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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 2 • Date February 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
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  • Correction to "Exact derivation of the coupling coefficient in corrugated waveguides with rectangular tooth shape"

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 376
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  • Author's reply

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 376
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • Comments on "Array-mode far-field patterns for phase-locked diode-laser arrays: Coupled-mode theory versus simple diffraction theory"

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 376
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  • Correction to "Closed form theory of multicavity reflectors and the output power of external cavity diode lasers"

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 377
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 0
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  • Simultaneous measurement of the two-photon coefficient and free-carrier cross section above the bandgap of crystalline silicon

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 360 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3600 KB)  

    We report what is to our knowledge the first simultaneous measurement of the two-photon absorption coefficient and the free-carrier cross section above the bandgap in a semiconductor. This is also the first observation of two-photon absorption of 1 μm radiation in single-crystal Si at room temperature in a regime where a two-photon stepwise process involving indirect absorption followed by free-carrier absorption is usually dominant. A critical pulsewidth (and fluence) is established below (and above) which two-photon absorption cannot be neglected. Pulses that range from 4 to 100 ps in duration are then used to isolate the irradiance-dependent two-photon absorption from the fluence-dependent free-carrier absorption. We obtain an indirect two-photon absorption coefficient of 1.5 cm/GW and extract a free-carrier cross section of 5 \times 10^{-18} cm2by using a simple technique that does not require a knowledge of the actual carrier density. View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-CW optical bistability in InSb at room temperature

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 369 - 375
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    We report the first observation of quasi-steady-state optical bistability in an InSb etalon at room temperature as a result of the generation of free carriers through two photon absorption of 10 μm radiation. Nonlinear tuning of the etalon through two free spectral ranges has been achieved, with bistability observed around the two cavity resonances. Switching from a low to high transmission state has been achieved in times less than 10 ns while switching in the opposite direction occurs within 50-100 ns. The experimental results have been successfully fitted to a numerical model of the device. View full abstract»

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  • XeF laser performance for F2and NF3fuels

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 349 - 359
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    XeF laser performance has been investigated for F2versus NF3as the halogen donor (fuel). The experiments were all performed in 3 AMAGAT Ne/Xe/fuel mixtures at ambient temperature and a pump rate of 132 KW/cm3on a 1 m e -beam pumped laser. The F2-based laser mixture has been shown to be recyclable, with no loss in laser output, while laser performance steadily degrades for NF2-fueled mixtures under repetitively pulsed conditions. Despite the fact that F3absorbs at the XeF wavelength, it has been demonstrated that under appropriately chosen conditions the XeF intrinsic efficiency is essentially the same (2.2 percent) for both F2and NF3fuels for deposited energy loadings up to at least 150 j/l. Absorption, gain, fuel burn-up, and fluorescence were also measured in order to better characterize the laser medium and to determine the major factors contributing to the efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • An investigation of the role of Ne, Ar, and Kr as buffer gas in a coaxial e-beam pumped KrF laser

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 219 - 222
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    The role of Ne, Ar, and Kr as a buffer gas was investigated in a KrF laser pumped by a coaxial e -beam. The coaxial diode has a length of 20 cm and the anode tube diameter is 1 cm. The tube can be pressurized with the laser gas mixture up to 12 bar while a current density of 250 A/cm2can be achieved. It is found that both the maximum energy extraction and the optimized gas pressure with each buffer gas increase in the sequence Kr-Ar-Ne. From the experimental results, the quenching parameters of Kr, Ar, and Ne are deduced. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization studies of a multikilowatt PIE CO2laser

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 268 - 274
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    Details of an investigation of the operational performance of a 10 kW CW PIE CO2laser are presented. The results obtained from the experiment, successfully scaled by an order of magnitude from an earlier proof-of-principle device, clearly document that the PIE excitation process can be effectively utilized in the design of very large volume lasers. Optimization data further reveal that overall wallplug efficiency is commensurate with that obtained from E -beam sustained lasers; but at far less complexity and cost. As such, this relatively simple and reliable nonself-sustained excitation process appears attractive for the commercial development of very large and cost effective CW CO2lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Reflection noise in index-guided InGaAsP lasers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 286 - 293
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (4)
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    We report a detailed study of the excess noise induced in index-guided InGaAsP laser structures by reflection feedback. The phenomena of high-frequency noise (1-5 GHz), low-frequency noise (< 100 MHz), and intensity fluctuations are shown to have a common physical origin in the unusual instability of the coupled laser-external cavity system. After a randomly occurring light intensity drop, the light output recovers in 10-15 steps, each corresponding to an external cavity roundtrip (high-frequency noise); the total recovery time corresponds to the low-frequency noise. The instability, and the subsequent noise, can be suppressed under conditions of very strong feedback such as obtained for lasers with anti-reflection-coated facets. The reflection noise characteristics are shown to be largely independent of the laser structure and structure modifications such as distributed feedback. View full abstract»

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  • Operation of an Er:YLF laser at 1.73 µm

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 337 - 343
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The performance, characterization, and optimization of an Er:YLF laser operating at 1.73 μm is described. The lifetimes of the upper and lower laser level were measured which allowed the optimum Er concentration and the ultimate performance to be predicted. In addition, the pulse-forming network and the mirror transmissivity were optimized. The laser output energy in the normal mode and the Q -switched mode as well as the Q -switched pulselength were measured. In a separate, more efficient, laser arrangement, an output energy of 55 mJ was obtained with an overall efficiency of 0.0024. View full abstract»

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  • Attenuation of cutoff modes and leaky modes of dielectric slab structures

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 310 - 318
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A simple formula is developed for the attenuation constant of higher order cutoff modes of a dielectric slab guide and of the modes of leaky guides. The formula is based on a perturbation analysis that reduces the problem to that of the transmission characteristic of a Fabry-Perot resonator. Under certain approximations, the formula for leaky guides reduces to that of Hall and Yeh, but the formula has a wider range of applicability. View full abstract»

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  • Absolute frequencies of lasing transitions in nine CO2isotopic species

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 234 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (4)
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    New measurements of beat frequencies in lasers of CO2isotopic species are combined with similar measurements by Petersen et al. and by ourselves, using more refined statistical techniques, to give high-accuracy values of absolute frequencies in the 9-12 \mu m range. View full abstract»

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  • Laser mode locking with addition of nonlinear index

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 325 - 331
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    A nonlinear index medium introduced into a passively or actively mode-locked system can lead to shorter pulses. The bandwidth limitation by gain dispersion is partially overcome by spectral broadening via the nonlinear index medium. We have found that the pulse shortening in an actively mode-locked system is limited to roughly a factor of 2 by the onset of an instability which occurs when an excessive amount of nonlinear medium is added. The instability appears as an oscillation in the pulse shape and energy. The study suggests that active mode locking of Nd YAG lasers could be improved by such means. It is also likely that the colliding pulse mode-locked system is affected by nonlinear index processes. We have found a pulse shortening of roughly the same magnitude as in the actively mode-locked system, again limited by the onset of instability. View full abstract»

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  • Instability of semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback from distant reflectors

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 294 - 301
    Cited by:  Papers (68)  |  Patents (4)
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    We explain an istability occurring in continuously operating lasers due to moderate feedback from distant reflectors. This instability occurs despite the fact that the laser is stable with respect to small deviations from steady-state operation. It is the result of finite phase and carrier number changes caused by fluctuations in spontaneous emission. We predict several properties that agree with recent experimental observations: 1) the instability only occurs when the laser reaches a steady state that maximizes coherent feedback and laser light intensity; 2) the instability vanishes at strong feedback levels; and 3) at moderate feedback levels, the laser will be nearly stable at threshold, but unstable when operated well above threshold. The latter behavior results in a nonlinear "kinked" shape in the light versus current relation. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous multiwavelength operation of a commercial rare gas halide laser

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 230 - 233
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    Simultaneous dual wavelength operation of a commercial-discharge excited rare gas halide excimer laser is reported for the first time. A combined energy output in excess of 20 mJ was obtained for the 193 and 248 nm ArF and KrF B \rightarrow X transitions oscillating simultaneously, and also for the 248 and 351 nm KrF and XeF transitions. Analysis indicates that significantly higher dual wavelength energies should be possible. View full abstract»

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  • Stimulated Raman scattering of picosecond light pulses in hydrogen, deuterium, and methane

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 332 - 336
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (3)
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    Experimental results are presented on stimulated Raman scattering of short pulses of approximately 100 ps duration in H2, D2, and CH4, both in capillary waveguides and in a tight focusing geometry. Experimentally determined thresholds are in good agreement with calculation. Low thresholds ( < 20 \mu J) are observed in CH4and preliminary results using a mode-locked dye laser as pump indicate a useful source of tunable short pulse radiation in the near infrared. View full abstract»

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  • Optically nonlinear waves in thin films

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 319 - 324
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
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    A new treatment of the behavior of TE nonlinear waves in an optically nonlinear film is given. The new mathematical results are expressed in terms of the physical parameters of the system and represent a straightforward way to introduce the necessary Jacobian elliptic functions. The optical nonlinearity is of the Kerr type and the numerical calculations are performed for a self-focusing medium. Dispersion curves labeled with optical power density at the lower film boundary, detailed plots of the variation of electric field amplitude as the wave number changes, and details of the power distribution across the guide are given. Since two values of a wave number can exist for the same power level and power thresholds exist, the system is of device interest in the area of optical switching. View full abstract»

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  • Interacting collective modes in a laser cavity

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 344 - 348
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    We define collective operators for the quantized radiation field in a one-dimensional laser cavity coupled to a semi-infinite outside region, and we consider the overlaps of neighboring collective modes to show how they modify, in the linear approximation, the time evolution of the radiation field below threshold. The model and procedure work directly within a continuous spectrum of modes and allow us to get an improved insight on the prescription for the laser field in single-mode operation. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-order stokes pulse generation by nitrogen-laser-pumped fiber Raman laser

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 227 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A multimode silica-core fiber Raman laser was pumped by a compact Blumlein-type nitrogen laser. Four orders of Stokes pulses were obtained in the range of 341-359 nm at 280 MW/cm2fiber input. All the Stokes pulses were expanded by modal dispersion. The threshold of each Stokes pulse was measured and the energy transfer to the next order was observed. Conditions for efficient conversion to the required-order Stokes pulse are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Consideration on threshold current density of GaInAsP/InP surface emitting junction lasers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 302 - 309
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (3)
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    The oscillation condition of the GaInAsP/InP surface emitting (SE) junction laser ( \lambda = 1.3\mu m) is examined. Theoretical calculations indicate that reflectivity of the mirrors of a Fabry-Perot resonator is necessary to be 95 percent for a reasonably low threshold current density. Then, we have fabricated a new structure for SE laser and compared its threshold current density with the theoretical estimation. In order to maintain the necessary reflectivity without deteriorating the ohmic contact, we adopted a ring electrode where the reflecting mirror is separated from the p -side electrode. The threshold current was reduced down to 35 mA at 77 K which is 70 percent of the early experiment. The threshold current density was estimated to be 5 kA/ cm2. The estimated reflectivity was 80-85 percent. The operating temperature has been raised to -21°C (252 K). The temperature dependence of the threshold current near room temperature suggests that room temperature operation of GaInAsP/InP SE lasers is possible by increasing the reflectivity of mirrors and current confinement. View full abstract»

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  • Coupling coefficients of coupled laser cavities

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 223 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    We discuss certain properties of the coupling coefficients for a specific model consisting of two coupled resonant cavities separated by a lossy coupling gap. The coupling coefficients are here defined in the framework of time-dependent coupled-cavity theory-not as end-fire power coupling between traveling waves of two adjacent waveguides. In particular, we explore the validity of a heuristic formula for the coupling coefficients proposed in an earlier publication. It turns out that, in this example, the heuristic formula is directly applicable only if the coupling gap is lossless and off-resonance, but it becomes inapplicable if the lossless gap approaches resonance. The heuristic formula remains useful, but requires a correction if the coupling gap is lossy. The phase angle of the complex coupling coefficient is found to be linearly dependent on the width of the coupling gap, assuming the value 0 (to within multiples of 2π) for an off-resonant gap and the value of \pi/2 for a resonant gap. It is not the purpose of this letter to explore properties of c3lasers or to specify their optimum operating conditions. Only the validity of the approximate coupling function is to be investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the intensity noise of nearly single-longitudinal-mode semiconductor lasers

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 275 - 285
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3640 KB)  

    Quasi-linearized multimode quantum-mechanical rate equations with shot-noise sources for nearly single-longitudinal-mode semiconductor lasers are solved analytically by means of a flow graph technique. It is found that mode partition noise is the major intensity noise at low frequencies. At the resonance frequency, the "single-mode" noise dominates. Expressions for the relative intensity noise at low frequencies and the resonance frequency are derived. The correlation of the main mode and a side mode is negative at low frequencies and positive at the resonance frequency. The analysis also shows that intensity fluctuations of a side mode have a time constant of a few nanoseconds and a weak resonance peak caused by the fluctuations of the carrier number. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University