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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Comments on "An innovative fast powerful method for tackling electromagnetic eigenvalue problems for multistrip transmission lines" [with reply]

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2409 - 2411
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For original paper see A. Casanueva and J.L. Garcia, ibid., vol.50, no.1, p.36-40 (2002). The original authors applied a technique developed by the commenter to calculate dispersion characteristics of multistrip transmission lines. The novelty of the work lay in the technique for solving the resulting eigenvalue problem. Casanueva and Garcia treated the problem as a system of homogeneous equations and advocate solving it by using singular value decomposition (SVD) combined with the search of minimum on the complex /spl beta/ plane. The commenter clarifies an apparent misunderstanding as to the numerical treatment of the eigenvalue problem. In reply, Casanueva and Garcia agree with the general outline and accept that the numerical technique suggested by Mrozowski is more orthodox than the one they used. They conclude by stressing that Mrozowski's proposed algorithms are valid for planar transmission lines when both the spectral-domain approach and the singular-value-decomposition technique have been implemented to obtain an accurate set of basic functions. View full abstract»

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  • Authors' reply

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2410 - 2411
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

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  • Comments on "Rigorous modeling of packaged Schottky diodes by the nonlinear lumped network (NL /sup 2/N)-FDTD approach" [with reply]

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2411 - 2412
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (190 KB)  

    For original paper see G. Emili et al., ibid., vol.48, no.12, p.2277-82 (2000). The commenters point out several errors in equations and parameters presented in the original paper, that should be corrected to allow an accurate implementation of the model proposed for packaged Schottky diodes using a nonlinear lumped-network finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach. In reply, the original authors accept that there are three errors in their work, but stress that the results presented are not affected at all by the errors, which are simply relational. View full abstract»

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  • Corrections to "accurate circuit model of interdigital capacitor and its application to design of new quasi-lumped miniaturized filters with suppression of harmonic resonance"

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2412 - 2413
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (173 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

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  • Authors' reply

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2412
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • Coplanar-waveguide-based terahertz hot-electron-bolometer mixers mproved embedding circuit description

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2374 - 2383
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Series-fed coplanar-waveguide embedding circuits have been recently developed for terahertz mixers using, in particular, superconducting devices as sensors. Although these mixers show promising performance, they usually also show a considerable downward shift in the resonating frequency when compared with calculations using simplified models. This effect is basically caused by parasitics due to the extremely small details (in terms of wavelength) of the device and to the connection of the remaining circuitry (i.e., RF filter). In this paper, we present an improved equivalent-network model of such devices that agrees with measured results. We first propose a method to calculate the characteristic impedance and propagation constant of the coplanar waveguide, etched between two semi-infinite media, which connect the receiving slot antennas to the superconducting device. In the formulation, we take into account, for the first time, the radiation power leakage. We then describe the procedure to calculate the reactances due to the detailed geometry of the mixer device and circuit and we correct the input impedance, calculated with a commonly used simplified network. Finally, by comparing our results with a complete set of measured data, for seven mixers in the range between 500 GHz-3 THz, we analyze the features of our model and propose further improvements. Useful guidelines for designing terahertz mixer circuits are also given. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate modeling of lossy nonuniform transmission lines by using differential quadrature methods

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2233 - 2246
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses an efficient numerical approximation technique, called the differential quadrature method (DQM), which has been adapted to model lossy uniform and nonuniform transmission lines. The DQM can quickly compute the derivative of a function at any point within its bounded domain by estimating a weighted linear sum of values of the function at a small set of points belonging to the domain. Using the DQM, the frequency-domain Telegrapher's partial differential equations for transmission lines can be discretized into a set of easily solvable algebraic equations. DQM reduces interconnects into multiport models whose port voltages and currents are related by rational formulas in the frequency domain. Although the rationalization process in DQM is comparable with the Pade approximation of asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE) applied to transmission lines, the derivation mechanisms in these two disparate methods are significantly different. Unlike AWE, which employs a complex moment-matching process to obtain rational approximation, the DQM requires no approximation of transcendental functions, thereby avoiding the process of moment generation and moment matching. Due to global sampling of points in the DQM approximation, it requires far fewer grid points in order to build accurate discrete models than other numerical methods do. The DQM-based time-domain model can be readily integrated in a circuit simulator like SPICE. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of a planar filter using a 0° feed structure

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2362 - 2367
    Cited by:  Papers (84)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The advantage of using a 0° feed structure in filter design is that two extra transmission zeros are created in the stopband while the passband response remains unchanged. This feed structure is analyzed by using transmission matrices. A new lumped-circuit model for a coupled resonator filter is then proposed to take into account the effects of this feed structure. Finally, the feed structure is applied to the design of a cross-coupled filter. All the theoretical analysis and design procedures have been successfully verified by experiment results. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a ridge waveguide using overlapping T-blocks

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2368 - 2373
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A T-block (TB) approach is proposed to analyze the dispersion relation of a ridge waveguide. The field representations of a TB are obtained with the Green's function and mode-matching technique. Rigorous, yet simple dispersion equations for symmetric and asymmetric ridge waveguides are presented using a superposition of overlapping TBs. The rapid convergence characteristics of the dispersion equation are illustrated in terms of the cutoff wavenumbers. A closed-form dispersion relation, based on a dominant-mode approximation, is shown to be accurate for most practical applications such as couplers, filters, and polarizer designs. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid planar NRD-guide magic-tee junction

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2405 - 2408
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new magic-tee circuit is proposed and developed, which is based on the hybrid integration technology of a planar and nonradiative dielectric (NRD) guide. The magic-tee junction combines an NRD-guide T-junction with a microstrip T-junction. Furthermore, LSM10-mode radiators are introduced in the magic-tee circuit to reduce its resonance problem. Measured results show that an isolation of 20 dB can easily be achieved between the sum and difference ports. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical comparison between time- and frequency-domain techniques for phase-noise analysis

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2353 - 2361
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the literature, different techniques have been presented for the phase-noise analysis of free-running oscillator circuits. In order to give some insight into the relationships existing between them, an analytical comparison is carried out in this paper between three different approaches. Two of them are time-domain approaches, based on Floquet's theory and the impulse sensitivity function, respectively, and the third one is the carrier modulation approach, in frequency domain. The application of Floquet's theory enables the calculation of periodic sensitivity functions to the noise perturbations. Here, the possibility to determine these functions through harmonic balance is demonstrated. This allows applying the whole stochastic characterization of phase noise, obtained from time-domain analysis, to circuits simulated through harmonic balance. For illustration, calculations in a cubic-nonlinearity oscillator are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A reduced-size silicon micromachined high-Q resonator at 5.7 GHz

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2305 - 2314
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (486 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper depicts the progress toward a novel high-quality-factor miniaturized resonator operating in the 5.6-5.8-GHz range. The design of the resonator is based on a micromachined cavity loaded with a high dielectric-constant material. Energy is coupled into the cavity from input and output microstrip lines via slots. Quality factors up to 640 are demonstrated on silicon planar structures with a volume of 177 mm3. Further size reduction yields a volume of 24.5 mm3 and quality factors ranging from 152 to 197, while keeping the resonator integration ability. Bonding techniques and the dielectric loss of the loading material are proven to be the limiting factors in achieving higher quality factors. View full abstract»

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  • Resonant frequency and Q factor of axisymmetric composite microwave cavities

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2287 - 2293
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Resonant frequency and unloaded Q factor of composite microwave cavities are computed using surface integral equations for axisymmetric objects. The equivalence principle is used to formulate the problem so that the unbounded space Green's function can be utilized. The numerical results are verified experimentally for many samples of conducting cavities and dielectric resonators inside conducting cavities. Also, cases with a sector of the rotational cavity are considered by introducing a conducting corner. The method allows the computation of the stored energy in each dielectric region and the unloaded Q factor. View full abstract»

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  • An innovative semianalytical technique for ceramic evaluation at microwave frequencies

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2247 - 2252
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (285 KB)  

    We have developed an innovative semianalytical technique for various substrate material characterization. The developed technique is a measurement procedure and data-reduction formulation that takes into consideration the radiation loss in a resonant structure, allowing for a more effective means of dielectric- and conductor-loss determination for a microstrip ring resonator and its substrate material. We separate dielectric and conductor loss precisely, evaluate the contribution of each term in the overall loss performance, and analytically predict the error in their respective predicted value. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement-based closed-form modeling of surface-mounted RF components

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2276 - 2286
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An understanding of the parasitic and packaging effects of passive surface-mounted devices (SMDs), including characterization of the pertinent interconnects, is required for developing robust equivalent-circuit models that are useful in RF and microwave computer-aided design. In this paper, we develop a procedure for modeling SMD inductors and capacitors, which incorporates the nonideal behavior associated with frequency dispersion, board layout, component parasitics, and device packaging. The equivalent-circuit parameters are extracted in closed-form from accurate in-situ measurement of the component's S-parameters, without the necessity for cumbersome optimization procedures normally followed in RF equivalent-circuit synthesis. View full abstract»

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  • Convolution-based global simulation technique for millimeter-wave photodetector and photomixer circuits

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2253 - 2258
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fast convolution-based time-domain approach to global photonic-circuit simulation is presented that incorporates a physical device model in the complete detector or mixer circuit. The device used in the demonstration of this technique is a GaAs metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector that offers a high response speed for the detection and generation of millimeter waves. Global simulation greatly increases the accuracy in evaluating the complete circuit performance because it accounts for the effects of the millimeter-wave embedding circuit. Device and circuit performance are assessed by calculating optical responsivity and bandwidth. Device-only simulations using GaAs MSMs are compared with global simulations that illustrate the strong interdependence between device and external circuit. View full abstract»

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  • A low-cost fabrication technique for symmetrical and asymmetrical layer-by-layer photonic crystals at submillimeter-wave frequencies

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2384 - 2392
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a rapid, versatile, and practical technique for the manufacture of layer-by-layer photonic crystals in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave regions. Mechanical machining is used to derive a rugged layer-by-layer structure from high-resistivity silicon wafers. Unlike traditional anisotropic etching techniques, this method does not rely on any particular crystal orientation of the substrate and allows greater flexibility in the photonic crystal design. Automatic alignment of alternating layers is achieved via careful placement of the separation cuts. Using this ability, two configurations of photonic crystals are realized and their RF characteristics are measured and presented. Firstly, a symmetrical photonic crystal is studied as an initial demonstration of the technique. This is followed by an asymmetrical example, where a different frequency response is observed for the two orthogonal polarizations of the incident radiation. Two measurement techniques are used to characterize the photonic crystals and the merits of each are discussed. Theoretical predictions are seen to agree well with the measured behavior. View full abstract»

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  • A three-dimensional unconditionally stable ADI-FDTD method in the cylindrical coordinate system

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2401 - 2405
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (285 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in a cylindrical coordinate system is presented in this paper. The alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) method is applied, leading to a cylindrical ADI-FDTD scheme where the time step is no longer restricted by the stability condition, but by the modeling accuracy. In contrast to the conventional ADI method, in which the alternation is applied in each coordinate direction, the ADI scheme here performs alternations in mixed coordinates so that only two alternations in solution matching are required at each time step in the three-dimensional formulation. Different from its counterpart in the Cartesian coordinate system, the cylindrical ADI-FDTD includes an additional special treatment along the vertical axis of the cylindrical coordinates to overcome singularity. A theoretical proof of the unconditional stability is shown and numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the cylindrical algorithm in solving electromagnetic-field problems. View full abstract»

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  • Straightforward and accurate nonlinear device model parameter-estimation method based on vectorial large-signal measurements

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2315 - 2319
    Cited by:  Papers (32)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (221 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To model nonlinear device behavior at microwave frequencies, accurate large-signal models are required. However, the standard procedure to estimate model parameters is often cumbersome, as it involves several measurement systems (DC, vector network analyzer, etc.). Therefore, we propose a new nonlinear modeling technique, which reduces the complexity of the model generation tremendously and only requires full two-port vectorial large-signal measurements. This paper reports on the results obtained with this new modeling technique applied to both empirical and artificial-neural-network device models. Experimental results are given for high electron-mobility transistors and MOSFETs. We also show that realistic signal excitations can easily be included in the optimization process. View full abstract»

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  • A comprehensive study of discontinuities in chirowaveguides

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2320 - 2330
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (721 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We provide a comprehensive study of two- and three-dimensional discontinuities in chirowaveguides. The multimode coupled-mode method is an effective numerical approach to analyze this problem. After obtaining the coupled-mode equations, we diagonalize the coupling matrix to obtain a multimode scattering matrix rather than the usual two-mode approximation. We calculate the scattering properties of coaxial waveguides partially filled with lossy chiral media. Excellent agreement is observed between our results and those obtained by the mode-matching method. We also compare our results in the achiral case for dielectric material partially filled rectangular waveguide with experimental data and results obtained by the mode-matching method. Excellent agreement is again found. Based on our analysis, numerical and analytical results are displayed to provide physical insight into the problem. First, we discuss the effects of the chirality admittance on scattering properties and find that the sensitivity of the scattering parameters to chirality admittance increases as the chirality admittance increases. Second, we find the dielectric constant has a great influence on the scattering parameters. Third, we find the relative influence of height and width of chiral obstacles in rectangular waveguides. View full abstract»

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  • Conformal-mapping design tools for coaxial couplers with complex cross section

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2339 - 2345
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Numerical conformal mapping is exploited as a simple, accurate, and efficient tool for the analysis and design of coaxial waveguides and couplers of complex cross section. An implementation based on the Schwarz-Christoffel Toolbox, a public-domain MATLAB package, is applied to slotted coaxial cables and to symmetrical coaxial couplers, with circular or polygonal inner conductors and external shields. The effect of metallic diaphragms of arbitrary thickness, partially separating the inner conductors, is also easily taken into account. The proposed technique is validated against the results of the finite-element method, showing excellent agreement at a fraction of the computational cost, and is also extended to the case of nonsymmetrical couplers, providing the designer with important additional degrees of freedom. View full abstract»

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  • Robust finite-element solution of lossy and unbounded electromagnetic eigenvalue problems

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2331 - 2338
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient algorithm is presented for the finite-element solution of electromagnetic eigenvalue problems associated with lossy and unbounded structures. The algorithm is based on the E&oarr; - B&oarr; formulation of the finite-element approximation of the electromagnetic equations. The special relationship between the vector bases used for the expansion of the electric field vector E&oarr; and the magnetic flux density vector B&oarr; is used to reduce the computational complexity of the proposed formulation. The occurrence of spurious DC modes is avoided through the careful selection of divergence-free initial vectors in the Lanczos-Arnoldi-based iterative schemes used by the proposed algorithm. The resultant algorithm is only marginally more expensive than standard finite-element-based algorithms used for electromagnetic eigenvalue problems involving lossless structures. Numerical experiments from the application of the proposed algorithm to the eigenvalue analysis of both lossless and lossy cavities are used to demonstrate its accuracy, computational efficiency, and robustness. View full abstract»

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  • A finite-element procedure based on a boundary-value approach for the evaluation of the electromagnetic exposure in biological phantoms

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2346 - 2352
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (342 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a finite-element method, based on a boundary-value approach, for the evaluation of the electric-field distribution in exposed biological phantoms is presented. Starting from the measurement of the electric field around the phantom, the field prediction is obtained by solving a boundary-value problem. This allows to avoid the description of the electromagnetic source and to estimate of the electric-field distribution also when the illuminating source is unknown or when its numerical model is not available. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, some numerical results, concerning a two-dimensional geometry, are provided. Firstly, the accuracy and validity of the electromagnetic prediction are assessed by comparing numerical with reference solutions (analytically computed). In order to demonstrate the efficiency, robustness, and capability of this technique, different measurement strategies, noisy environments, and errors in the data acquisition are then taken into account. View full abstract»

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  • A circuital approach to evaluating the electromagnetic field on rectangular apertures backed by rectangular cavities

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2259 - 2266
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the problem of evaluating the electromagnetic field on rectangular apertures backed by rectangular cavities is investigated. The electromagnetic-field distribution is derived by using a circuital model of an aperture and suitable forcing terms introduced into the equations related to the aperture model. The effects of a rectangular cavity on the aperture-field distribution are assessed by considering the rectangular cavity as a load impedance. The impedance value is obtained by modeling the rectangular cavity as a length of rectangular waveguide back-ended by a short. The distribution of the electromagnetic field on the aperture is used as an exciting source to evaluate, through a modal expansion, the electromagnetic field inside the cavity. Numerical simulations are in a good agreement with both other theoretical models and experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • TLM-based modal-extraction approach for the investigation of discontinuities in the rectangular waveguide and the NRD

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 2294 - 2304
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (467 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the development of a rigorous transmission-line matrix-based modal-extraction approach to analyze discontinuities in guided-wave structures in general, with particular attention to the nonradiative dielectric waveguide (NRD). The motivation for this paper arose from the need to ascertain the admittance of a slot in the ground plane of an NRD without relying on experimental data. These data enabled one to design an NRD-based slot array following the methodology of Malherbe (1984), Malherbe et al. (1984), and Ghosh et al.(1997). Previous work in this area relied on placing observation points sufficiently remote from the discontinuity in order to ensure the decay of scattered evanescent modes to appreciably low levels. The method discussed here obviates this requirement and allows the evaluation of generalized scattering-matrix coefficients arbitrarily close to the discontinuity, thus significantly reducing the computational overhead. Results pertaining to discontinuities in the NRD and the rectangular waveguide have been presented and shown to give good agreement with those in the literature and with measurements. The perfectly matched layer has been used as an absorbing boundary condition in our simulations. Finally, the results have been verified using the power-conservation and Poynting's theorems. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Jenshan Lin
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