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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 8 of 8
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1475 - 1477
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Mesh network resiliency using GMPLS

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1559 - 1564
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) is being developed as the control plane for the evolving photonic network. We describe how GMPLS can be used with mesh networks to provide efficient network resiliency. In particular we examine the key aspects of GMPLS that are used to support protection and restoration. We also study the various protection and restoration techniques, and we highlight the tradeoffs between recovery time and resource redundancy View full abstract»

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  • Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP)

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1495 - 1517
    Cited by:  Papers (120)  |  Patents (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (593 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During the Internet stock bubble, articles in the trade press frequently said that, in the near future, telephone traffic would be just another application running over the Internet. Such statements gloss over many engineering details that preclude voice from being just another Internet application. This paper deals with the technical aspects of implementing voice over Internet protocol (VoIP), without speculating on the timetable for convergence. First, the paper discusses the factors involved in making a high-quality VoIP call and the engineering tradeoffs that must be made between delay and the efficient use of bandwidth. After a discussion of codec selection and the delay budget, there is a discussion of various techniques to achieve network quality of service. Since call setup is very important, the paper next gives an overview of several VoIP call signaling protocols, including H.323, SIP, MGCP, and Megaco/H.248. There is a section on telephony routing over IP (TRIP). Finally, the paper explains some VoIP issues with network address translation and firewalls View full abstract»

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  • Differentiated services in the Internet

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1479 - 1494
    Cited by:  Papers (61)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Architectures for Internet quality of service (QoS) have been under discussion for over a decade and, with the commercialization of the Internet, the topic has become increasingly important. This paper gives a background and history of QoS for the Internet, then introduces and motivates the differentiated services (Diffserv) approach. The major advantages of the Diffserv approach are that it is a good match to the Internet architecture and that it can be initially deployed with a minimalist approach, adding complexity as needed. Despite the long history of discussion, the phrase "quality of service" does not have a universally accepted meaning. In this paper QoS is used to describe a set of measurable parameters, such as delay, throughput, and loss rate, that can be attached to some identifiable subset of the traffic of IP packets through a given network domain. The identifiable subset of traffic belongs to a "user" of IP QoS where "user" spans a range of granularities, from a single application program to an entire company. Providing guarantees about the values of network parameters requires the implementation and deployment of physical mechanisms throughout the network and then configuring these mechanisms in such a way that their effect, when viewed from the edges of the network, composes into the desired QoS. Diffserv uses simple mechanisms in a more complex composition, allowing the details of the composition to evolve while the mechanisms, part of the network infrastructure, can remain the same. The paper discusses the specifics of this approach and why it is well-matched to the Internet. Some practical issues for deployment are addressed. Further we address resource allocation and configuration questions, including simple possibilities for early deployment and some of the open questions for a more complex future deployment. This paper takes the position that it is possible to maintain reasonable QoS levels without recourse to any of the class of constrained routing approaches (including MPLS), though Diffserv can be used with these approaches if desired View full abstract»

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  • Theories and models for Internet quality of service

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1565 - 1591
    Cited by:  Papers (64)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We survey advances in theories and models for Internet quality of service (QoS). We start with the theory of network calculus, which lays the foundation for support of deterministic performance guarantees in networks, and illustrate its applications to integrated services, differentiated services, and streaming media playback delays. We also present mechanisms and architecture for scalable support of guaranteed services in the Internet, based on the concept of a stateless core. Methods for scalable control operations are also discussed. We then turn our attention to statistical performance guarantees and describe several new probabilistic results that can be used for a statistical dimensioning of differentiated services. Lastly, we review proposals and results in supporting performance guarantees in a best effort context. These include models for elastic throughput guarantees based on TCP performance modeling, techniques for some QoS differentiation without access control, and methods that allow an application to control the performance it receives, in the absence of network support View full abstract»

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  • Discharge lighting brightens the night

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1604 - 1607
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As part of an historical study of streetlighting in London (UK), the article examines how the gas discharge lamps of 1930 indicated the way ahead but were not the complete answer. They needed special circuits, with an inductance to control the current and usually some way of producing a high voltage to strike the arc, but the higher efficiency compared with filament lamps made that worthwhile. The real problems facing designers and manufacturers of discharge lamps were materials. They needed materials for the arc tube and for the electrodes that would resist chemical attack from the hot ionized gases in the tube. In any event, the high-pressure mercury lamp and the sodium lamp were developed almost simultaneously. Today these lamps dominate street lighting as well as flood light applications View full abstract»

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  • Next generation routers

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1518 - 1558
    Cited by:  Papers (94)  |  Patents (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the broadband access technologies, such as DSL, cable modem, and gigabit Ethernet, are providing affordable broadband solutions to the Internet from home and the enterprise, it is required to build next generation routers with high-speed interfaces (e.g., 10 or 40 Gb/s) and large switching capacity (e.g., multipetabit). This paper first points out the issues of building such routers, such as memory speed constraint, packet arbitration bottleneck, and interconnection complexity. It then presents several algorithms/architectures to implement IP route lookup, packet classification, and switch fabrics. Some of the functions, such as packet classification, route lookup, and traffic management, can be implemented with emerging network processors that have the advantages of providing flexibility to new applications and protocols, shortening the design cycle and time-to-market, and reducing the implementation cost by avoiding the ASIC approach. Several proposed algorithms for IP route lookup and packet classification are compared in respect to their search/update speeds and storage requirements. Different efficient arbitration schemes for output port contention resolution are presented and analyzed. The paper also surveys various switch architectures of commercial routers and switch chip sets. At the end, it outlines several challenging issues that remain to be researched for next generation routers View full abstract»

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  • Internet performance monitoring

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1592 - 1603
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The growing diversity of services in the Internet is motivating research to improve measurability of traffic and Internet performance. This paper surveys current projects and tools for Internet performance monitoring, ranging from passive router-based traffic flow measurement methods to large-scale active performance monitoring projects. The tools and methods are discussed according to their protocol layer, starting from the network layer (ATM, MPLS) to IP/ICMP and transport/application layers. At each protocol layer the strengths and limitations of the methods are highlighted. Finally, issues and challenges for future research are reviewed View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University