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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 4  Part 1 • Date April 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A study of a forced mode locked CW dye laser

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 101 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2942 KB)  

    A forced mode locked dye laser system capable of ultra-short pulse formation is examined experimentally, and the magnitudes and relative timing of the dye pulse, the pumping pulse, and the fluorescence are measured. Significant fast inversion loss of the gain medium is noted, and, for normal mode locked operation, only one pulse is observed to circulate in the cavity. A simplified model of the operation of the dye laser, based on a recent theory by Haus, is presented, and is seen to reproduce the main features of the experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Guest editorial

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 121
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • On a rigorous calculation of the efficiency for coupling light power into optical waveguides

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 165 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A generalized scattering matrices theory for open junctions between two dielectric waveguides is given, taking into account free modes and evanescent modes. This theory results in a formula giving the power launched from some incident wave into some guided mode as a cross product between the incident field and the field which is radiated by the junction when it is illuminated by the mode of interest. This formula includes the effect of evanescent modes in the coupling process; actually this effect may be neglected in optics except in the case of a very thin waveguide very close to a strongly divergent GaAs laser. A quantitative comparison between our theory and previous works is done in the case of coupling through the end of a slab waveguide; a coupling formula given by Marcuse proves to be accurate after a very simple correction describing the reflection at the end of the guide; good results are equally obtained from a formula proposed by Snyder. However, noticeable errors can be made when more general fields, such as those encountered in a GaAs-laser waveguide coupling experiment, are approximated by Gaussian fields. View full abstract»

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  • Absorption spectroscopy in scattering samples using integrated optics

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 173 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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    Conventional spectrophotometric methods for measuring the concentration of light-absorbing material in a sample require that the sample be transparent. If scatterers are present they disturb the absorption measurement. An example of this sort is the determination of the constituents in blood plasma. Red blood cells interfere with a direct optical measurement if they are not removed. Theory and experimental results are presented for an integrated optics device which can perform absorption spectroscopic measurements of blood plasma with scatterers present. For a device which measured plasma bilirubin concentration, guided wave attentuation of less than 0.01 dB/cm due to red cell scattering was observed. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of an integrated twin-guide laser with coupled-wave theory

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 201 - 206
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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    The integrated twin-guide (ITG) laser consists of two parallel waveguides for the laser gain and the light output. Light-wave coupling between the two waveguides is analyzed with the help of coupled-wave theory, and the frequency-dependent oscillation conditions are obtained in an explicit form. It is concluded that single axial-mode oscillation is more realizable in an asymmetrical structure with shorter cavity length than in a symmetrical structure. This method of analysis can be applied to integrated optical circuits consisting of twin-guide structures. View full abstract»

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  • A modified zigzag-ray model of light propagation in a dielectric slab waveguide

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 215 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A modified zigzag-ray model of light propagation, in which the Goos-Hänchen shift and the associated time delay are included, is used to examine the applicability of a conventional zigzag-ray model for the calculation of the impulse response of a multimode cladded optical fiber. As a model of the fiber, a symmetric slab waveguide is considered, and it is shown that there exists a considerable discrepancy in the durations of the impulse responses calculated from the modified and conventional ray models, even for a very large value of the film thickness to wavelength ratio. View full abstract»

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  • A frequency-multiplexing light source with monolithically integrated distributed-feedback diode lasers

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 220 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1529 KB)  

    The details of the fabrication and performances of a monolithically integrated frequency-multiplexing light source are presented. The light source consists of six GaAs-GaAlAs distributed-feedback (DFB) diode lasers with different grating periods and passive GaAlAs waveguides. By changing the grating periods by ∼9 Å, the lasers lase with different wavelengths with a separation of ∼20 Å. Laser output beams are guided and collected into a single launching waveguide through bends and confluence regions. The overall differential quantum efficiency of about 0.3 percent is obtained at the launching output terminal. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic laser/waveguide coupling by evanescent fields

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 253 - 255
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
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    Evanescent field coupling without phase matching between a double heterostructure, monolithic laser and an "external" waveguide is reported. Coupling efficiencies as high as 25 percent have been obtained. View full abstract»

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  • An integrated-optical approach to the Fourier transform

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 268 - 275
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2809 KB)  

    A wide-band real-time spectrum analyzer is examined as a viable integrated optical circuit for processing electronic signals. The spectrum analyzer includes a Luneburg beam expansion lens system, a surface elastooptic Bragg spatial modulator, reflectors, a Luneburg Fourier-transform lens, and a waveguide coupled photodetector array, all formed on thermally grown SiO2on Si as the substrate. A distributed-feedback (GaAl)As laser with hybrid coupling is included as the carrier for the optical Fourier transform. The developmental status of this integrated-optical spectrum analyzer and its essential design considerations are delineated. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of optical-waveguide lens technologies

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 275 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2877 KB)  

    Various materials, lens structures, and processes are examined relative to the lens requirements of an RF spectrum-analyzer implemented through the use of an integrated-optics format. Factors which distinguish optical-waveguide lenses and reflectors from conventional imaging lens systems are enumerated. It is concluded that a thin-film Luneburg lens is the most viable planar approach based upon the use of oxides and, when high refractive-index materials must be employed, the spherical depressed geodesic becomes a feasible alternate. View full abstract»

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  • An integrated optical waveguide and charge-coupled-device image array

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 282 - 287
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2386 KB)  

    The device structure and experimental operation of an integrated optical waveguide and charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array are considered. The use of silicon as a substrate allows direct fabrication of the CCD detector array and a thermally oxidized layer of SiO2forms an effective substrate for waveguide deposition. The detector array is composed of a two-phase overlapping-gate CCD with first-level polycrystalline silicon electrodes and second-level aluminum electrodes connected in parallel by means of a series of gates to an array of pbotodiodes. In the photodiode region the SiO2layer is tapered to a termination so that with minimal scatter, light is multiply refracted into the detector region. The center-to-center detector element spacing of the device fabricated and successfully operated is 32 μm. Optimum detector length is considered as a function of waveguide thickness. The integrated waveguide-CCD array is expected to become an integral part of various signal-processing devices. View full abstract»

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  • Fast optical modulation of 10.6-µm radiation in GaAs waveguides by electrical injection

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 305 - 306
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    A GaAs p+-n-n+ diode has been used to study modulation of guided 1.15- and 10.6-μm radiation by electrical injection of free carriers. After irradiation with high-energy electrons to reduce the electron-hole recombination time, device rise and fall times in the nanosecond region are observed. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 0
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Chirped gratings in integrated optics

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 296 - 304
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (6)
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    Gratings with variable periods (chirped gratings) have been fabricated by recording the interference pattern of a collimated laser beam with a converging beam generated by a cylindrical lens. An analysis is presented for the behavior of the chirped gratings as a function of wavelength, the angle between the illuminating beams, the F number of the lens, and its position. To calculate the power radiated into air, the coupled-mode equations are solved for the case of a waveguide with chirped surface corrugation. Experimentally, chirped gratings have been etched on the surface of an optical waveguide and used to couple light out of the waveguide. It was found that the light was focused outside the waveguide, and the fraction of the power radiated into air compared favorably with the theoretical calculation. The focal point outside the waveguide was found to move by about 1 cm when the wavelength was changed by 500 Å-in agreement with theoretical estimates. View full abstract»

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  • Periodic structures for integrated optics

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 233 - 253
    Cited by:  Papers (64)  |  Patents (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5608 KB)  

    This paper deals with the theory and device applications of periodic thin-film waveguides. Topics treated include mode solutions, optical filters, distributed feedback lasers (DFB), distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers, grating couplers, and phase matching in nonlinear interactions. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency response of CO2laser coupling modulation near intermode spacing frequencies

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 114 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The experimental proof for the existence of frequency-response distortions due to cold cavity modes in the output of a coupling-modulated CO2laser is presented. As expected from theory, severe distortions occur if the retardation bias approaches a value where coupling loss and cavity loss are of comparable magnitude. View full abstract»

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  • Infrared third-harmonic generation in phase matched CO gas

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 109 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Resonance-enhanced third-harmonic generation (THG) of CO2laser radiation has been studied in CO and NO. It is shown that the coherence length for THG in CO can be increased by adding SF6and that phase matching occurs for a CO:SF6ratio of 208:1. The pressure dependence of the third-harmonic conversion efficiency in CO-SF6mixtures has been measured up to 11 atm, and the results are in good agreement with calculated values for the coherence length and the third-order susceptibility tensor. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement on positive-permittivity metal-clad waveguides

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 187 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    A few metals exhibit a permittivity whose real part is positive at \lambda _{0} = 632.8 nm, in contrast to most metals which have a permittivity with a large, negative real part. The effects of two metals, chromium and germanium, have been measured when used as claddings on polystyrene asymmetrical waveguides. The measurements confirm recent theoretical predictions, and indicate attenuations greater than an order of magnitude over measured attenuations in silver, aluminum, and gold. Techniques used in making measurements of attenuations up to 100 dB/cm are described, and experimental values are compared with predicted attenuations. They are shown to agree with calculated values when additional mode-conversion losses are taken into account. The measured mode-index data also confirm the presence of guided modes which have a mode index less than that of the second cladding region (air). Such a propagating wave has been shown to exist in both of the metal claddings examined. View full abstract»

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  • Broad-band traveling-wave modulator using a LiNbO3optical waveguide

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 287 - 290
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1240 KB)  

    A traveling-wave electrooptic phase modulator using a Ti-in-diffused LiNbO3optical waveguide was designed and constructed with emphasis placed on broad-band operation. As a microwave waveguide, a coplanar parallel stripline of aluminum with characteristic impedance of 48 Ω was fabricated on the crystal surface. The electrodes are 1.5 μm thick, 1 cm long, and 60 μm apart. The modulator was tested at 0.63 μm over a bandwidth of 7.5 GHz. For 250-mW drive power, the measured phase-modulation index was 1 rad up to about 3 GHz and reduced to 0.5 tad at 7.5 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Electrooptic-distributed Bragg-reflection modulators for integrated optics

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 206 - 208
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB)  

    The electrooptic-distributed Bragg-reflection modulators having periodically corrugated surfaces are proposed. Principles of distributed-feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg-reflector (DBR) modulators are outlined and discussed. Calculations for the power per unit bandwidth indicate that the DBR modulator is much more effective than the DFB modulator. View full abstract»

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  • Design of integrated optical switches for use in fiber data transmission systems

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 122 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2184 KB)  

    We consider the design of polarization-insensitive multiple section microoptical switches/modulators. The ability to process arbitrarily polarized light is critical to the use of integrated optical devices with glass fiber transmission lines, due to the rapid changes in polarization state of light propagating in glass fibers. We show that multiple-section \Delta \beta -reversal switches have less severe fabricational tolerances than single-section switches, and can be made polarization independent. We present design criteria and describe the tradeoffs involved in fabricating practical devices. View full abstract»

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  • Steady multiply pulsed discharge-heated copper-vapor laser with copper halide lasant

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 115 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Discharge-heated radiation-cooled operation of a copper-vapor laser (CVL) using copper chloride and copper iodide as the lasant has been maintained for periods of over an hour. Maximum power was over 4 W and system efficiency over 0.3 percent. Discharge tube temperature of up to 800°C and beam-size reduction to less than half the tube inside diameter (ID) have also been observed. View full abstract»

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  • Mode coupling and distributed feedback lasers in periodic fiber waveguides

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 145 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2016 KB)  

    Coupling between transverse electric guided modes in a fiber with a periodic perturbation of the index of refraction in either the core or the cladding is studied. The application of periodic fiber waveguides to distributed feedback lasers is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Convolution using guided acoustooptical interaction in thin-film waveguides

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 208 - 215
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2920 KB)  

    Interaction of two antiparallel acoustic surface waves (ASW) with an optical guided wave has been investigated theoretically as well as experimentally to obtain the convolution of two ASW signals. The maximum time-bandwidth product that can be achieved by such a convolver is shown to be of the order of 1000 or more. The maximum dynamic range can be as large as 83 dB. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University