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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 12 • Date December 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 0
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  • Announching a special issue of the IEEE journal of quantum electronics on applications of quantum electronics to inertial sensing, frequency standards, and clocks

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1850
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  • An optimized π/2 distributed feedback laser

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1899 - 1904
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1736 KB)  

    The effects of a periodicity interruption (phase slip) in distributed feedback lasers are investigated with attention given to the practical aspects of today's semiconductor lasers in the 1.5 μm region. We find that effects on gain threshold and mode discrimination should be large and favorable if the size and placement of a phase slip are correct. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and application of theoretical gain curves to the design of multi-quantum-well lasers

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1958 - 1963
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
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    Gain/current curves for a single quantum well are calculated. The optimum well number, cavity length, threshold current, and current density of multi-quantum-well (MQW) lasers are derived in terms of this gain curve. The limiting performance of MQW lasers is found to be better than that of graded refractive index (GRIN) lasers, assuming comparable efficiencies and spontaneous emission linewidths. The optimum threshold current for an MQW laser with a 7 μm cavity and 90 percent facet reflectivity is \sim50 \mu A/μm. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "Performance predictions from a new optical amplifier model"

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1973
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    First Page of the Article
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  • High speed pulse technology, Vol. IV, sparks and laser pulses

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1974
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    First Page of the Article
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 0
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  • Coupled wave analysis of multiple waveguide systems: The discrete harmonic oscillator

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1893 - 1898
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Planar arrays of coupled synchronous waveguides are analyzed with regard to full power transfer between the outermost guides. It is shown analytically, that in an N -guide synchronous system the coupling coefficients have to be tapered parabolically, in agreement with previous empirical results; the propagation constants of this system are equi-spaced. We prove that full transfer indeed occurs and determine the coupling length of the system. The mode interference picture provides a physical interpretation of the full transfer phenomenon. This multiple waveguide system is a discrete analog of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of nonuniform gain on the multiplication noise of InP/InGaAsP/ InGaAs avalanche photodiodes

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1858 - 1861
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
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    We have investigated the effect of spatial gain uniformity on the multiplication noise of InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APD's) with separate absorption, "grading," and multiplication regions. APD's with localized regions of high gain exhibit higher excess noise factors and poorer Performance in lightwave receivers than those with uniform gain. View full abstract»

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  • Picosecond pulse analysis of gain-switched 1.55 µm InGaAsP laser

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1929 - 1936
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    Results of computer simulation of gain-switched pulses from InGaAsP lasers emitting at 1.55 μm are reported. Multimode rate equations are solved for short triangular current pulses of large amplitude superimposed on a dc bias close to threshold. Lasers of conventional length (200μm) and with short cavity (50 μm) are analyzed. The effect of wavelength chirp on time-resolved and the time-averaged multimode spectra is demonstrated. Optical pulses as short as 10 ps are predicted for short-cavity lasers with reflective coatings. While the number of longitudinal modes in gain-switched spectrum is efficiently reduced for short-cavity lasers, the dynamic linewidth of each mode remains of a similar magnitude (up to 140 GHz) as for standard-cavity lasers. It is expected that gain saturation effects could reduce the calculated values of dynamic linewidth. View full abstract»

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  • Power conversion efficiency of semiconductor injection lasers and laser arrays in CW operation

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1854 - 1857
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In many applications it is important to optimize the power conversion efficiency of semiconductor lasers and laser arrays. A method for calculating this efficiency which takes into account temperature effects is described, and some calculated results are presented and discussed. It is found that under certain conditions, a small increase in the thermal resistance of the device can result in a large reduction of its efficiency. Temperature effects are important in high-power semiconductor lasers, and in particular in laser arrays, where low thermal resistance heat sinking may be crucial to the device operation. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of distributed feedback lasers designed to favor the energy gap mode

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1913 - 1918
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (2)
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    Distributed feedback lasers with reflecting ends can support a mode in the energy gap that is exponentially confined to the end reflectors. This mode can become the lasing mode in a laser having one high reflecting and one low reflecting end. We have quantitatively compared the properties of such a laser to more conventional DFB lasers having two uncoated cleaved facets or one uncoated and one low reflecting facet. This comparison required computing a distribution of properties for each laser design because the phases of the two end reflections have random values. The gap mode is inherently compact, and the laser favoring this mode has extremely high single-mode selectivity, excellent quantum efficiency, and good resistance to external reflections, when only one Bragg length long. The conventional laser designs have less mode selectivity and require cavity lengths of about two Bragg lengths to reach their optimum performance. View full abstract»

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  • Verification of the light phase effect at the facet on DFB laser properties

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1880 - 1886
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2168 KB)  

    The critical importance of the relative position of the reflectors and grating in InP/InGaAsP DFB laser diodes have been directly verified. The relative position was varied by etching the cleaved facet of a DFB laser with the precisely controlled ion beam etching technique. The threshold current, oscillation wavelength, stopband width, and spectral intensity ratio of both modes which form a stopband were measured. All these characteristics changed periodically, with the period being about 2400 Å. This value corresponds to one half of the oscillation wavelength in the laser cavity. These characteristic variations resulting from the relative position change of the reflector and grating are theoretically analyzed by the eigenvalue equation which determines the propagation modes. The calculated results qualitatively agree with the experimental findings. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Bragg-reflector Pb1-xSnxTe/PbSeyTe1-ydiode lasers

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1947 - 1957
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3720 KB)  

    Distributed Bragg-reflector (DBR) diode lasers were designed and fabricated from lattice-matched Pb1-xSnxTe/PbSeyTe1-ysingle heterostructures grown by liquid-phase epitaxy. These DBR lasers operated in a single longitudinal mode within a limited range of heat-sink temperatures, 8.5-38 K, with a threshold current density of ∼3 kA/cm2at 20 K. Single longitudinal mode operation was maintained up to more than three times the threshold current. Continuous tuning of the laser output frequency over a range of ∼6 cm-1, near 775 cm-1(12.9 μm), was acheived by varying the heat-sink temperature. The average tuning rate was 0.21 cm-1/K, and it was much smaller than the rate for corresponding Fabry-Perot lasers, which was 2.3 cm-1/K. The measured effective mode index of the DBR lasers agrees well with the calculated one. View full abstract»

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  • Auger effect in GaSb quantum well lasers

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1851 - 1853
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The Auger recombination effect in GaSb quantum well lasers is discussed. A formula for the calculation of the CHSH Auger rate in quantum well structures is presented, which can be applied to the material where the bandgap is almost the same as the split-off gap. Using this formula, the quantum efficiency of the GaSb quantum well laser is calculated and compared to those of conventional double heterostructure lasers. It is found that the quantum efficiency of the GaSb quantum well laser can be improved to values higher than 50 percent in the wavelength range of 1.5-1.8\mu m. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of a negative frequency feedback semiconductor laser

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1919 - 1928
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (3)
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    A quantum theory of a semiconductor laser with negative frequency feedback stabilization is presented. The frequency noise and spectral linewidth can be decreased substantially below the modified Schawlow-Townes limit. The operator Langevin equations for a semiconductor laser supplemented by the countermodulation term for a cavity resonant frequency, quantum mechanical description of a power divider for output coupling, and the quantum theory of optical heterodyne/direct frequency discrimination detection are combined to describe the whole system. The ultimate limit for linewidth reduction is delineated. Typical numerical examples show that the linewidth can be decreased below 1 kHz. The principle of operation is discussed, with analogy made to an injection-locked oscillator. View full abstract»

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  • Laser-triggered dynamic breakdown of gases and laser-induced prebreakdown signals

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1964 - 1972
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Dynamic breakdown of Ne and Ar gases biased to the prebreakdown stage, with and without absorption of very short duration incident N2laser pulses, is studied. Effects of bias and incident laser intensity are seen to be complementary. Laser illumination of the interelectrode gap causes gas breakdown at the cathode to take place at a faster rate and at lower breakdown threshold bias than without the illumination. Breakdown pulse shape varies according to gas composition and bias, and is much different from simple nonbreakdown "prebreakdown" responses to the laser pulses. The prebreakdown signals are attributed to photon-enhanced ionization in the focal volume between the electrodes, while the laser-triggered breakdown pulses are attributed to photon-enhanced excitation and diffusion of such neutral atoms to the high field gradient region near the cathode, where cascade ionization collisional effects are amplified. View full abstract»

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  • Lightwave primer

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1862 - 1879
    Cited by:  Papers (64)  |  Patents (3)
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    This paper presents an introduction to the principles of lightwave system engineering. The treatment is historical rather than categorical-lightwave systems are described in terms of their evolution through four generations of technology, from a first generation operating at 0.85 μm wavelength over multimode fiber to a fourth generation employing coherent techniques at 1.55 μm. Basic engineering considerations such as fiber dispersion and receiver sensitivity are introduced early, then refined as the discussion progresses toward higher-performance, more sophisticated systems. The fundamental mechanisms that limit the performance of a given technology are quantified, and a figure of merit, the product of bit rate times maximum repeater spacing, is estimated. Values of this product range from about 2 Gbits/s . km for first-generation technology to roughly 900 Gbits/s . km for coherent systems. View full abstract»

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  • Linewidth reduction of a semiconductor laser by electrical feedback

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1905 - 1912
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (4)
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    An electrical feedback technique was proposed to stably reduce the linewidth of a semiconductor laser without changing its cavity structure. Calculations and experiments were carried out to reduce the linewidth of a 1.5 μm InGaAsP laser (DFB type) according to the following procedure. A compact Fabry-Perot interferometer was used as a freqeuncy discriminator. The minimum attainable linewidth, limited by the detector noise, was estimated as being narrower than 1 kHz when the reflectance of the interferometer used was higher than 0.9. The minimum linewidth obtained in the experiment was 330 kHz, which was 15 times as narrow as in the case of a free-running laser. The improvements of this experimental result can be expected by simultaneously reducing the AM noise of the laser. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral properties of a semiconductor laser coupled to a single mode fiber resonator

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1937 - 1946
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    The effect of optical feedback from a single mode fiber resonator on the instantaneous frequency fluctuation spectrum and on the field fluctuation spectrum of an AlGaAs semiconductor laser is studied theoretically and experimentally. Single mode fiber resonators of different lengths and finesses are used for the experiments. The minimum linewidth conditions are given and it is shown that the linewidth reduction ratio increases with the fiber resonator selectivity. The limit for multistability operation depends on the resonator finesse. Theory and experiments are found to be in good agreement. Finally, the effect of resonator loaded semiconductor laser phase noise on BER performance in optical DPSK heterodyne systems is theoretically analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of the refractive index of InGaAsP epitaxial layers by mode line luminescence spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1887 - 1892
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1976 KB)  

    A new method of detecting optical waveguide modes of semiconductor epitaxial layers is presented. The modes are excited by photoluminescence and coupled out of the semiconductor wafer by a grating etched on the surface of the guiding layer. As a consequence of this coupling, the spectrum of optical emission from the sample at fixed angles has "mode lines" superimposed on the spontaneous emission spectrum. This method is used to measure the refractive indexes of eight InGaAsP layers of different compositions. These data together with published data for the refractive index of InP were fit with a two-oscillator model to yield an algebraic description of the refractive index of the InGaAsP/InP system. The method was also used to measure the change in mode index of a laser in going from low current up to threshold. The observed change was measured to be -0.023 ± 0.006. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University