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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 4  Part 1 • Date April 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A study of a forced mode locked CW dye laser

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 101 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2942 KB)  

    A forced mode locked dye laser system capable of ultra-short pulse formation is examined experimentally, and the magnitudes and relative timing of the dye pulse, the pumping pulse, and the fluorescence are measured. Significant fast inversion loss of the gain medium is noted, and, for normal mode locked operation, only one pulse is observed to circulate in the cavity. A simplified model of the operation of the dye laser, based on a recent theory by Haus, is presented, and is seen to reproduce the main features of the experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Guest editorial

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 121
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • On a rigorous calculation of the efficiency for coupling light power into optical waveguides

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 165 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A generalized scattering matrices theory for open junctions between two dielectric waveguides is given, taking into account free modes and evanescent modes. This theory results in a formula giving the power launched from some incident wave into some guided mode as a cross product between the incident field and the field which is radiated by the junction when it is illuminated by the mode of interest. This formula includes the effect of evanescent modes in the coupling process; actually this effect may be neglected in optics except in the case of a very thin waveguide very close to a strongly divergent GaAs laser. A quantitative comparison between our theory and previous works is done in the case of coupling through the end of a slab waveguide; a coupling formula given by Marcuse proves to be accurate after a very simple correction describing the reflection at the end of the guide; good results are equally obtained from a formula proposed by Snyder. However, noticeable errors can be made when more general fields, such as those encountered in a GaAs-laser waveguide coupling experiment, are approximated by Gaussian fields. View full abstract»

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  • Absorption spectroscopy in scattering samples using integrated optics

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 173 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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    Conventional spectrophotometric methods for measuring the concentration of light-absorbing material in a sample require that the sample be transparent. If scatterers are present they disturb the absorption measurement. An example of this sort is the determination of the constituents in blood plasma. Red blood cells interfere with a direct optical measurement if they are not removed. Theory and experimental results are presented for an integrated optics device which can perform absorption spectroscopic measurements of blood plasma with scatterers present. For a device which measured plasma bilirubin concentration, guided wave attentuation of less than 0.01 dB/cm due to red cell scattering was observed. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of an integrated twin-guide laser with coupled-wave theory

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 201 - 206
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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    The integrated twin-guide (ITG) laser consists of two parallel waveguides for the laser gain and the light output. Light-wave coupling between the two waveguides is analyzed with the help of coupled-wave theory, and the frequency-dependent oscillation conditions are obtained in an explicit form. It is concluded that single axial-mode oscillation is more realizable in an asymmetrical structure with shorter cavity length than in a symmetrical structure. This method of analysis can be applied to integrated optical circuits consisting of twin-guide structures. View full abstract»

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  • A modified zigzag-ray model of light propagation in a dielectric slab waveguide

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 215 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A modified zigzag-ray model of light propagation, in which the Goos-Hänchen shift and the associated time delay are included, is used to examine the applicability of a conventional zigzag-ray model for the calculation of the impulse response of a multimode cladded optical fiber. As a model of the fiber, a symmetric slab waveguide is considered, and it is shown that there exists a considerable discrepancy in the durations of the impulse responses calculated from the modified and conventional ray models, even for a very large value of the film thickness to wavelength ratio. View full abstract»

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  • A frequency-multiplexing light source with monolithically integrated distributed-feedback diode lasers

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 220 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1529 KB)  

    The details of the fabrication and performances of a monolithically integrated frequency-multiplexing light source are presented. The light source consists of six GaAs-GaAlAs distributed-feedback (DFB) diode lasers with different grating periods and passive GaAlAs waveguides. By changing the grating periods by ∼9 Å, the lasers lase with different wavelengths with a separation of ∼20 Å. Laser output beams are guided and collected into a single launching waveguide through bends and confluence regions. The overall differential quantum efficiency of about 0.3 percent is obtained at the launching output terminal. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic laser/waveguide coupling by evanescent fields

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 253 - 255
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
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    Evanescent field coupling without phase matching between a double heterostructure, monolithic laser and an "external" waveguide is reported. Coupling efficiencies as high as 25 percent have been obtained. View full abstract»

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  • An integrated-optical approach to the Fourier transform

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 268 - 275
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (2)
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    A wide-band real-time spectrum analyzer is examined as a viable integrated optical circuit for processing electronic signals. The spectrum analyzer includes a Luneburg beam expansion lens system, a surface elastooptic Bragg spatial modulator, reflectors, a Luneburg Fourier-transform lens, and a waveguide coupled photodetector array, all formed on thermally grown SiO2on Si as the substrate. A distributed-feedback (GaAl)As laser with hybrid coupling is included as the carrier for the optical Fourier transform. The developmental status of this integrated-optical spectrum analyzer and its essential design considerations are delineated. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of optical-waveguide lens technologies

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 275 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2877 KB)  

    Various materials, lens structures, and processes are examined relative to the lens requirements of an RF spectrum-analyzer implemented through the use of an integrated-optics format. Factors which distinguish optical-waveguide lenses and reflectors from conventional imaging lens systems are enumerated. It is concluded that a thin-film Luneburg lens is the most viable planar approach based upon the use of oxides and, when high refractive-index materials must be employed, the spherical depressed geodesic becomes a feasible alternate. View full abstract»

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  • An integrated optical waveguide and charge-coupled-device image array

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 282 - 287
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2386 KB)  

    The device structure and experimental operation of an integrated optical waveguide and charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array are considered. The use of silicon as a substrate allows direct fabrication of the CCD detector array and a thermally oxidized layer of SiO2forms an effective substrate for waveguide deposition. The detector array is composed of a two-phase overlapping-gate CCD with first-level polycrystalline silicon electrodes and second-level aluminum electrodes connected in parallel by means of a series of gates to an array of pbotodiodes. In the photodiode region the SiO2layer is tapered to a termination so that with minimal scatter, light is multiply refracted into the detector region. The center-to-center detector element spacing of the device fabricated and successfully operated is 32 μm. Optimum detector length is considered as a function of waveguide thickness. The integrated waveguide-CCD array is expected to become an integral part of various signal-processing devices. View full abstract»

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  • Fast optical modulation of 10.6-µm radiation in GaAs waveguides by electrical injection

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 305 - 306
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    A GaAs p+-n-n+ diode has been used to study modulation of guided 1.15- and 10.6-μm radiation by electrical injection of free carriers. After irradiation with high-energy electrons to reduce the electron-hole recombination time, device rise and fall times in the nanosecond region are observed. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Design of integrated optical switches for use in fiber data transmission systems

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 122 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2184 KB)  

    We consider the design of polarization-insensitive multiple section microoptical switches/modulators. The ability to process arbitrarily polarized light is critical to the use of integrated optical devices with glass fiber transmission lines, due to the rapid changes in polarization state of light propagating in glass fibers. We show that multiple-section \Delta \beta -reversal switches have less severe fabricational tolerances than single-section switches, and can be made polarization independent. We present design criteria and describe the tradeoffs involved in fabricating practical devices. View full abstract»

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  • Nanosecond switching and amplification of multiline HF laser pulses

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 97 - 100
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    Electrooptic gating and amplification of Pulses with durations from 1 to 5 ns were accomplished with a pulsed HF chemical laser system using SF6-hydrocarbon media and transverse-discharge energization. The system comprised an apertured, pin-discharge multiline oscillator, a MgF2Rochon prism polarizer, a Pockels-effect, fast electrooptic switch, a 5:1 magnifying telescope, and a 22-mm diam, ∼ 5-MW TEA amplifier, together with several arrangements of polarization analyzer elements. A 5-mm, square-sectioned electrooptic crystal of CdTe or LiNbO3yielded polarization contrast ratios of \sim 80:1 under zero and half-wave electric fields. Without other measures, this contrast in gated amplitude was diminished in passage through the partially gain-saturated amplifier. However, 80:1 amplitude contrast in the gated, amplified pulse was preserved when file full oscillator beam intensity was used continuously to control the amplifier gain. This was done either with a polarization discriminator placed downstream of the amplifier, or with the two polarized components from the gate taking separate directions, intersecting within the amplifier. View full abstract»

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  • Metal-clad waveguide as cutoff polarizer for integrated optics

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 141 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1616 KB)  

    Propagation constants, attenuation, and field distributions of optical modes in dielectric waveguides clad by a thin metal layer are calculated. It is shown that by reducing the metal thickness, the attenuation of optical modes reduces in such a way that short metal-clad devices become possible even in thin guides with thicknesses near cutoff. As an application, a cutoff polarizer in symmetrical waveguides has been built by depositing a small thin silver stripe on the surface of the guide. By this structure the TE0mode is coupled out into the substrate, whereas the TM0mode is transmitted with very low losses. The best extinction ratio measured is 18 dB. The polarizer can be used as a TE0mode coupler into symmetrical waveguides as well. View full abstract»

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  • Convolution using guided acoustooptical interaction in thin-film waveguides

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 208 - 215
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Interaction of two antiparallel acoustic surface waves (ASW) with an optical guided wave has been investigated theoretically as well as experimentally to obtain the convolution of two ASW signals. The maximum time-bandwidth product that can be achieved by such a convolver is shown to be of the order of 1000 or more. The maximum dynamic range can be as large as 83 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Coupled wave analysis of DFB and DBR lasers

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 134 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (83)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2296 KB)  

    The familiar coupled mode equations are extended in a self-consistent fashion to include radiation and other partial wave coupling effects in distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers, as well as orthogonal radiating couplers. This general formulation takes into account the joint interaction of the two coherent contradirectional guided waves with arbitrarily shaped gratings. In addition to the modified coupled mode equations, which contain added constants characterizing the interactions, expressions for radiated waves are also obtained. A particular waveguide geometry is studied in detail. The interaction constants are evaluated for all Bragg orders up to the fourth and various blazing angles. Then the equations are solved for both a DBR and DFB laser. In the former case it is shown that the reflection is smaller than that computed without the interaction constants. Furthermore, reflection is asymmetrical relative to the Bragg condition. The DFB laser is shown to have an asymmetrical longitudinal mode structure even for symmetrical boundary conditions and to have only slightly higher thresholds than previously calculated. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed capacitance of planar electrodes in optic and acoustic surface wave devices

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 152 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1968 KB)  

    The distributed capacitance of the periodic grating, the 2- electrode, and the 3-electrode stripline waveguide modulators are derived exactly using conformal mapping techniques. The capacitance formulas are shown to have a common form; they differ in a single parameter which is simply related to the electrode width and spacing. Discrepancies previously found in the capacitance expressions used for the 2-electrode structure are resolved. For the finite 3-electrode structure studied here, a self- and a mutual distributed capacitance are defined. Techniques for switching a 3-electrode directional coupler are suggested. The closed form mapping function derived here will be useful in the design of waveguide directional couplers. The electrode structures examined here are similar to those used in surface acoustic wave devices; therefore, the capacitance calculations should also be applicable. View full abstract»

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  • Design considerations of the DBR injection laser and the waveguiding structure for integrated optics

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 176 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3648 KB)  

    In this paper, we analyze the operation of the distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) injection laser with an emphasis on compatibility with the integrated-optics concept. First, methods of computing the coupling constant are reviewed and the results are compared. A general agreement is found. Next, the reflection and transmission coefficients for both lossless and lossy Bragg reflectors are examined for their dependencies on the coupling constant, the reflector length, the loss constant in the reflector region, and the operating wavelength. The computed results are then applied to analyzing experimental results on DBR GaAs double-heterostructure (DH) injection lasers. A general agreement between the theory and the experiment is found. From the analysis, it appears possible for the DBR injection laser to operate in single mode with sufficient output power, low threshold, and good efficiency by proper design of the laser structure and significant loss reduction in the reflector region. A waveguiding structure is considered for loss reduction and for eventual incorporation of the laser into an integrated optical circuit. The stress is on a single liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE) step for the fabrication of the structure. Additional pre-LPE and post-LPE steps are suggested for fabrication and isolation of different optical devices. View full abstract»

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  • Mode coupling and distributed feedback lasers in periodic fiber waveguides

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 145 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2016 KB)  

    Coupling between transverse electric guided modes in a fiber with a periodic perturbation of the index of refraction in either the core or the cladding is studied. The application of periodic fiber waveguides to distributed feedback lasers is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Infrared electrooptic waveguides

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 159 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2320 KB)  

    Design, fabrication and performance of low-loss infrared optical waveguides suitable for broad-band electrooptic modulation of CO2lasers are described. For high-power applications, a two-dimensional tapered ridge waveguide, which is fabricated by the ion-beam milling technique and bonded on a copper heat sink, is found to be the best choice. With a 15-W CO2laser of a beam size ≤ 1 mm in diameter, we have experimentally obtained 78 percent power coupling in and out of a tapered waveguide, while keeping the electrode loss to a minimum value of 0.05 cm-1and eliminating beam distortion. These bonded-down GaAs thin-slab modulators on copper substrates, with typical dimensions of 1 cm wide, 4.5 cm long, and 25 μm thick, have been tested with intense optical and microwave fields at a combined power input up to 100 W. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement on positive-permittivity metal-clad waveguides

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 187 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2000 KB)  

    A few metals exhibit a permittivity whose real part is positive at \lambda _{0} = 632.8 nm, in contrast to most metals which have a permittivity with a large, negative real part. The effects of two metals, chromium and germanium, have been measured when used as claddings on polystyrene asymmetrical waveguides. The measurements confirm recent theoretical predictions, and indicate attenuations greater than an order of magnitude over measured attenuations in silver, aluminum, and gold. Techniques used in making measurements of attenuations up to 100 dB/cm are described, and experimental values are compared with predicted attenuations. They are shown to agree with calculated values when additional mode-conversion losses are taken into account. The measured mode-index data also confirm the presence of guided modes which have a mode index less than that of the second cladding region (air). Such a propagating wave has been shown to exist in both of the metal claddings examined. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency response of CO2laser coupling modulation near intermode spacing frequencies

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 114 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    The experimental proof for the existence of frequency-response distortions due to cold cavity modes in the output of a coupling-modulated CO2laser is presented. As expected from theory, severe distortions occur if the retardation bias approaches a value where coupling loss and cavity loss are of comparable magnitude. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University