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Intelligent Systems, IEEE

Issue 5 • Date Sep/Oct 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Designing human-centered distributed information systems

    Page(s): 42 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (417 KB)  

    Many computer systems are designed according to engineering and technology principles and are typically difficult to learn and use. The fields of human-computer interaction, interface design, and human factors have made significant contributions to ease of use and are primarily concerned with the interfaces between systems and users, not with the structures that are often more fundamental for designing truly human-centered systems. The emerging paradigm of human-centered computing (HCC)-which has taken many forms-offers a new look at system design. HCC requires more than merely designing an artificial agent to supplement a human agent. The dynamic interactions in a distributed system composed of human and artificial agents-and the context in which the system is situated-are indispensable factors. While we have successfully applied our methodology in designing a prototype of a human-centered intelligent flight-surgeon console at NASA Johnson Space Center, this article presents a methodology for designing human-centered computing systems using electronic medical records (EMR) systems. View full abstract»

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  • A digital-driving system for smart vehicles

    Page(s): 81 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB)  

    In the wake of the computer and information technology revolutions, vehicles are undergoing dramatic changes in their capabilities and how they interact with drivers. Although some vehicles can decide to either generate warnings for the human driver or control the vehicle autonomously, they must usually make these decisions in real time with only incomplete information. So, human drivers must still maintain control over the vehicle. I sketch a digital driving behavior model. By simulating and analyzing driver behavior during different maneuvers such as lane changing, lane following, and traffic avoidance, researchers participating in the Beijing Institute of Technology's digital-driving project will be able to examine the possible correlations or causal relations between the smart vehicle, IVISs, the intelligent road-traffic-information network, and the driver. We aim to successfully demonstrate that a digital-driving system can provide a direction for developing human-centered smart vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and simulating practices, a work method for work systems design

    Page(s): 32 - 41
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2556 KB)  

    Work systems involve people engaging in activities over time-not just with each other, but also with machines, tools, documents, and other artifacts. These activities often produce goods, services, or-as is the case in the work system described in this article-scientific data. Work systems and work practice evolve slowly over time. The integration and use of technology, the distribution and collocation of people, organizational roles and procedures, and the facilities where the work occurs largely determine this evolution. View full abstract»

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  • Computational challenges in cell simulation: a software engineering approach

    Page(s): 64 - 71
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (862 KB)  

    Molecular biology's advent in the 20th century has exponentially increased our knowledge about the inner workings of life. We have dozens of completed genomes and an array of high-throughput methods to characterize gene encodings and gene product operation. The question now is how we will assemble the various pieces. In other words, given sufficient information about a living cell's molecular components, can we predict its behavior? We introduce the major classes of cellular processes relevant to modeling, discuss software engineering's role in cell simulation, and identify cell simulation requirements. Our E-Cell project aims to develop the theories, techniques, and software platforms necessary for whole-cell-scale modeling, simulation, and analysis. Since the project's launch in 1996, we have built a variety of cell models, and we are currently developing new models that vary with respect to species, target subsystem, and overall scale. View full abstract»

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  • Ethnography, customers, and negotiated interactions at the airport

    Page(s): 15 - 23
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    In the late 1990s, tightly coordinated airline schedules unraveled owing to massive delays resulting from inclement weather, overbooked flights, and airline operational difficulties. As schedules slipped, the delayed departures and late arrivals led to systemwide breakdowns, customers missed their connections, and airline work activities fell further out of sync. In offering possible answers, we emphasize the need to consider the customer as participant, following the human-centered computing model. Our study applied ethnographic methods to understand the airline system domain and the nature of airline delays, and it revealed the deficiencies of the airline production system model of operations. The research insights that led us to shift from a production and marketing system perspective to a customer-as-participant view might appear obvious to some readers. However, we do not know of any airline that designs its operations and technologies around any other model than the production and marketing system view. Our human-centered analysis used ethnographic methods to gather information, offering new insight into airline delays and suggesting effective ways to improve operations reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Research challenges and perspectives of the Semantic Web

    Page(s): 86 - 88
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (277 KB)  

    Accessing documents and services on today's Web requires human intelligence. The interface to these documents and services is the Web page, written in natural language, which humans must understand and act upon. The paper discusses the Semantic Web which will augment the current Web with formalized knowledge and data that computers can process. In the future, some services will mix human-readable and structured data so that both humans and computers can use them. Others will support formalized knowledge that only machines will use. View full abstract»

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  • Neural networks for web content filtering

    Page(s): 48 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)  

    With the proliferation of harmful Internet content such as pornography, violence, and hate messages, effective content-filtering systems are essential. Many Web-filtering systems are commercially available, and potential users can download trial versions from the Internet. However, the techniques these systems use are insufficiently accurate and do not adapt well to the ever-changing Web. To solve this problem, we propose using artificial neural networks to classify Web pages during content filtering. We focus on blocking pornography because it is among the most prolific and harmful Web content. However, our general framework is adaptable for filtering other objectionable Web material. View full abstract»

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  • John McCarthy: father of AI

    Page(s): 84 - 85
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    If John McCarthy, the father of AI, were to coin a new phrase for "artificial intelligence" today, he would probably use "computational intelligence." McCarthy is not just the father of AI, he is also the inventor of the Lisp (list processing) language. The author considers McCarthy's conception of Lisp and discusses McCarthy's recent research that involves elaboration tolerance, creativity by machines, free will of machines, and some improved ways of doing situation calculus. View full abstract»

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  • Rats, robots, and rescue

    Page(s): 7 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    In early May, media inquiries started arriving at my office at the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue (www.crasar.org). Because I'm CRASAR's director, I thought the press was calling to follow up on the recent humanitarian award given to the center's founder, John Blitch, for successfully using small, backpackable robots at the World Trade Center disaster. Instead, I found they were asking me to comment on the "roborats" study in the 2 May 2002 Nature. In this study, rats with medial force brain implants underwent operant conditioning to force them into a form of guided behavior, one aspect of which was thought useful for search and rescue. The article's closing comment suggested that a guided rat could serve as both a mobile robot and a biological sensor. Although a roboticist by training, I'm committed to any technology that will help save lives while reducing the risk to rescuers. But rats?. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent control of life support for space missions

    Page(s): 24 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1014 KB)  

    Future manned space operations will include a greater use of automation than we currently see. For example, semiautonomous robots and software agents will perform difficult tasks while operating unattended most of the time. As these automated agents become more prevalent, human contact with them will occur more often and become more routine, so designing these automated agents according to the principles of human-centered computing is important. We describe two cases of semiautonomous control software developed and fielded in test environments at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This software operated continuously at the JSC and interacted closely with humans for months at a time. View full abstract»

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  • Mining open answers in questionnaire data

    Page(s): 58 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB)  

    Surveys are important tools for marketing and for managing customer relationships; the answers to open-ended questions, in particular, often contain valuable information and provide an important basis for business decisions. The summaries that human analysts make of these open answers, however, tend to rely too much on intuition and so aren't satisfactorily reliable. Moreover, because the Web makes it so easy to take surveys and solicit comments, companies are finding themselves inundated with data from questionnaires and other sources. Handling it all manually would be not only cumbersome but also costly. Thus, devising a computer system that can automatically mine useful information from open answers has become an important issue. We have developed a survey analysis system that works on these principles. The system mines open answers through two statistical learning techniques: rule learning (which we call rule analysis) and correspondence analysis. View full abstract»

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  • DAML+OIL: an ontology language for the Semantic Web

    Page(s): 72 - 80
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (341 KB)  

    By all measures, the Web is enormous and growing at a staggering rate, which has made it increasingly difficult-and important-for both people and programs to have quick and accurate access to Web information and services. The Semantic Web offers a solution, capturing and exploiting the meaning of terms to transform the Web from a platform that focuses on presenting information, to a platform that focuses on understanding and reasoning with information. To support Semantic Web development, the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency launched the DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) initiative to fund research in languages, tools, infrastructure, and applications that make Web content more accessible and understandable. Although the US government funds DAML, several organizations-including US and European businesses and universities, and international consortia such as the World Wide Web Consortium-have contributed to work on issues related to DAML's development and deployment. We focus on DAML's current markup language, DAML+OIL, which is a proposed starting point for the W3C's Semantic Web Activity's Ontology Web Language (OWL). We introduce DAML+OIL syntax and usage through a set of examples, drawn from a wine knowledge base used to teach novices how to build ontologies. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Intelligent Systems serves users, managers, developers, researchers, and purchasers who are interested in intelligent systems and artificial intelligence, with particular emphasis on applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Daniel Zeng
University of Arizona