Scheduled System Maintenance:
On Monday, April 27th, IEEE Xplore will undergo scheduled maintenance from 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM ET (17:00 - 19:00 UTC). No interruption in service is anticipated.
By Topic

Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Issue 5 • Date Sept.-Oct. 2002

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • President's Message - EMBS progress in 2002

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 6 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Student's Corner - Planning a student conference

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (165 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • BME company profiles - Guidant Corporation

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (171 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Health economics and technology reimbursement - Product reimbursement and APCs: why all the fuss?

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (170 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Combating bioterrorism with bioengineering

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 21 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Homeland security: the possible, probable, and perils of information technology

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 28 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (606 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Information technology is a key component in both defending against and aiding terrorism threats. The author considers the background in making progress with technology, bioterrorism and other forms of terrorism, cybersecurity - national (and global) critical information infrastructure protection, and the possibility of the establishment of a new department, the Department of (National) Homeland Security. He concludes that, more than ever, coordination, cooperation, and integration become a fundamental must in order to optimize our resources, which calls for standardization and interoperability of resources. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • High-speed advanced sensors for bioterror weapons

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 43 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    "Biological weapons" include bacteria, viruses, and toxins that are spread deliberately in air, food, or water to cause disease or death to humans, animals, or plants. This discourse addresses specifically the applicability of integrated sensors and the use of technologies (both information technologies and biological/pharmaceutical technologies) in a concerted threat identification and avoidance paradigm designed to alert, to muster, and to deploy assets in counterterrorist efforts, specifically: Do we work to identify threats far enough in advance to allow proper response? What more needs to be done? What is the worth (value) of we can do now; what do we hope to do in the future?. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Terrorism risks in rural and frontier America

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 100 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5872 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Policy for the safety of the United States must include an awareness of the importance of rural and frontier areas to urban areas. Water, power, and food are not available in sufficient amounts to support urban areas and are routinely shipped in from rural areas. National plans should address the increased costs of operating in rural areas and the increased burdens placed on most health and safety workers who work longer hours and take fewer days off. Other factors are also important, such as the status of regional hospitals (e.g. critical access, secondary, tertiary) and the type of Emergency Medical Service (volunteer versus paid), and the availability of HAZMAT teams and decontamination units. Regional infrastructure plays a part. It can include access to public transportation, highway systems, and the telecommunications network, as well as basic climate and geographical considerations, which includes proximity to a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) that may provide resources for responding to disasters and terrorist attacks. Finally, it is important to take into consideration the base population, its median income, and the region's status as a health professions shortage area or otherwise medically underserved area. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The far-reaching impact of bioterrorism

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 112 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Deliberate releases of biological agents to cause harm are now a reality. The bioterrorism attacks in the United States have affected Europe through the fear and false alarms they have generated. The member states of the European Union, working with the European Commission, are improving their planning and coordination to cope with deliberate releases of biological, chemical, and radiological agents designed to damage health. In this endeavour they are drawing from the lessons learned in the United States and cooperate closely not only with the United States but also with Canada, Japan, Mexico, and other countries, as well as the WHO. Health authorities and health services are in the forefront of this effort. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • International mechanisms for threat reduction of chemical and biological weapons

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 116 - 120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (495 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Discusses steps the United States needs to take to strengthen current global initiatives. If U.S. policymakers want the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) to be effective threat-reduction mechanisms, they must replace rhetoric with action. In this age, the United States government can ill afford to neglect any mechanism that has a constructive role to play in lowering the threat that nations or terrorists might obtain and unleash chemical and biological weapons. This article outlines several steps that the United States can take in the near term to put the BWC and the CWC on stronger footing. Otherwise, the United States will have to shoulder the lion's share of the blame for the weakened status of these treaties. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Cortical architecture and self-referential control for brain-like computation

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 121 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4046 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Discusses a new approach to understanding how the brain organizes computation. Progress in understanding the brain function under constant interactions with the sensory environment is hampered by inadequate models and theories. Obviously, current models and theories of brain computing still appear irrelevant when they are confronted with real-world problems. We argue that architecture in the brain does not reflect the result of thinking, the ready-made algorithm for solving a problem. Rather it should reflect the control that generates the constraints to select a proper algorithm for a specific problem that is posed by the input-or to create a new one if the application of the previously acquired ones does not provide a sufficient solution. We propose that a value system (based on a genetically imprinted a priori knowledge on coarse behavioral evaluation of sensory input) and neocortical columnar architecture are crucial elements of future artificial neural systems that are expected to emulate the performance of the brain. This should be the case especially for those cognitive tasks that appear easy for animals in their everyday life but turn out to be hopelessly tricky for the current generation of computers. In order to advance beyond the well known paradigms of current computational theory, we need a more functional understanding of brain-type computation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • New methods in fMRI analysis

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 134 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (995 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hierarchical cluster analysis improves signal-to-noise ratio compared to standard techniques. In this work we present a new approach for improving the SNR in fMRI. The special implementation of the voxel-based motion-correction algorithms allows for very fast and precise correction of head movements in the frame of the selected model. The hierarchical cluster analysis has proven to be a useful tool for the increase of the SNR of the functional results. As these tools and established deterministic and statistical functional analysis tools are implemented in one software platform (FAMIS), direct comparison between the results becomes feasible. As each analysis result can be obtained within seconds and the user can switch between the display for the different results, direct comparison between the methods can be performed. Deterministic analysis leads to an activation concept that is independent from the noise level, and vice versa the statistical analysis leads to an activation concept where the activation is intended as deviation from noise and in such way the activation becomes related to the noise level. The deterministic methods exclude true positive results with increasing noise, and the statistical methods include false positive results with increasing noise. Nevertheless, the decision regarding which of the methods should be the method of choice for fMRI analysis is not the subject of this work. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hidden Markov model classification of myoelectric signals in speech

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 143 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (937 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It has been demonstrated that myoelectric signal (MES) automatic speech recognition (ASR) using an hidden Markov model (HMM) classifier is resilient to temporal variance, which offers improved robustness compared to the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The overall performance of the MES ASR can be further enhanced by optimizing the features and structure of the HMM classifier to improve classification rate. Nevertheless, the HMM classifier has already shown that it would effectively complement an acoustic classifier in a multimodal ASR system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Classification of sleep stages in infants: a neuro fuzzy approach

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 147 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (419 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ANFIS based neuro-fuzzy classifier with a pruning algorithm was implemented and applied to the classification of sleep-waking states-stages in infants, using the sleep pattern detection system of P.A. Estevez (2002) to generate the inputs. Including artifacted pages, an average of 88.2% of expert agreement was achieved for testing data. As a result of the training process and pruning, rules and parameters that defined a fuzzy classification system were also determined. Analyzing the rules obtained for sleep-stage NREM-1, it was found that the main rule matched the expert rule to classify NREM-1. Additional rules were discovered that complement the classification and may provide additional information about the characteristics of this sleep stage. This is a promissory result, and further research is needed in this topic. Future work includes implementation of a clustering algorithm to determine the initial parameters of the system, training the system with a different objective function, such as the max-type error function described in J.S.R. Jang and C.T. Sun (1993), and evaluating the performance of different T-norms at layer 2 in Figure 1. The development of a general methodology for rule discovery and interpretation is also of interest. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Confidence-based anisotropic filtering of magnetic resonance images

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 156 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wiener filter restoration, followed by a difference operator, is used to estimate the standard deviation of the noise based on the additive noise assumption. Simulation studies show that a 5 × 5 Wiener filter gives an estimate of noise within a 5% error margin. A careful examination of the conductance map in the brain MR image reveals that a wide band of zero conductance region is seen around blurred boundaries. To blend these regions without allowing a generous blurring, a small constant can be added to the conductance function. A better approach will be incorporating the second derivative information into the conductance function. As edges are defined at the zero-crossings of the second derivative response, the strength of the second derivative response can be used as a measure of distance to a boundary. Unfortunately, in the discrete domain, edges generally fall off pixel locations. Thus, second derivative strength would not be a quite reliable measure, unless interpolation and subsampling are employed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A digital signal processor for Doppler radar sensing of vital signs

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 161 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A signal processor for the determination of respiration and heart rates in Doppler radar measurements is described. The processor can reliably calculate both rates for a subject at distances as large as 2 m. The rate determination is based on autocorrelation and uses several enhancement techniques, including a center clipper. Several representative results are included to show the future potential of using the processor for this purpose. Calculated heart rates agree for over 88% of the time with the reference rate, within a 2% margin, for all datasets. These results indicate excellent prospects for remote monitoring of vital signs through noncontact radar techniques. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Point of view - The fantastic pacemaker system

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 165 - 166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (243 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • System theory as a means of increasing innovation in the medical instrumentation industry

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 166 - 175
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Controversy over the dicrotic notch and wave in the blood pressure record

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 167 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4154 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The term "dicrotic" means double beat. The dicrotic notch and the ensuing wave seen in the arterial pressure record is the pressure transient produced when the aortic valve closes at the end of left-ventricular ejection. It is also present in the pulmonary artery pressure record and signals closure of the pulmonic valve; yet its existence was doubted for many years. In the late 1800s, physiologists and clinicians argued for years over its existence; this is the story of that controversy. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Cellular/tissue engineering - News in brief: tissue engineering industry

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 170
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (190 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Washington in review - Progress occurring at the national institute for biomedical imaging and bioengineering

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 171
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (243 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Electromagnetic hypersensitivity-a COMAR technical information statement

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 173 - 175
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (221 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Certain individuals experience a variety of health symptoms, which they attribute to exposure to electric or magnetic fields from sources such as power lines, household appliances, visual display units (VDUs), light sources, mobile telephones and mobile phone base stations. Some individuals are so severely afflicted that they cease work and change their entire lifestyle, or take exceptional measures such as sleeping under aluminium blankets. This perceived sensitivity to electromagnetic fields has the general name "electromagnetic hypersensitivity" or EHS. The fields that electromagnetically hypersensitive individuals consider to be the cause of their symptoms vary considerably, but they are invariably far below recommended exposure limits, and very far below field levels that are known to produce adverse effects in unaffected humans. This Technical Information Statement describes what is known about EHS and summarizes recommendations from medical groups for helping people with EHS. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Information measures: information and its description in science and engineering [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 176
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Virtual bio-instrumentation: biomedical, clinical, and healthcare applications in labview [Book Review]

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 176
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • An anthrax "smoke" detector

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 38 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1880 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a method for automated monitoring of airborne endospores, which combines an aerosol capture technique with endospore detection based on terbium luminescence turn-on. We have demonstrated quantification of aerosolized bacterial spores with a response time of ~15 min, a sensitivity of 104 spores/ml, and a dynamic range of 4 orders of magnitude using a bioaerosol sampler, a microwave, and a lifetime-gated fluorimeter. Ultimately, the most attractive feature we have demonstrated is the unattended monitoring of aerosolized bacterial spores for the duration of a workday (~8 hours) View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

Full Aims & Scope