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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 10 • Date October 1984

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Displaying Results 1 - 20 of 20
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): 0
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  • Application of the effective index method to nonplanar structures

    Page(s): 1106 - 1109
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    The effective index method is very useful for studies of waveguides with index variations in both directions perpendicular to the direction of propagation, e.g., semiconductor lasers. In this paper we investigate the case of nonplanar layers and simultaneous presence of an index perturbation. The accuracy of the first order expression is investigated and formulas for the higher order terms are given. View full abstract»

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  • GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection laser with a ring electrode

    Page(s): 1117 - 1118
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    -A GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection laser (lambda = 1.2 mum) with a ring electrode has been fabricated. In this structure we separated the reflecting mirror from the p-side electrode in order to increase the reflectivity. Threshold current was 90 mA at 77 K and the operating temperature has been raised up to -85°C. The cavity length was 7.5 μm and single longitudinal mode operation was achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Analytic description of a homogeneously broadened injection laser: Extension to include a waveguide scattering/absorption loss

    Page(s): 1156 - 1162
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    -An approximate analytic model of a homogeneously broadened injection laser is presented. The model is based on solutions to differential equations which describe the steady-state amplification of the modes for unidirectional propagation through a homogeneously broadened gain medium. The gain medium is characterized by independently adjustable gain, saturation, and spontaneous- emission profiles for each mode and a waveguide scattering/absorption loss a which is constant for all modes. The approximate nature of the laser model is due to the neglect of the counter propagating intensity. This beam had to be neglected in order to find analytic solutions to the coupled, non-linear differential equations. In the limit ofalpha = 0, the model is exact, thus one expects that the model is accurate for small values of α. To verify these expectations, the predictions of the analytic model are compared with results obtained from a numerical integration of the equations for bidirectional propagation through the amplifier. It is found that foralpha l leq 4(lis the length of the laser) the results of the analytic model agree with the results of the numerical integration to within ≃10 percent. There exist several qualities which make the material presented in this paper interesting. First, the analytic model is solved quickly and efficiently for numerical values which are accurate approximations to the true values. Second, the form of coupling of the spontaneous light into the modes for bidirectional propagation through the gain medium may be deduced from the analytic solutions to the unidirectional case. This means that the functional dependence of the spontaneous noise on α and the parameters which characterize the active medium and its effect on the division of the output power amongst the modes is determined and given in analytic form. Third, solutions for unidirectional propagation through a homogeneously broadened amplif- ing medium are given. These solutions should find application in the study of ring lasers, optical amplifiers, or any other structure where the backward propagating intensity is negligible in comparison to the forward traveling beam. Fourth, it is shown that results predicted by analpha = 0calculation may be scaled to be similar to results calculated foralpha l lsim 4. View full abstract»

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  • Engineers & electrons - A century of electrical progress

    Page(s): 1217
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  • Optical waveguide theory [Book Review by Paul Melman of text by by Allan W. Snyder and John D. Love]

    Page(s): 1217
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): 0
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  • Short pulse generation and compression in XeCl lasers

    Page(s): 1196 - 1201
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    Techniques of short pulse generation in discharge-pumped excimer lasers are experimentally and analytically investigated around the 1 ns region. With a compact Blumlein-type XeCl laser and an 8 cm cavity length, a lasing pulse duration of 1 ns FWHM was obtained. The pulse duration is remarkably shortened in comparison with the pumping period through the mechanism of controlled resonator transients. Next, pulse compression by an absorber-amplifier system is demonstrated in XeCl lasers. Incident pulses are compressed by a factor of 2/3 by passing through a saturable absorber butyl PBD, and a XeCl amplifier. View full abstract»

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  • Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection

    Page(s): 1208 - 1216
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    The spectrum of an intensity modulated (IM) and a combined intensity-frequency modulated (IM-FM) monochromatic light source has been generated. The amplitudes of the modulated carrier and the first three pairs of sidebands are plotted showing the influence of IM on an FM signal. The effects of first order chromatic dispersion on the baseband amplitude response and harmonic distortion are determined. The manner in which modulation type and depth, modulating frequency, wavelength, and fiber length alter harmonic distortion is presented. Numerical examples giving the amplitude response of a single-mode fiber system as well as the magnitude of the second- and third-harmonic distortion caused by chromatic dispersion are presented. Based on this material, the limits placed on analog transmission due to chromatic dispersion may be assessed. View full abstract»

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  • The influence of feedback intensity on longitudinal mode properties and optical noise in index-guided semiconductor lasers

    Page(s): 1163 - 1169
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    Theory and experiments on optical feedback effects in index-guided single-mode semiconductor lasers are presented. Evidence is found for the existence of a characteristic parameterCwhich indicates the relative strength of the optical feedback. Near the transition (C approx 1.0) from low to high feedback, the feedback-induced low-frequency intensity noise shows a maximum. At higher feedback hysteresis and instabilities are dominant, whereas the feedback-induced noise is low again. View full abstract»

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  • Computer simulation of laser photon fluctuations: Single-cavity laser results

    Page(s): 1148 - 1155
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    In this second paper of a series I present statistical results obtained from computer simulated experiments in single-cavity semiconductor lasers and show that the probability distribution for realistic lasers are much broader than the Poisson distribution. When the gain saturation parameter is properly chosen, the computer simulated probability distributions agree very well with published experimental results. The following is a summary of the results. 1) Only the longitudinal laser mode at the center of the gain peak shows a probability distribution whose peak coincides with the average photon number. The modes to either side of the central mode have noise-like character with probability maxima at zero photon number. 2) The photon probability distribution narrows with increasing power output, increasing cavity mirror reflectivity and decreasing cavity length. 3) For the photon probability distribution to approach the Poisson limit, the cavity mirrors must have reflectivity near unity and the cavity losses must be very low. 4) Two modes symmetrically located at either side of the gain peak have a probability distribution that is constant from zero photon number to a cutoff value, because the modes compete for power and fluctuate widely. 5) Pulsed single-cavity lasers do not turn on consistently in the same longitudinal mode even if they are biased above threshold. 6) The performance of coupled-cavity (C3) and distributed feedback lasers (to be discussed in a subsequent paper) is much better than that of single-cavity lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of the refractive index of lead-tin-telluride for infrared devices

    Page(s): 1110 - 1114
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    The refractive indexNof lead-tin-telluride is calculated for frequencies near the fundamental absorption edge. The contribution toNfrom electron states near the band-edges is calculated more exactly than in previous works and a new expression for the contribution from the high frequency region is proposed. Good agreement is obtained between our calculations and experimental results. The change ofNdue to gain in injection laser is also calculated and it is shown that it cannot be neglected. View full abstract»

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  • Phase matching limitations of high efficiency second harmonic generation

    Page(s): 1178 - 1187
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    -A discussion of second harmonic generation with imperfect phase matching in the high conversion limit is presented. Phase modulation of the fundamental pulse, dispersion, central frequency wavevector mismatch, and fundamental depletion are included. The results show that even small amounts of phase modulation or central frequency wavevector mismatch can limit harmonic generation and must be considered at high conversion efficiency. Both spatial and temporal phase matching parameters are more restrictive at high conversion efficiency because of the narrowing of the central phase matching peak. If the harmonic conversion process is overdriven, severe distortion of the harmonic and transmitted fundamental pulses can result. Cascade harmonic generation of neodymium laser radiation to 266 nm is presented as an example. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of new optically pumped submillimeter-wave laser lines in deuterated fluoroform

    Page(s): 1170 - 1177
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    Over 300 new submillimeter-wave laser emission lines are predicted for the ν5band of deuterated fluoroform (CDF3) when isotopic CO2and N2O infrared pump lasers are used. These lines are calculated by using recently derived molecular constants that were determined by fitting known infrared, microwave, and submillimeter-wave transitions in CDF3. The calculated emissions (estimated accuracy generally within ± 1 MHz) should be useful to those with specific wavelength requirements. The molecule provides a rich choice of frequencies at approximately 20 GHz intervals extending from about 40 GHz to beyond 1 THz. This approach eliminates much of the usual trial-and-error technique of finding new submillimeter-wave emission lines. View full abstract»

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  • Long operating time CW atomic iodine probe laser at 1.315 µm

    Page(s): 1187 - 1196
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    A photolytically pumped longitudinal flow CW atomic iodine laser at1.315 mum with virtually an unlimited operating time and easy operation is reported. Several weeks of continual operation is easily attainable. The prolonged lasing is achieved by employing a passive closed cycle flow system of the C3F7I laser fuel. A high pressure dc Hg arc lamp is used for the photolytic pumping. Peak CW powers of 38 mW have been obtained along with good stability (∼1 percent amplitude fluctuations) in the fundamental TEM00mode via the use of an internal lens. View full abstract»

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  • Heterostructure semiconductor lasers prepared by molecular beam epitaxy

    Page(s): 1119 - 1132
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    0.72-0.88 mum (AlGa)As,1.3-1.65 mum GaInAsP and AlGa-InAs, and 1.78 μm AlGaSb double-heterostructure (DH) lasers were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. For AlGaAs DH lasers very low 300 K threshold current densities and long operating life (mean time to failure >106h at 300 K) were achieved and optical transmitters containing MBE-grown lasers have been field-tested. For lasers with lasing wavelength>1mum, MBE is in the development stage. The unique capabilities of MBE as an epitaxial growth technique and its important contributions to the field of optoelectronics are illustrated by a discussion of a new class of laser structures including quantum well heterostructure of GaAs/ AlxGa1-xAS and Ga0.47In0.53As/InP, double-barrier double-heterostructure, and graded-index waveguide separate-confinement-heretostructure lasers. These new lasers, made possible by MBE, have characteristics unmatched by conventional liquid phase epitaxial growth techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of the short pulse saturation properties of ultraviolet dyes with the XeCl laser

    Page(s): 1114 - 1117
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    Short pulse (∼ 2 ns) saturation properties at the XeCl wavelength of the UV dyes polyphenyl, BPBD, and BBQ show evidence of excited state absorption which could not be fully saturated. This may explain the difficulty in achieving very short pulses by passive mode locking of the excimer lasers. No evidence was found of photodessociation of the dye which could cause a long transmission recovery time. View full abstract»

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  • Exact derivation of the coupling coefficient in corrugated waveguides with rectangular tooth shape

    Page(s): 1132 - 1139
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    An exact analysis, based on local field expansion, is used in order to calculate the coupling coefficient in corrugated waveguide structures having rectangular tooth shape and small tooth height. In particular, the coupling coefficients for TE field polarization and TM field polarization are derived. It is shown that the expression for the TE coupling is identical with previous results based on the coupled wave formalism and on other techniques as well. This is a consequence of the formal validity of the equivalent index method for TE polarized waves. In the case of TM coupling, the equivalent index method does not hold and the expression for the coupling coefficient deviates significantly from the results obtained by the coupled mode formalism. View full abstract»

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  • Time-dependent semiclassical theory of gain-coupled distributed feedback lasers

    Page(s): 1202 - 1207
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    A semiclassical treatment of the time-dependent behavior of a gain-coupled, distributed feedback laser (DFL) has been developed. This treatment takes into account the field propagation within the DFL, and is therefore capable of predicting its behavior even for extremely short pump pulses. Comparisons are made to existing steady-state and transient theories where they are valid, showing good agreement, and new predictions are made of the behavior in the short pump pulse regime. It is found that the emitted pulse duration is dominated by the transit time through the pumped region. By studying the evolution of the field distribution inside the cavity, insight can be gained into the operation of the DFL. The effect of spatial hole burning in a gain-coupled DFL is treated and found to be small. View full abstract»

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  • Computer simulation of laser photon fluctuations: Theory of single-cavity laser

    Page(s): 1139 - 1148
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    This paper is the first of a series devoted to theoretical studies of photon fluctuations in the light output of semiconductor injection lasers. Statistics on laser photon fluctuations are collected by means of a simulation of the dynamic behavior of the laser based on numerical solutions of noise driven laser rate equations. This first paper in the series introduces the noise driven rate equations for a single-cavity laser, explains the method used for their numerical solution, and discusses some approximate analytical results. The second paper presents results of photon counting statistics for the single-cavity laser collected from numerical solutions of the time dependent equations. Additional papers in this series will concentrate on coupled-cavity and distributed feedback lasers. Comparison of these statistical results will show clearly the advantage of coupled-cavity and distributed feedback laser designs over conventional single (Fabry-Perot) cavity injection lasers. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University