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Computer

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • The coolest thing on earth

    Page(s): 10 - 12
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  • Choreographing web services

    Page(s): 25
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  • In search of the wisdom web

    Page(s): 27 - 31
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  • Integrated approach to Web ontology learning and engineering

    Page(s): 60 - 63
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    Developing the Semantic Web, seeking to improve the semantic awareness of computers connected via the Internet, requires a systematic, computer-oriented world representation. Researchers often refer to such a model as an ontology. Despite the work done on them in recent years, ontologies have yet to be widely applied and used. Research has devoted only limited attention to such practical issues as techniques and tools aimed at an ontology's actual construction and content. The authors have built a software environment, centered around the OntoLearn tool, which can build and assess a domain ontology for intelligent information integration within a virtual user community. OntoLearn has already been tested in two European projects, where it functioned as the basis for a semantic interoperability platform used by small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises. Further, developers can easily adapt OntoLearn to work with other general-purpose ontologies. View full abstract»

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  • Partnership with Wiley will showcase expert texts

    Page(s): 80
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Online collection offers information technology resource for libraries

    Page(s): 80
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Recent awards reinforce society's commitment to service, teaching

    Page(s): 82 - 83
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Sophomore Course in Codesign

    Page(s): 108 - 110
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    We teach a hardware and software codesign course to second-year students who have expressed an interest in either electronics or informatics (computer science). The course emphasizes concepts and methods that are useful to both hardware and software developers and in particular to developers of embedded systems who must consider both disciplines as well as their interaction. We consider the course to be part of a search for better development methods and hope to increase the number of professional developers. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE registration authority

    Page(s): 113
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  • The Web and social networks

    Page(s): 32 - 36
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    The sheer volume of Web data, together with its low signal-to-noise ratio, make it difficult for text-based search engines to locate high-quality pages. Analyzing the links between Web sites has dramatically improved the Web search experience and spawned research into the Web's link structure. This research includes graph-theoretic studies of connectivity, which have shown the Web to have strong similarities with social networks. Self-similarity is pervasive in social networks. While researchers have observed Web self-similarity in other contexts, finding a fractal structure in a graph theoretic setting adds further evidence to the Web's small-world social nature. Thus, researchers seek to explain and exploit the human behavior implicit in the Web's evolving structure. How can we combine the power of Web networks with networks resulting from other human activity? Accomplishing this goal represents knowledge management's key challenge and opportunity. View full abstract»

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  • Using Virtual Linux servers

    Page(s): 106 - 107
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    IBM has invested millions of dollars on Linux development and made the open-source operating system available on its entire server line. The company's recently announced Virtual Linux-On-Demand service will, for the first time, let companies access large-scale computing over the Internet. Instead of physical servers, customers will be able to tap into virtual servers on mainframes running Linux and be billed only for the computing power and resources they use. This will facilitate creation of e-utilities as well as help establish virtual organizations through grid technologies that enable rapid resource deployment. The paper considers how Marist College's School of Computer Science and Mathematics initiated a joint project with IBM built around using such servers. The college's IBM S/390 mainframe can run hundreds of Linux systems as virtual servers, all within a single logical partition. View full abstract»

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  • From computational intelligence to Web intelligence

    Page(s): 72 - 76
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    The authors explore three topics in computational intelligence: machine translation, machine learning and user interface design and speculate on their effects on Web intelligence. Systems that can communicate naturally and learn from interactions will power Web intelligence's long term success. The large number of problems requiring Web-specific solutions demand a sustained and complementary effort to advance fundamental machine-learning research and incorporate a learning component into every Internet interaction. Traditional forms of machine translation either translate poorly, require resources that grow exponentially with the number of languages translated, or simplify language excessively. Recent success in statistical, nonlinguistic, and hybrid machine translation suggests that systems based on these technologies can achieve better results with a large annotated language corpus. Adapting existing computational intelligence solutions, when appropriate for Web intelligence applications, must incorporate a robust notion of learning that will scale to the Web, adapt to individual user requirements, and personalize interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Using knowledge anchors to reduce cognitive overhead

    Page(s): 111 - 112
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    Cognitive overhead, a well-known Web design problem, was defined by Conklin as the additional effort and concentration necessary to maintain several tasks or trails at one time. Cognitive overhead can be reduced using bidirectional knowledge anchors, points within a frame that have significance to the author-and later to the reader. A knowledge anchor is the point within the frame from which the user can trigger a link. An anchor designates either an area from which a reader may want to branch to investigate other related material or an area to which a reader may want to jump. View full abstract»

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  • Q: a scenario description language for interactive agents

    Page(s): 42 - 47
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    Agent internal mechanisms form the basis for many of the languages proposed for describing agent behavior and interagent protocols. For the Web, however, we should also consider the needs of application designers such as sales managers, travel agents, and schoolteachers. To this end, the author is developing Q, a language for describing interaction scenarios between agents and users based on agent external roles. Q also provides an interface between computing professionals and scenario writers. Rather than depending on agent internal mechanisms, Q seeks to describe how scenario writers should request that agents behave. Scenarios help establish a bridge between the computing professionals who design agents and the scenario writers who design applications. Thus, we can expect an effective dialog to emerge from the interplay between the two different perspectives during the process of formalizing interaction patterns. View full abstract»

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  • The profession and the world

    Page(s): 116, 114 - 115
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    Professionals have a responsibility to use their skills and experience where relevant to judge the nature and reality of problems facing their community and to promote and support solutions to those problems. This responsibility distinguishes professionals from people who ply a trade. The paper considers how a computing professional's skills and experience are particularly relevant to the community. We can apply traditional systems analysis to the global problems we encounter, and digital technology has undoubted potential for supporting good solutions to many of these problems. How a systems analyst will look professionally at the world's purpose will depend on who she sees as having the problem. As the employee of a client, the systems analyst will take a materialist approach. But as a professional primarily responsible to the community, that same systems analyst will take a demotic approach. View full abstract»

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  • Social intelligence design for the Web

    Page(s): 37 - 41
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    Web intelligence reflects the view that eventually we will build a totally new kind of collective intelligence on the Web computing infrastructure. To reach this goal we must solve several major problems. For example, embedding Web computing into our everyday lives and society poses a more difficult problem than engineers might think. Because new technologies often consume financial resources without providing a comparable benefit, we must pay close attention to the social aspects of intelligence and how Web computing can augment knowledge processes, an attitude that underlies social intelligence design. Computer-supported collaborative work takes a similar approach, focusing on well-structured, goal-oriented groups Social intelligence design, on the other hand, highlights collective knowledge processes in informal, loosely coupled groups. It thus focuses not only on technological development for Web intelligence but also on the design and analysis of a social framework for embedding Web intelligence into everyday life. View full abstract»

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  • Data mining for Web intelligence

    Page(s): 64 - 70
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    Searching, comprehending, and using the semistructured HTML, XML, and database-service-engine information stored on the Web poses a significant challenge. This data is more sophisticated and dynamic than the information commercial database systems store. To supplement keyword-based indexing, researchers have applied data mining to Web-page ranking. In this context, data mining helps Web search engines find high-quality Web pages and enhances Web click stream analysis. For the Web to reach its full potential, however, we must improve its services, make it more comprehensible, and increase its usability. As researchers continue to develop data mining techniques, the authors believe this technology will play an increasingly important role in meeting the challenges of developing the intelligent Web. Ultimately, data mining for Web intelligence will make the Web a richer, friendlier, and more intelligent resource that we can all share and explore. The paper considers how data mining holds the key to uncovering and cataloging the authoritative links, traversal patterns, and semantic structures that will bring intelligence and direction to our Web interactions. View full abstract»

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  • Stopping intruders outside the gates

    Page(s): 20 - 22
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    As networks have grown in size and complexity, connecting a vast array of business functions, intrusion threats have increased in frequency and sophistication. Network administrators and vendors are thus looking beyond traditional intrusion detection technology, which catches problems only after they have occurred, to a new, proactive approach: intrusion prevention. Intrusion prevention offers active, threat-handling capabilities that stop hackers before they enter a computer system. There appears to be demand for the technology, and this has inspired participation by numerous vendors and predictions of increased sales. The paper discusses the intrusion prevention market. Because today's hackers combine attack types, intrusion-prevention vendors have had to combine approaches in individual products. View full abstract»

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  • Ontology-based knowledge management

    Page(s): 56 - 59
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    The Web's very popularity is making it more difficult to find, present, and maintain the data that users with a wide range of tasks and computer skills need. Existing document management systems use keyword matching as a search method, combined with information retrieval rather than query answering. In addition, these systems offer limited information-sharing facilities, and they do not support different views on documents or information maintenance. To address these weaknesses, a European consortium formed the On-to-Knowledge Project to build an ontology-based tool suite that efficiently processes the many heterogeneous, distributed, and semistructured documents typically found in intranets and on the Web. The consortium's approach integrates Semantic Web search technology, document exchange via transformation operators, automated information extraction, and systematic support for information maintenance and user-specific views. The paper considers how On-to-Knowledge's tools exploit the power of ontologies to provide automated support for acquiring, maintaining, and accessing weakly structured information sources. View full abstract»

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  • Toward behavioral intelligence in the Semantic Web

    Page(s): 48 - 54
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    Realizing the Web's full potential will require the development and support of agents that function as schedulers, planners, and searchers who, with minimal direction, can serve as an omnipresent staff of advisers, secretaries, brokers, and research assistants. Electronic commerce has brought this capability tantalizingly near. Organizations and individuals have connected an enormous variety of products and services to the Internet, making them accessible to other programs through simple communication protocols. Now the AI community must determine how it can build intelligent agents to exploit these services. One strategy would change the Web itself, making it accessible to existing AI modeling, and reasoning techniques. In this semantic Web, service and content providers would mark pages in accordance with standardized conventions designed to reduce ambiguity and make automated reasoning easier. The paper considers the development of a distributed intelligence and bringing agents to the Web. It discusses DAML-S which provides support for composite services, combinations of simpler services, or behaviors, and the coordination mechanisms, or reactive plans, used to combine those behaviors. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes highly acclaimed peer-reviewed articles written for and by professionals representing the full spectrum of computing technology from hardware to software and from current research to new applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Ron Vetter
University of North Carolina
Wilmington