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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 8 • Date August 1982

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 0
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  • Tunable lasers - An overview

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1179 - 1185
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    The purpose oft his editorial and the SpeciaIls sue on Tunable Lasers is to highlight the large number of research opportunities in the area of tunable lasers. The extensive list of applications provides both justification and a sense of urgency for research on tunable lasers. The Guest Editors hope that the objective has been reached. Ever since laser sources were first demonstrated, the idea of a tunable "radio-like" coherent source has been recognized as having a large number of potential applications. If, however, one searches abstracting services such as the Defense Technical Information Center or Physics Abstracts, there does not appear to be an aggressive pursuit of the goal of tunable lasers. The research activity that has gone on resulted in commercial tunable sources realized mainly by dye lasers or by nonlinear processes such as parametric oscillators. The ultimate tunable laser (at any wavelength) has not been developed, but its characteristics can be imagined; the ultimate tunable lasers in terms of practicability and simplicity certainly would be a stable, longlife, easily servicable material operating at room temperature, which via external settings may be tuned within its tunable range to any selected frequency. Recently, the discovery of alexandrite has in fact provided the first material that provides these characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of the Cassegrain and other beam expanders in high-power pulsed dye lasers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1208 - 1213
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
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    We have constructed and compared high peak power YAG-pumped dye lasers using a variety of beam expansion methods, particularly the Cassegrainian telescope, grazing-incidence, and achromaticprism beam expander designs. We find that the Cassegrainian design offers a modest advantage over the conventional Hänsch or refractive telescope design in larger magnification and hence, narrower linewidth, while retaining several inherent drawbacks in cost, alignment difficulty, and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) problems. New problems specific to the Cassegrainian design in high-power operation include limited wavelength range of the telescope secondary and a severe diffraction grating damage mechanism during alignment. We conclude that, on the whole, the Hänsch and Cassegrainian designs offer roughly equal performance. By comparison, the grazing-incidence design offers significant advantages in cost, ease of alignment, and linewidth without an etalon, but with reductions in efficiency, power output, and in some cases, wavelength stability. Our final judgment is that for high-power multimode operation, the four-prism achromatic beam expander is generally superior to the other designs. For single-mode operation, however, the prism design is rivaled by several ingenious grazing-incidence variations. View full abstract»

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  • A tunable CO2laser sideband spectrometer

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1214 - 1220
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    We describe a high-resolution spectrometer for the 9-11 \mu m wavelength region, which is tunable over 23 GHz wide regions below and above each of some 80 CO2laser lines. An electrooptic modulator mixes the frequency-stabilized CO2laser output (frequency fL) with tunable microwave signals (frequency fM) to produce tunable, spectrally pure ( \pm1 \times 10^{-8} ) sidebands in the IR, whose frequencies f_{L} \pm f_{M} are readily determined with high precision ( \pm2 \times 10^{-7} ). The design of traveling wave and resonant modulators and associated tuners is given and discussed. The usefulness of the instrument for high resolution absorption spectroscopy and as a tunable local oscillator for heterodyne spectroscopy is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • 1.5 µm range InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback lasers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1272 - 1278
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (8)
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    Lasing characteristics of InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback (DFB) lasers in the 1.5 μm range were studied theoretically and experimentally. Wave propagation in five-layer DFB waveguides were analyzed to estimate the effect of the structural parameters on threshold conditions. A brief consideration on designing a low threshold laser and its lasing wavelength was made. DFB buried heterostructure lasers with fundamental grating emitting at 1.53 μm were prepared by liquid phase epitaxial techniques. CW operation was confirmed in the temperature rangeof -20° to 58°C, and a CW threshold current was as low as 50 mA at room temperature. A stable single longitudinal mode operation was observed both in dc condition and in modulated condition by a pseudorandom pulse current at 500 Mbits/s. No significant increase in the threshold current was observed after 1400 h continuous CW operation at 20°C. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of chemical degradation products in an e-beam pumped rare-gas halide laser

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1302 - 1305
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Chemical degradation products created during the operation of an e -beam pumped, repetitively pulsed XeF laser with closed flow cycle capability are reported. From an initial lasing mixture of Ar/Xe/NF3, the degraded gas was found to contain N2F2(N2F4), CO2, nitrogen oxides, CF4, and SiF4. Gaseous species were identified by their infrared and ultraviolet absorption spectra. Also present was a solid material tentatively thought to consist of fluorocarbons and aluminum fluorides. The observed gas chemistry suggests methods for improving laser performance by prevention of contaminant buildup. View full abstract»

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  • Optical fiber telecommunications

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1311
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Coherent nonlinear optics, recent advances

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1311
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    First Page of the Article
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Measurement of spontaneous emission factor for injection lasers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1264 - 1271
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Accurate numerical simulation of the dynamic behavior of injection lasers requires accurate values for the parameters used in physical models. One such parameter which has been difficult to measure accurately in the past is the spontaneous emission factor or degree of coupling of spontaneous emission into the lasing modes. A numerical value for this spontaneous emission factor is obtained by distortion analysis of the optical output of a biased laser modulated by a small audio frequency sine wave. This technique can be used on either single or multimode lasers, and accounts for the different behavior of the different modes. Detailed studies were done on two different multi-mode devices, under varying thermal and modulation conditions. The values obtained by this technique for the spontaneous emission factor were of the order of 10-5and showed good agreement with the results using more conventional methods. Values of the spontaneous emission factor for different modes of the same device typically agree to within 10 percent. This is significantly better than other techniques whose results are typically good to within no better than a factor of two. View full abstract»

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  • Small signal gain and saturation intensity of 00° 1-[10°0, 02°0]I and IIvibrational band transitions in sealed-off CO2isotope lasers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1229 - 1236
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Effects due to Fermi resonance play a major role in determining the very significant variations of gain in the various CO2isotopes. We have measured the small signal gain coefficients and saturation parameters for five transitions ( J= 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 ) in each of the four rotational branches of the 00\deg 1-[10\deg 0, 02\deg 0] I and IIvibrational bands using sealed-off TEMooqmode oscillators and amplifiers. Isotopic species of pure12C16O2,12C18O2,13C16O2,13C18O2, and14C16O2were measured with4He-14N2-Xe gas additives under identical conditions. Substitutions of either15N2or13C16O instead of14N2were also tried. The results obtained may serve as guidelines in the design of sealed-off CO2lasers and amplifiers. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable pump laser stabilization of the optically pumped CF4laser

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1237 - 1239
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    This paper reports a study of tunable laser-pump requirements for stable optically pumped CF4operation. Using an extremely precise method of measurement, the width of the absorption feature associated with lasing was determined. The results demonstrate the feature to be extremely narrow (∼ 15 MHz in our optical configuration) and provide constraints on the tunable pump laser that must be included in the design of an efficient optically pumped laser system. View full abstract»

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  • Large dc-electric-field-induced nonlinear optical susceptibility of hydrogen atomic vapors

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1242 - 1246
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A unique set of circumstances makes the Rydberg states of atoms ideal for mediating tunable, resonantly enhanced, nonlinear optical interactions. The application of a dc electric field to a vapor of such atoms can induce a second-order or \chi ^{(2)} nonlinear susceptibility, which in the absence of the applied field would be forbidden by reasons of symmetry. This paper presents an exact expression, valid within the hydrogenic approximation for field strengths that produce a linear Stark effect, for the resonant contribution to the dc-electric-field-induced \chi ^{(2)} susceptibility. Numerical evaluation of this expression for field strengths of the order of 103V/cm predict \chi ^{(2)} susceptibilities hundreds of times larger than those of conventional mixing crystals. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical pumping of color center lasers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1202 - 1208
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    This paper presents an assessment of the feasibility of using electrical pumping to achieve laser action in color centers in the alkali halides. We discuss mainly the self-trapped exciton in the alkali halides, which is a prime candidate for such a pumping scheme because it is known to produce strong electroluminescence. The theory of electrical contacts to insulating crystals is reviewed, as is the theory of space-charge-limited currents in insulators. It is shown that sufficient energy can be delivered to an alkali halide crystal by a space-charge-limited current to reach the threshold for laser action. We present experimental evidence which demonstrates that when ohmic contact is made to a KI single crystal, large space-charge-limited currents can flow. Finally, from the measured value of the electroluminescent intensity we infer the value of the population inversion achieved through electrical pumping of KI with blocking contacts. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable infrared solid-state laser materials based on Cr3+in low ligand fields

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1189 - 1197
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A new class of solid-state tunable lasers based on Cr3+in low ligand field materials is described. Spectroscopic and calculated laser properties have been obtained for the4T2emission in two low field crystals: K2NaSc1-xCrxF6and Al1-xCrx(PO3)3. A comparison is made with two d3laser materials (Cr3+: alexandrite and V2+:MgF2. The prospect of expanding this class of materials is assessed. View full abstract»

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  • Mode reflectivity of narrow stripe-geometry double heterostructure lasers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1279 - 1286
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    The mode reflectivity of narrow stripe-geometry double heterostructure (DH) lasers is computed taking into account lateral (parallel to the junction) confinement in addition to transverse (normal to the junction) confinement. For most practical stripe width devices, the addition of lateral confinement insignificantly alters the reflectivity of the lowest order mode; calculations based upon transverse confinement alone (broad-area lasers) are analytically and numerically shown to provide an adequate description of the mirror reflectivities of most narrow stripe-geometry lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Scalable visible Nd:YAG pumped Raman laser source

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1246 - 1252
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (5)
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    Experimental and analytical studies of a 60 Hz, 0.45 W, 630 nm Raman laser source with a 12 ns pulse duration have demonstrated an overall electrical to optical efficiency of 0.12 percent. This is the first demonstration of a short pulse, high repetition rate red laser at such a high average output power without the need for a visible pump laser. Additional significance arises from the fact that simple extensions of the present work will produce many wavelengths in the visible and near infrared (IR) spectral region. A 1064 nm Nd:YAG pump laser operating at 60 Hz was used to pump a methane gas Raman laser operating at 1544 nm. This wavelength was mixed with the remaining 1064 nm laser output in noncritically phase matched lithium niobate to produce 630 nm radiation. The optical energy conversion efficiencies for the three steps were 1.4, 30, and 20 percent, respectively, for output energies of 86 mJ at 1064 nm, 15 mJ at 1544 nm, and 7.5 mJ at 630 nm. rms pulse amplitude variation measured 6 percent or less. A 10.7 million pulse life test was conducted, and the average output energy did not vary more than ±10 percent from its initial value. View full abstract»

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  • Phase front reproduction in Raman conversion

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1306 - 1310
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
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    The Raman gain coefficient for nonplanar pump wave is calculated. The gain dependence for wavefront reproducing Stokes conversion and for an injected plane Stokes wave on the pump beam quality is derived. The amount of plane Stokes wave injection required to generate a plane Stokes wave output is discussed. A comparison is given for the homogeneity requirement of the pump laser medium as reflected in the pump beam quality for the cases with and without Raman conversion for near diffraction limited output. The results indicate that with the appropriate plane Stokes wave injection, the medium homogeneity requirement of the laser can be relaxed. View full abstract»

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  • Far field asymmetry in narrow stripe gain-guided lasers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1287 - 1294
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A number of 5 μm stripe width shallow proton-bombarded double heterostructure (DH) AlGaAs LPE grown lasers show asymmetric light versus current characteristics and far fields. The optical power output above threshold is not the same for both faces at a given current. The far field patterns in the junction plane from the two mirrors are also different: the angular distribution of the optical power emitted in the junction plane is not the same for both mirrors. The asymmetry in the far fields is the subject of this paper. It is suggested that a large optical loss near the face with lower optical power output may explain the different far fields observed from the two mirrors. Possible explanations for the origin of this optical loss are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Status of CO2isotope lasers and their applications in tunable laser spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1220 - 1228
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
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    The use of CO2isotopes can provide a manifold expansion of the usable frequency range of sealed-off CO2lasers. Determination of the frequency, gain, and saturation parameter of the various CO2isotopic laser transitions will be discussed. Design considerations for constructing CO2isotopic lasers and selected applications will be presented. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable Cerenkov lasers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1259 - 1264
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (2)
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    The concept of a tunable Cerenkov laser is introduced and expressions for the operating wavelength and stimulated emission rate are developed. Emphasis is on the development of criteria which must be met if tunable far-infrared device operation is to be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of D2O-laser emission at 50, 66, 83, 111, and 116 µm

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1294 - 1301
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A D2O laser oscillator axially pumped by a TEA CO2laser operating on the 9P(32) line has been investigated. The laser emits five FIR lines whose emission characteristics are presented. For the three strongest lines (66, 111, and 116 μm) and an oscillator of length 45 cm, a single axial mode can be made to dominate. Special attention is drawn to the newly discovered and identified 111 μm line. View full abstract»

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  • Broad-band emission from chromium doped germanium garnets

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1197 - 1201
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    By varying the composition of a series of germanium garnets, it is possible to change the lattice constant of the structure over a wide range, and thus the crystal field. Three Cr-doped germanium garnets (Ca3Al2Ge3O12, CaY2Mg2Ge3O12, and MgY2Mg2Ge3O12) have been grown as single crystals. Spectroscopic results show that in these garnets the broad-band emission at room temperature is so strong that it totally dominates the R -line emission. The spectral region covered by emission from these crystals is from 700 nm to more than 1 μm. The room-temperature lifetimes range from 50 to 290μs. View full abstract»

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  • Pulse-pumped operation of divalent transition-metal lasers

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1185 - 1188
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)  

    The pulse-pumped operating characteristics of liquid-nitrogen-cooled Ni:MgF2, Co:MgF2, and Ni:CaY2Mg2Ge3O12(CAMGAR) solid-state lasers have been studied. The internal quantum efficiency of the Ni:MgF2laser was found to be limited to approximately 40 percent, presumably because of excited-state absorption. The Co:MgF2laser operated with near-unity quantum efficiency, and generated 150 mJ of diffraction-limited output at repetition rates up to 50 Hz. A continuous tuning range from 1.6 to 2.3 μm was observed along with Q -switched peak output powers of 80 kW. Laser operation from the garnet-structured crystal Ni:CAMGAR was obtained at a wavelength of 1.46 μm. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient multikilowatt mid infrared difference frequency generation in CdGeAs2

    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1239 - 1242
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Multikilowatt mid infrared emission with high pump photon conversion efficiency (∼ 15 percent) has been obtained by difference frequency generation in CdGeAs2utilizing the double wavelength output from a grating tuned twin-cavity TEA CO2system, one signal of which is frequency doubled to provide efficient synchronized sources for both pump and idler. Tuning over a spectral range 8-14 \mu m can be achieved and further extended to 17 μm using 12.8 μm emission from an efficient TEA CO2pumped NH3laser. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University