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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 5 • Date May 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
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  • Statistical optics

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 739
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  • Laser spectroscopy VII

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 739 - 740
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  • Defects and processes in nonmetallic solids

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 739
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Well width dependence of gain and threshold current in GaAlAs single quantum well lasers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 625 - 630
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    The optical gain of single quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs laser diodes is studied theoretically. The model uses a no k -selection rule and Fermi statistics to obtain the gain coefficient expression. Gain-current characteristics are then reported and allow comparison of structures with well widths between 50 and 400 Å. Comparison is also made to previous models which use a strict k -selection rule. Then theoretical threshold current densities are calculated for typical single quantum well lasers where the optical confinement is performed using a five-layer slab waveguide. They are shown to be relatively insensitive to the well width as long as Lzis larger than 80 Å. Comparison between two different structures shows that optical confinement plays a critical role for optimizing the threshold Current and should be carefully studied, especially if the k -selection rule is relaxed. View full abstract»

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  • A scalar variational conformal mapping technique for weakly guiding dielectric waveguides

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 603 - 609
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    A novel approach of combining the finite-element method with the conformal mapping technique is proposed for solving the scalar variational formulas for weakly guiding dielectric waveguides. This approach avoids spurious modes and gives satisfactory results even for modes near cutoff, requiring less computer memory and time. Various specific dielectric structures, such as the rectangular guide, channel guide, and rib guide, are considered to estimate the error associated with the scalar formulation relative to the vectorial formulation. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated with an analysis of a directional coupler whose coupling properties are described by means of numerical results such as propagation constants, field distributions, etc. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum-limited operation of balanced mixer homodyne and heterodyne receivers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 617 - 624
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
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    The quantum-limited operation of balanced mixer optical homodyne and heterodyne receiver using a 50-50 percent beam splitter and two identical photodetectors is experimentally confirmed. The absolute quantum noise levels are calibrated with an incoherent GaAs light-emitting diode output. The photoelectron statistics, obtained through the analog photon counting experiment, are reduced to the quantum limit. The photocurrent fluctuation spectral density measured with a spectrum analyzer also agrees with the quantum noise spectral density. Furthermore, the deviations from the absolute quantum noise level are within ±0.02 dB. Finally, complete suppression of local oscillator excess noise is demonstrated in the 0-1.5 GHz frequency region. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission characteristics of a curved hollow silica waveguide at 10.6 µm

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 718 - 722
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Experimental measurements of the transmission and mode output of a 2 mm bore hollow silica waveguide have been made as a function of its radius of curvature. Even a small amount of bending is observed to have a significantly detrimental effect on both transmission and mode output. The results are presented and compared to theoretical predictions. One interesting conclusion of the work is that as the waveguide is bent, coupling of optical energy occurs from the fundamental waveguide mode into higher order modes which have lower attenuation in the curved waveguide. The result is that higher transmission is measured than would have been predicted based on the sole existence of the fundamental mode. View full abstract»

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  • Injection locking of an index-guided semiconductor laser array

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 655 - 662
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    This paper describes an analysis of the effects of an injected laser field on an index-guided semiconductor laser array. We assume an injected field that is resonant with the lowest order array mode and a free-running array that is either operating with a higher order array mode or is not frequency locked. For both cases, a sufficiently intense injected field is found to cause the array to operate predominantly in the lowest order mode. Also, according to our analysis, for certain array configurations, it is more advantageous to have the injected field present during the startup of oscillation than to introduce it after the free-running array has reached steady state. Finally, the injection-locked array is found to contain a tilt in the output beam. View full abstract»

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  • Limitations on power-transfer efficiency in three-guide optical couplers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 610 - 616
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    The eigenvalue equations for a slab three-guide coupler were solved and the power-transfer efficiency was calculated when the coupler is used as 1) a power divider and 2) to transfer power from one outside guide to another. In the first case, two modes take part in the power transfer, and unless the guides are very tightly coupled, periodic beats with high power transfer are obtained at multiples of the coupling length as in a two-guide coupler. In the second case, three modes take part in the power transfer, and periodic beats and high power-transfer efficiency can only be obtained if the propagation velocities of the three modes are related to each other in a simple way. This condition will occur only if the guides of a three-guide coupler made up of identical guides are much more loosely coupled than guides generally used in a two-guide coupler. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation from picosecond photoconductors in microstrip transmission lines

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 677 - 681
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Signals radiated in the microstrip autocorrelation circuit are investigated using ion-bombarded InP photoconductors. A model and empirical data are presented which suggest that this circuit radiatively couples to itself, giving rise to what appears to be a "slow" signal in the autocorrelation data. It is demonstrated that with a judicious choice of electrode geometry, a subpicosecond signal radiated by the photoconducting gap can be separated from the slower signal radiated by the microstrip electrodes. View full abstract»

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  • LNA: A new CW Nd laser tunable around 1.05 and 1.08 µm

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 713 - 717
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1704 KB)  

    We have investigated the CW laser properties of the lanthamide hexa-aluminate La0.9Nd0.1MgAl11O19at room temperature. When a 1 cm long crystal is pumped by an Ar+ laser (514 nm) or a Kr+ laser (752 nm), CW emission is obtained with slope efficiencies of 10 and 26 percent, respectively. A four-plate Lyot filter in the cavity forces the LNA crystal to oscillate in either of the two major bands centered al 10 820 Å (tuning range 80 Å) and 10 545 Å (tuning range 35 Å). View full abstract»

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  • Heterodyne gain and noise measurement of a 1.5 µm resonant semiconductor laser amplifier

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 671 - 676
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    The noise and gain characteristics of a 1.5μm resonant semiconductor laser amplifier have been measured. A heterodyne detection scheme was used to measure the gain and noise properties relevant to coherent communication applications. Measurements were made with the amplifier operating in unsaturated, saturated, and injection-locked regimes. Unsaturated internal gain as high as 29 dB was measured with the amplifier operating close to threshold. Measured signal-to-noise ratios agree well with calculated results and are 9 dB below the input quantum shot noise limit. A degradation in the amplifier performance is observed when operated above or at threshold. Gain saturation for high input powers also degrades the noise characteristics of the amplifier. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the spectrum behavior below the threshold in DFB lasers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 637 - 641
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
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    The spectrum behavior below the threshold in DFB lasers has been investigated. Analysis shows that the emission spectrum has peaks predicted by the threshold theory and proper valleys between large peaks. The results of our analysis should aid in the evaluation of DFB structure parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Optical pumping of CO by a convective flow CO laser

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 723 - 729
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    A convectively cooled CO laser has been used to optically pump the vibrational distribution of CO preheated in a dc discharge. For maximum pump flux levels of 8 kW/cm2, it was found that optical coupling to flowing CO could be achieved only in the presence of discharge preheating and the extent of optical pumping was a strong function of pump wavelength over the range 5.0-5.1 \mu m. The excited CO vibrational distribution was derived by spectroscopic analysis to be similar to the highly nonequilibrium distributions obtained in prior work. Numerical calculations of the vibrational distributions have been performed and reasonable agreement with the experimental results was found. View full abstract»

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  • Operation of an infrared dye laser synchronously pumped by a mode-locked CW Nd:YAG laser

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 697 - 703
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Infrared dyes emitting around 1.3 μm exhibit fluorescence lifetimes τflof only ∼ 10 ps which are shorter than the duration of the pump pulses ( t_{p} \sim70 ps). This fact results in performance characteristics different from those of visible dye lasers where the fluorescence lifetime is longer than tp. The pulse properties of IR dye lasers are investigated for various bandwidth-limiting elements. The generation of nearly transform-limited dye laser pulses as short as 6 ps-assuming a Gaussian temporal shape-is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of picosecond pulse shape synthesis by spectral masking in a grating pulse compressor

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 682 - 696
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (22)
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    This paper analyzes the synthesis of arbitrarily shaped optical pulses by spectral filtering in a fiber-and-grating pulse compressor. Spectral filtering of phase and amplitude is achieved by masking the spatially dispersed frequency components within the compressor. We show that the spectral filter is the convolution of the mask with the beam's transverse intensity profile. We discuss the effect of diffraction from the features of the physical mask, and show how finite spatial resolution limits the range of attainable temporal profiles. The fundamental limitation on spectral resolution is derived. Spectra and temporal pulse shapes corresponding to a variety of physical masks are calculated and are found to be in excellent agreement with experiments done with compressed pulses from a mode-locked Nd: YAG laser. View full abstract»

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  • A review of stimulated Brillouin scattering excited with a broad-band pump laser

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 704 - 712
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) excited by a pump laser with a bandwidth large compared to the Brillouin linewidth is reviewed. SBS amplifier results show that either for low gain or for short pulses, the broad-band SBS gain is substantially lower than the steady-state gain. In the high gain limit, however, the fast phase fluctuations that are typical of a broad-band pump have a small effect on amplifier gain. Results for SBS that grows from noise show that fast pump phase fluctuations affect the gain only under two conditions. The first is when the coherence length of the pump is shorter than the gain length in the SBS medium. The second is when the pump is made up of two or more temporal modes separated by more than the SBS linewidth and aberrated with independent spatial profiles. In this case, the quality of wavefront inversion may be badly degraded as well. Areas for further work, including competing nonlinearities, are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Prospects for visible and VUV free electron lasers using dielectric resonance

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 587 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Operation near spectral resonance lines of helium and of the alkali metals is capable of yielding high gain in an FEL at visible and VUV wavelengths. When the wavelength is on the order of 1 percent off resonance, absorption and saturation effects are relatively unimportant. View full abstract»

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  • Directional coupler switches with optical gain

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 595 - 602
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2456 KB)  

    We discuss the design and characteristics of directional coupler switches in semiconductor materials (GaAs/GaAlAs) which exhibit optical gain by laser action. Equal gain in the bar and cross states is achieved by carrier-induced changes in the real as the well as the imaginary parts of the refractive index in directional coupler structures. Conditions for equal gain and crosstalk, design tradeoffs, and saturation characteristics in terms of amplified spontaneous emission in relation to saturation power are briefly discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Bragg reflection by a gain medium optically pumped in a grating geometry

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 730 - 738
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    The utilization of Bragg reflection caused by a grating-like pump intensity distribution in a laser-pumped laser amplifier is analyzed theoretically. In the amplifier, an incident laser beam is split into a transmitted and reflected beam, both of which are amplified. We explicitly take into account the interference between the transmitted and reflected beam and the effect of the interference on the saturated gain. We determine the reflective conversion efficiency of such an amplifier and show that if the gain grating is accompanied by a pump-heating-induced refractive-index grating, the reflective conversion efficiency may approach 100 percent. View full abstract»

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  • Intermodal stability of a coupled-cavity semiconductor laser

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 631 - 636
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    We present an analysis of the steady-state operation of a two-element coupled-cavity laser near a mode hop. The equations of motion for the two cavities and two relevant modes of a longitudinally coupled-cavity laser are reduced to a system of nondimensional nonlinear ordinary differential equations which describe a general two-element laser. The equations are then solved and the stability of their solutions is analyzed. Depending upon the fill factors for the two modes, there exists an intrinsically multimode oscillation for operating conditions under which it was previously thought that no steady state existed. Under conditions where the multimode state is unstable, both of the single-mode states are stable with bistable transitions occurring only on the boundaries of the unstable multimode regimes. View full abstract»

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  • The gain-bandwidth of an InSb transphasor

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 663 - 670
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Detailed results are presented of two-beam optical transistor (transphasor) studies in a single InSb etalon using a CW CO laser to provide the bias beam and a Pb S1-xSExdiode laser to generate a modulated signal. The gain-bandwidth product has been measured to be ∼ 1.2 MHz for gain values ≥ 3 and is reduced at lower gain. A full expression for the absolute value of the optical gain is derived and shows good agreement with these results. An experimental method to estimate the device and material response time through the gain/ frequency dependence is presented. A medium response time of 230 ns ± 10 percent has been deduced for the conditions of these experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Beyond mean field and plane wave theories of bistable semiconductor lasers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 651 - 654
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1240 KB)  

    The steady-state output of semiconductor lasers containing saturable absorbers is calculated using a model that includes transverse mode variation, high gain and absorption coefficient, and high mirror transmission. The results are compared to the predictions of the mean field theory, and they show that the mean field formulas underestimate the amount of hysteresis and overestimate the required amount of absorption compared to the high gain formulas. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University