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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 11 • Date November 1978

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): 0
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  • Announcement of a change in associate editors

    Page(s): 789
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on quantum-electronic devices for optical-fiber communications

    Page(s): 790
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  • Characteristics of germanium avalanche photodiodes in the wavelength region of 1-1.6 µm

    Page(s): 804 - 809
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    Dark current, quantum efficiency, multiplication noise, and pulse response of germanium avalanche photodiodes with n+-p junction were studied to find an optimum structure. The dark current can be separated by graphical means into a leakage current component and a multiplied component which flows through the junction. The dark current components are also evaluated by using diodes with various diameters. The quantum efficiency and the multiplication noise are shown to be strongly affected by the n+ layer thickness. An n+ layer thickness optimized for signal-to-noise ratio is estimated from experimental and calculated results, using a figure of merit for avalanche photodiodes. The response waveform for mode-locked Nd:YAG laser shows a rise time of 100 ps and a half pulsewidth of less than 200 ps. View full abstract»

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  • p-n-p-n optical detectors and light-emitting diodes

    Page(s): 810 - 813
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    Light-emitting diodes with the high-radiance Burrus configuration have been made with an internal p-n-p-n structure which causes anS-type negative resistance. The devices were double heterostructures using InGaAsP material. By using the proper external load impedance and bias voltage, the negative resistance can be used to obtain bistable operation with switching from low current to high current triggered by a small current (e.g., 1 μA). Light coupled into the center junction can be used as the source of signal current. Since light output is proportional to the total current, this type of device can be used as a light-signal repeater. View full abstract»

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  • On the design of neodymium miniature lasers

    Page(s): 831 - 839
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    A general approach to an optimum design of miniature Nd lasers is described. Operation at 1.05 as well as 1.32 μm is considered. Maximum power output is the main criterion, and the consequences on the choice of material, neodymium concentration, laser dimensions, and pumping scheme are deduced. As an illustration, the design procedure and functioning of an Nd-pentaphosphate laser side-pumped by LED arrays are described. Pulsed operation is obtained with the laser crystal held at -13.5°C, and CW operation is possible below -49°C, the planar LED arrays being held at room temperature. View full abstract»

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  • A universal fiber-optic (UFO) measurement system based on a near-IR fiber Raman laser

    Page(s): 855 - 859
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    A universal fiber-optic measurement system, which is useful for measuring loss and dispersion in the1.06-1.6 mum wavelength region, is described. The source is a silica fiber Raman laser pumped by a mode-locked andQ-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 μm. Subnanosecond multiple-Stokes pulses in the1.1-1.6 mum wavelength region are generated in a low-loss single-mode silica fiber. The use of this near-infrared fiber Raman laser for characterizing various transmission properties of single and multimode test fibers is demonstrated. Loss spectra, intramodal dispersion, and intermodal dispersion data are obtained in the wavelength region of minimum loss and minimum material dispersion for silica fibers. View full abstract»

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  • A fiber Raman ring laser

    Page(s): 860 - 862
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    A fiber Raman ring laser was synchronously pumped by a cavity-dumped argon laser. The Raman laser was tuned with either a piezoelectric intracavity interferometer or by varying the pump pulse rate. View full abstract»

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  • Amplitude stability improvement of CW submiltimeter wave lasers with phase modulated optical pumping

    Page(s): 867 - 870
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    An experimentally measured reduction of 4:1 in the amplitude fluctuation of an optically pumped CW-submillimeter wave laser was achieved using a mirror, vibrating at audio frequencies, to decouple the pump beam reflected back to a CO2pump laser. An expression is derived for the peak frequency deviation of the pump laser due to a phase modulated feedback signal. View full abstract»

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  • Optical communications

    Page(s): 900
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    First Page of the Article
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): 0
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  • Spatial distribution of radiative recombination rate, time delays, and Q switching in single heterostructure lasers

    Page(s): 872 - 882
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    In this paper, we study spatial distribution of the radiative recombination rate and influence of the change redistribution due to joule heating during the current pulse on the time delay andQswitching. This is a direct consequence of the perturbation of refractive index of the active region by injected carriers. View full abstract»

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  • High-speed optical pulse transmission at 1.29-µm wavelength using low-loss single-mode fibers

    Page(s): 791 - 800
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    Optical-fiber transmission experiments in the 1.3-μm wavelength region are reported. GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure semiconductor laser emitting at 1.293 μm is modulated directly in nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) codes at digit rates tanging from 100 Mbit/s to 1.2 Gbit/s. Its output is transmitted through low-loss GeO2-doped single-mode silica fibers in 11-km lengths. Transmitted optical signals are detected by a high-speed Ge avalanche photodiode. Overall loss of the 11-km optical fibers, including 11 splices, is 15.5 dB at 1.3 μm. Average received optical power levels necessary for 10-9error rate are -39.9 dBm at 100 Mbit/s and -29.1 dBm at 1.2 Gbit/s. In the present system configuration, the repeater spacing is limited by loss rather than dispersion. It seems feasible that a more than 30 km repeater spacing at 100 Mbit/s and a more than 20 km even at 1.2 Gbit/s can be realized with low-loss silica fiber cables, whose loss is less than 1 dB/km. Distinctive features and problems associated with this experimental system and constituent devices are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Third-harmonic generation in a mixture of DBr and N2O

    Page(s): 871 - 872
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    Third-harmonic generation of CO2P(24) 10.6 mum laser radiation was achieved in a mixture of DBr and N2O. The ratio of DBr and N2O used was 29:1. A frequency tripled signal was observed up to a total pressure of 4 atm. View full abstract»

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  • Programmable optical guided-wave device using Bi12SiO20crystal

    Page(s): 848 - 854
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    A new type of optical guided wave device, consisting of two-dimensional optical refractive-index patterns that can be written in and erased optically, is proposed and demonstrated. This programmable optical guided-wave device utilizes the combination of three physical properties of bismuth silicon oxide (Bi12SiO20) crystal: a large electrooptic effect, a strongly wavelength-dependent photoconductivity effect, and a high dark resistivity with long carrier trapping time. View full abstract»

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  • Optical switching device using leaky surface wave

    Page(s): 863 - 865
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    The decay constants of leaky surface waves in an indiffused LiNbO3Y-cut plane propagation can be controlled by electro-optic effect. According to our calculation, we can obtain about 20 dB/ cm optical switching devices for applied electric field of 3 V/μm. Our experiments show that optical switching of 14 dB/cm can be obtained for 300 V/150 μm. View full abstract»

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  • High sensitivity optical receivers for 1.0-1.4 µm fiber-optic systems

    Page(s): 800 - 804
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    The performance of high-speed, high-quantum-efficiency GaAlAsSb avalanche photodetectors suitable for a1.0-1.4 mum high-performance fiber-optical communication system is described. The incorporation of these APD's with state-of-the-art GaAs FET electronics can lead to hybrid integrated optical receivers with 10-20 times better sensitivity at a 100-MHz bandwidth than is available with germanium APD's. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of light versus current characteristic of an injection laser using an optoisolator

    Page(s): 865 - 867
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    A simple circuit which models the light-versus-current (L-I) transfer characteristic of a semiconductor injection laser is described. It is suitable for use in developing circuits for lightwave transmitters so that damage to the laser from transients can be avoided. Features include adjustment in lasing threshold, and differential quantum efficiency. Also a nonlinearity (kink) can be placed in the simulatedL-Icharacteristic, emulating a feature often seen in actual lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical and experimental studies on active Y-junctions in optical waveguides

    Page(s): 883 - 892
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    Theoretical and experimental results are presented on single-modeY-junction switching devices in Ti-diffused LiNbO3waveguides. The operation of these devices relies on a redistribution, by means of the elcctrooptic effect, of the power in the input waveguide before it is transmitted to the output waveguides of theY-junction. Measured performance is shown to be predicted satisfactorily by a theoretical model of aY-junction in homogeneous, planar waveguide. Transmission losses of less than 1 dB and extinction ratios of about 15 dB have been obtained in a device with a junction half-angle of 0.57°. View full abstract»

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  • Optooptic modulation based on gain saturation

    Page(s): 893 - 900
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    A technique has been developed for obtaining efficient modulation of an optical signal. It is shown that the presence of a small optical bias signal on an appropriately designed laser amplifier can lead to a substantial change in another much larger signal. The resulting modulators are in many respects the optical analogs of conventional electronic transistors, and several applications are considered. View full abstract»

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  • Filter characteristics of codirectionally coupled waveguides with weighted coupling

    Page(s): 843 - 847
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    Filter-sidelobe suppression of codirectionally coupled optical waveguides with spatially tapered coupling strength is examined. The filter responses for several taper functions with low Fourier transform sidelobes are calculated, and the resulting channel densities when used for wavelength multiplexing are compared. For a 30 dB crosstalk level, all the taper functions considered yield at least a tenfold increase in the number of carrier channels over untapered filters. The filter response for a quantized taper that results from conventional fabrication procedures is also considered. View full abstract»

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  • Laser emission from miniaturized NdAl3(BO3)4crystals with directly applied mirrors

    Page(s): 840 - 843
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    Laser emission from NdAl3(BO3)4crystals of various thickness with directly applied laser mirrors was investigated on a polarization-dependent basis and time-resolved spectra were recorded. CW monomode operation with an output power of 5 mW was attained. Though NAB (NdAl3(BO3)4should be electrooptic (space groupR32), no electrooptic effect was observed by determining the mode shift from the influence of an electric field during laser operation. View full abstract»

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  • Beamwidth approximations for the fundamental mode in symmetric double-heterojunction lasers

    Page(s): 827 - 830
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    The beamwidth for the fundamental TE0mode in symmetric DH lasers is approximated within 4 percent by analytical formulas covering wide ranges of cavity thickness and refractive index steps. By using a Gaussian approximation for near-field distributions, and numerically calculated beamwidth curves, we find a Gaussian beam-like expression for the beamwidth, over the range1.5 < D < 6, whereDis the normalized guide thickness. In the nonGaussian region0 < D < 1.5, the beamwidth is estimated by using a corrected Dumke-like asymptotic approximation. View full abstract»

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  • The nonlinearity of high-radiance light-emitting diodes

    Page(s): 813 - 819
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    Distortion measurements have been performed on a series of Burrus-type LED's as a function of device structure, type of dopant, and dopant concentration in the active layer of devices. The results of measurements show that the total harmonic distortion (THD) in double heterostructure LED's is relatively insensitive to the type and amount of dopant in the active layer provided the ratio of the active layer thicknessdto diffusion lengthLis less than one. Ford/L > 1an improvement in THD is observed by about 20 dB to a value of -50 dB at 100 mA dc and 100 mA peak-to-peak modulation currents. The improvement in the linearity is attributed to the reduction of the influence of the heterostructure boundary on the minority carriers in the active layer of LED's. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of the homogeneous degradation of injection laser parameters from initial degradation rates

    Page(s): 819 - 826
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    The change of operating parameters above threshold of (Ga, Al)As injection lasers with aging time was calculated assuming a uniform mode of degradation mechanism with temperature-dependent degradation rates. In the calculation, the degradation rate for the threshold current was assumed to be temperature dependent, but not explicitly dependent on aging time and pumping current. Optical output power was kept constant during aging. The calculated time variation of laser parameters predicts a runaway after an initial slow rise. The mathematical model thus provides the means to correlate time-to-failure data with initial degradation rates and permits the evaluation of the influence of various laser parameters on lifetime. A selected group of laser diodes were aged at 80 °C under the conditions specified by the model. Degradation rates for the threshold current varied between4 times 10^{-5}and5 times 10^{-4}h-1. These would extrapolate to lifetimes in excess of 10 000 h at the elevated temperature for half of the diodes in reasonable agreement with experimental values obtained by others. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University