electroabsorption spectra enable quantitative comparison of theory and experiment for absorption strengths in quantum wells with field. The sum rules enable excitonic effects to be included in the comparison, and good agreement is seen. One sum rule is also more generally applicable to electroabsorption in semiconductors. View full abstract»

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  • Role of spontaneous emission in the dynamics of mode locking by synchronous pumping

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1593 - 1599
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    Numerical simulations tracing the pulse evolution in the case of mode locking by synchronous pumping are presented. It is argued that strictly steady-state pulses are impossible in principle because the wings of the pulses are embedded in background radiation generated by spontaneous emission. The simulations demonstrate that the perturbations introduced by the stochastic background can be severe, and that these can apparently be minimized only at the expense of the overall quality of the mode-locked pulse envelopes. View full abstract»

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  • Temperature dependence of bistable InGaAsP/InP lasers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1579 - 1586
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2688 KB)  

    An increase of hysteresis current width in bistable lasers with two or three sections was observed at higher temperatures. A rate equation analysis was performed where both carrier density dependence on lifetime and the bleaching of saturable absorption by the spontaneous emission were taken into account. We show that the increased loss of injected carriers due to Auger recombination process causes the increase in the hysteresis width. A small-signal stability analysis for the switch-off point revealed that increased coupling between carriers in the gain and absorption regions, through the absorption of superradiant emission, has the effect of raising the switch-off point to higher current levels. It was shown experimentally that, without changing the temperature, the current hysteresis width can be controlled by adjusting the current distribution in three sections. View full abstract»

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  • Inelastic light scattering by electronic excitations in semiconductor heterostructures

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1771 - 1784
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    In recent years there has been much research on inelastic light scattering by quasi-2-D electron systems in quantum wells and heterostructures. In this paper we present a general description of resonant inelastic light scattering as a spectroscopic method that reveals single particle and collective behavior of electrons and holes in semiconductor microstructures and review some of the more recent work. We consider high-mobility two-dimensional free carrier systems in modulation doped GaAs-(AlGa)As heterostructures, purely space-charge induced quantum wells of GaAs and shallow impurities in GaAs- (AlGa)As quantum wells. View full abstract»

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  • Dependence of electron temperature on well width in the Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.47In0.53As single-quantum well

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1811 - 1815
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    The temperature of electrons confined in a single quantum well (SQW) as a function of well width (Lz) from L_{z} = 14.5 Å to L_{z} = 130.5 Å have been determined from photoluminescence spectra of a set of undoped (Al,In)As/(Ga,In)As SQW's. From steady state electron temperature variation with Lzit is shown that the electron and longitudinal optical phonon scattering dominates the excess energy loss of the thermalized two dimensional electrons in the SQW's and the scattering rate is independent of Lzwithin our experimental accuracy. The average energy loss rate per hot-electron was determined to be much smaller than expected. View full abstract»

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  • Thin film-coated waveguide CO2laser

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1604 - 1608
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    A new type of radio frequency (RF) excited waveguide laser with a rectangular cross section is proposed which is composed of two dielectric or lossy materials and two metallic electrodes which are coated by a thin film with small absorptions. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that the maximum output powers of the new waveguide laser are much larger than those of conventional ones. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of novel resonant electron transfer triode device using metal-insulator superlattice for high speed response

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1880 - 1886
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    A novel resonant electron transfer triode (RETT), which uses electron resonant tunneling utilizing a metal insulator multilayer superlattice as an artificial semiconductor, is proposed and its basic properties are estimated theoretically. Possibility for high speed response in room temperature, such as response time \tau = 0.25-0.38 ps, cutoff frequency f_{T} = 420-640 GHz, maximum oscillation frequency f_{\max } = 530-610 GHz, and the common-emmitter current gain \beta = 8- 34 are expected theoretically with the transverse area of 1000 × 1000 Å2and the total base length of 30-100 Å. It is also shown theoretically that this triode has common transistor static characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Valence band mixing and optical emission in modulation-doped GaAs-(AlGa)As heterostructures

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1645 - 1648
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Unexpected optical emission spectra from electrons confined in GaAs quantum layers reveal a strong component with polarization normal to the plane of the layers. For elementary electron-hole recombination processes, this suggests surprisingly large band mixing in the ground valence subband. Effective mass theories that include conventional symmetry breaking mechanisms do not satisfactorily account for this phenomenon. The stress dependence of the spectra confirm that many body shake-up processes in the Fermi sea are important in describing emission associated with the 2D electron plasma. View full abstract»

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  • Doping superlattices ("n-i-p-i crystals")

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1682 - 1695
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4960 KB)  

    Semiconductors with doing superlattices exhibit a number of unique features by which they differ from uniform bulk crystals as well as from semiconductors with a compositional superlattice. The properties which make them particularly appealing as a new kind of semiconductor are tunability of carrier concentration, bandgap, two-dimensional subband structure, and recombination lifetimes, in combination with an enormous flexibility in tailoring. Moreover, the choice of host materials is not restricted by interface- or lattice-matching problems. The possibility of varying conductivity, absorption coefficient, optical gain, and luminescence spectra by light or external electrical potentials implies new concepts for photodetectors, tunable light sources, optical amplifiers, and modulators. The long recombination lifetimes result in large low-power nonlinearities of the optical absorption coefficient and the refractive index. These properties offer applications for saturable absorbers and bistable optical devices. In this paper the basic concept of doping superlattices and experiments which have provided its verification will be reviewed first. New physical phenomena and possible device applications will then be discussed. Finally, we will report some recent results of extensions of the concept to "hetero n-i-p-i's," obtained by periodic modulation of composition superimposed on the periodic n-i-p-i doping profile. View full abstract»

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  • A bird's-eye view on the evolution of semiconductor superlattices and quantum wells

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1611 - 1624
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (5)
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    Following the past seventeen-year developmental path in the research of semiconductor superlattices and quantum wells, significant milestones are presented with emphasis on experimental investigations in the device physics of reduced dimensionality performed in cooperation with the materials science of heteroepitaxial growth. View full abstract»

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  • Hot carriers in quasi-2-D polar semiconductors

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1728 - 1743
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    This paper reviews hot carrier effects in quasi-2-D polar semiconductors (quantum wells and heterostructures), with special emphasis on the GaAs/AlGaAs system. After briefly introducing the basic concepts in hot carrier physics, we discuss theoretical calculations of carrier-phonon interactions and hot carrier energy loss rates to the lattice in quasi-2-D systems. We then discuss how these quantities are affected by degeneracy, plasma effects, and hot phonons. The bulk of the paper is devoted to a discussion of experimental results and their analysis. Three kinds of experiments are discussed: I-V and related transport measurements, direct time-of-flight measurements of velocity-field characteristics, and measurements which use optical spectroscopy to provide direct information about the carrier distribution function in the presence of external perturbations. The optical studies have given valuable new insight into the behavior of hot carrier relaxation processes in quasi-2-D systems from femtosecond to steady-state conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Optically pumped laser oscillation in the 1.6 - 1.8 µm region from strained layer Al0.4Ga0.6Sb/GaSb/ Al0.4Ga0.6Sb/Double heterostructures grown by molecular beam hetero-epitaxy on Si substrates

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1587 - 1592
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
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    Double heterostructure lasers consisting of GaSb active layers with Al0.4Ga0.6Sb/ cladding layers were grown by molecular beam hetero-epitaxy on Si substrates. The intrinsic ∼ 12 percent lattice mismatch between the GaSb and the Si at the growth temperature is largely taken up by a GaSb/AlSb superlattice. The GaSb layer is under severe dilatory strain at room temperature due to the larger thermal contraction of the GaSb layer relative to that of Si from the growth temperature and resulting in shrinkage of the GaSb bandgap. We have observed optically pumped laser emission ranging from 1.63 μm at 85 K to 1.83 μm at 350 K. The exponential dependence of the threshold pump power and relative quantum efficiency exhibits a change in slope at ∼ 250 K. The exponential threshold-temperature dependence at 80 and 300 K are T_{0} = 158 and 100 K, respectively, and are higher than previously reported for GaSb lasers. At 300 K the threshold corresponds to an equivalent current density of 12 kA/cm2. View full abstract»

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  • Compact, high-power FIR NH3laser pumped in a CO2laser cavity

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1600 - 1603
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A compact CO2-NH3FIR laser system, with an NH3laser cavity inserted in the pump CO2laser cavity, was designed. Temporally smooth and reproducible single mode NH3laser pulses with an energy of 5 mJ (20 kW peak power) were obtained at the 152 μm line when optically pumped by the injection-locked single-mode CO2laser with a pulse energy of 0.3 J. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum well lasers--Gain, spectra, dynamics

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1887 - 1899
    Cited by:  Papers (79)  |  Patents (12)
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    We discuss a number of theoretical and experimental issues in quantum well lasers with emphasis on the basic behavior of the gain, the field spectrum, and the modulation dynamics. It is revealed that the use of quantum well structures results in improvement of these properties and brings several new concepts to optical semiconductor devices. View full abstract»

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  • Switching of photoluminescence by pulsed electric field in GaAs/Al0.7Ga0.3As single quantum well structure

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1837 - 1844
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    Transient photoluminescence measurements for pulsed electric fields at liquid nitrogen temperature on a GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well structure have been carried out to clarify the field-dependence of the recombination lifetime of carriers and to demonstrate a fast switching of the luminescence intensities. The lifetime increases with the increasing field in a marked contrast to the previously reported results. The transient characteristic for a short pulsed voltage is observed to be free from lifetime limitation. The results are semiquantitatively interpreted in terms of the field-induced reduction in the overlap between electron and hole wave functions inside the GaAs well, combined with biomolecular recombination model. View full abstract»

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  • Recent advances inultra-high-speed HEMT technology

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1870 - 1879
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Current status and recent advances in high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) technology for high-performance VLSI are presented with a focus on material, self-alignment device fabrication, and HEMT LSI implementations. HEMT is a very promising device for ultra-high-speed LSI/VLSI due to the supermobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction structure. The technological challenges for large-scale integration are discussed with the refined HEMT with self-aligned gate structure, controllability of device parameters, and MBE material problems. Master-slave flip-flop divide-by-two circuits achieved an internal logic delay of 22 ps per gate at 77 K at a fan-out of about 2, roughly three times faster than that of GaAs MESFET technology. HEMT has already made it possible to develop a 4 kbit static RAM's and 1.5 kgate gate array, demonstrating high-speed operations. With submicron gates, as well as advanced material technologies, a HEMT 64 kbit static RAM with subnanosecond access operation and 10 kgate logic LSI with subhundred-picosecond logic delays will be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Growth of microstructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1649 - 1655
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Molecular beam epitaxy is the most widely currently used technique for the growth of semiconductor microstructures. Multilayers with thicknesses and smoothness controlled near the monolayer level are being produced, including, recently, quantum wells with special shapes, quantum wells to which electric fields may be applied, new structures with enhanced carrier mobilities, structures for tunneling injection of carriers, and possible structures for achievement of quantum wires and dots. New crystal systems and new growth techniques are extending the range of accessible microstructures. View full abstract»

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  • Recombination dynamics in GaAs/AlxGa1- xAs quantum well structures

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1799 - 1810
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Time-resolved and excitation-dependent photoluminescence of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum well structures reveal that recombination takes place between free carriers, not excitons, at room temperature for carrier densities at and above the mid -1016cm-3level. Other samples show trapping and release of carriers from traps, evidence of dynamic Shockley, Hall, and Read recombination for optically active traps. The traps can be saturated to a large extent. Further studies show that they are associated with interfaces between different materials and that they become active at a temperature around 150 K. Results from all samples indicate that the bimolecular radiative recombination coefficient B for quantum wells is no larger than the value of B for bulk GaAs, and may in fact be smaller. This is one of the first studies of time-resolved luminescence of impurities in quantum well structures. Impurity decays at low temperatures are found to be quite slow. A spectral line which appeared to be longitudinal optical phonon-shifted emission is shown to be due to an acceptor impurity. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic mobility in semiconductor heterostructures

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1720 - 1727
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Recent developments in the study of the electronic mobility of two-dimensional (2-D) systems in semiconductor heterostructures are reviewed. The emphasis is on a comparison between theories and experimental data on the mobilities of 2-D electrons and holes in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs heterojunctions. View full abstract»

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  • Physical limits of heterostructure field-effect transitors and possibilities of novel quantum field-effect devices

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1845 - 1852
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2768 KB)  

    Physical processes which govern the switching speed of heterostructure field-effect transistors, including high-electron mobility transistors, are discussed to show that the ultimate switching speed is of the order of one ps. The importance of adopting new FET structures with higher current-drive capability is pointed out, including selectively-doped double-hetero structures and material systems other than GaAs-AlGaAs. Possibilities of novel field-effect devices, such as velocity modulation transistors, quantum-well-wire FET's with extremely high electron mobilities, and field-effect 2-dimensional-electron-gas superlattices are also discussed. The concept of wavefunction engineering in these devices is described. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University