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Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 64
  • Discussion of "Bibliography on the application of probability methods in power system reliability evaluation

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 924
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  • Discussion and closure of "Bibliography on the application of probability methods in power system reliability evaluation"

    Publication Year: 2002
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    R.C. Bansal, T.S. Bhatti and D.P. Kothari comment opn the paper by R. Billington et al. The authors are commended for their valuable contributions in the field of power system reliability. They suggest some additional references which may add to the value of the paper. The original authors reply to the comments. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion and closure of "Valuation of dynamic reactive power support services for transmission access"

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 925 - 926
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    Deb Chattopadhyay comments on the paper by Wilsun Xu et al. (see ibid., vol.16, p.719-28, 2002). The author asks for comments on four points: (1) the opportunity cost of provision of reactive power; (2) the approximate effect of (inadequate) reactive power demand; (3) proportional allocation of the reactive power revenue; and (4) the dynamic VAr reserve. Wilsun Xu replies to the comments. View full abstract»

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  • Closure of "valuation of dynamic reactive power support services for transmission access"

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 926
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  • Discussion and closure of "Design of generic direct sparse linear system solver in C++ for power system analysis"

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 926 - 928
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    M. N. Agostini, I. C. Decker, and A. S. e Silva comment on the paper by S. Pandit et al. (see ibid., vol.16, p.647-52, 2001). with respect to object oriented modelling and the numerical results. The original authors reply to the comments. View full abstract»

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  • Closure to "design of generic direct sparse linear system solver in C++ for power system analysis"

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 927 - 928
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  • Closure of "a robust method for equality constrained state estimation"

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 928
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  • Discussion of "A robust method for equality constrained state estimation"

    Publication Year: 2002
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    The paper's original author developed a new and valuable approach to state estimation modeling and solution. In several parts of the text, it was emphasized that an important benefit of the approach-perhaps the most important one, as could be inferred from the text-was that the gain matrix was positive definite, and so the use of mixed 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 pivots was not necessary in the factorization process. The author asks questions on this inference and the original author's response to these question is also shown. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility of decomposing A~C~E~1 to identify the impact of selected loads on CPS1 and CPS2

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 752 - 756
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    Control areas are held to the NERC's control performance standards (CPS), CPS1 and CPS2. A control area serving rapid and widely varying loads would like to know how load variations in certain subareas or zones affect its area's CPS1 and CPS2 measures. This paper addresses the question of decomposability of the 1-min average value of area control error (ACE) A~C~E~1, the primary variable in the computation of CPS1 and CPS2, into components attributable to load fluctuations within defined zones. It includes description of dynamic models of ACE and A~C~E~1, and simulated results confirming the decomposability of A~C~E~1. View full abstract»

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  • Combined wavelet-based networks and game-theoretical decision approach for real-time power dispatch

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 633 - 639
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    This paper proposes a novel approach combining wavelet-based networks and game-theoretical decision approach to reach the terms real-time power dispatch and the best compromise solution. The goals considered are both fuel cost and environment impact of NOx emission. The wavelet-based networks, evolved by an evolutionary computing algorithm, are composed of 3-layer structures, which contain the wavelet, weighting, and summing nodes. The parameters of translation and dilation in the wavelet nodes and the weighting factors in the weighting nodes are tuned to make the computed outputs fit the historical data. Once the networks are trained properly, the desired outputs can be produced as soon as the inputs are given. Based on the set of noninferior solutions for a certain load level, a game-theoretical approach is relied on to provide operators the best compromise solution. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by the IEEE 30-bus 6-generator test system. Comparisons of learning performances are made to the existing artificial neural networks (ANNs) method. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of the optimum routine test and self-checking intervals in protective relaying using a reliability model

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 663 - 669
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (279 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Relaying reliability is generally separated into the two different aspects of dependability and security. The reliability of a protection relay can be improved by carrying out routine maintenance or by including built-in monitoring and self-checking facilities during the design stages. A Markov model is described in this paper which can be used to examine these features. The model also recognizes common-cause failures, temporary and permanent faults and the associated clearing times, operation of back-up protection, and relay mal-trips. Studies have been conducted to illustrate the expected reliability benefits by inclusion of monitoring and self-checking facilities within the relay. View full abstract»

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  • A novel system for automatic generation of service reliability reports from automated mapping and facility management (AM/FM) systems

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 812 - 817
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Service reliability reports play an important role in the management of the power industry. Traditionally, those reports have been manually composed from vast quantities of information scattered among various departments within the company. Processing this information is tedious and mistakes are likely. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive system developed for New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG), which automatically generates all of the necessary standard Public Service Commission (PSC) reports, the enterprise internal use reports and the query-by-example reports. The developed system contains two major parts. The first part gathers information from the system operation records. The second part generates the report based on the collected information and the user's requirements, which are entered through a friendly interface. This reporting system was developed under a Visual C++ 5.0 environment. It is embedded into a NYSEG trouble management environment and has been operated by the reliability reporting department with very good results. View full abstract»

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  • Standard levels of energy losses in primary distribution circuits for SCADA application

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 615 - 620
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The reduction of energy losses in distribution systems is an important issue during planning and operation with important technical and economical implications. The standard or normal level of energy losses in primary distribution circuits is an important indicator for the planning and operation of electrical distribution circuits. It depends upon a number of parameters and variables, such as the nominal circuit voltage, the installed transformer capacity, the number of transformation points, the load level, etc. In this paper, the application of a statistical procedure for the determination of the standard levels of energy losses in primary distribution circuits is proposed. The methodology is applied to a subset of 312 primary distribution circuits out of a total of 819 circuits of the electrical distribution network that serves the city of Caracas and its surroundings. The resultant standard upper and lower levels of energy losses are presented for the 15 different groups of circuits that were formed by the statistical procedure. These limits are used online for the identification of those distribution feeders with an operating level of energy losses out of the standard levels of its corresponding statistical group, as candidates for the application of energy losses reduction measures. The developed application software is presently running online at the distribution energy-management system of the of C.A. La Electricidad de Caracas-AES Venezuela. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of circuit breaker statuses in WLS state estimator

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 818 - 825
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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    This paper presents a method for probabilistic modeling and identification of circuit breaker statuses in power system state estimation. The conventional WLS state estimator is extended by incorporating the active and reactive power flows on circuit breakers and their statuses as state variables. Additional pseudo measurements for each circuit breaker are also introduced. The status of each circuit breaker is obtained through SCADA or entered by operators. Depending on the redundancy and quality of real-time measurements, the method can estimate the correct breaker statuses. A scheme for observability analysis and bad data processing, for analog and topological measurements, is also utilized. The method is illustrated with a 12 node system. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission loss allocation: a comparison of different practical algorithms

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 571 - 576
    Cited by:  Papers (104)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A pool-operated electricity market based on hourly auctions usually neglects network constraints and network losses while applying its market-clearing mechanism. This mechanism determines the accepted and nonaccepted energy bids as well as the hourly market-clearing prices. As a result, ex post procedures are needed to resolve network congestions and to allocate transmission losses to generators and demands. This paper focuses on transmission loss allocation procedures and provides a detailed comparison of four alternative algorithms: (1) pro rata (PR); (2) marginal allocation; (3) unsubsidized marginal allocation; and (4) proportional sharing. A case study based on the IEEE RTS is provided. Different load scenarios covering a whole year are analyzed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are stated. View full abstract»

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  • Incorporating aging failures in power system reliability evaluation

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 918 - 923
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a method to incorporate aging failures in power system reliability evaluation. It includes development of a calculation approach with two possible probability distribution models for unavailability of aging failures and implementation in reliability evaluation. The defined unavailability of aging failures has a consistent form which is the same as that for repairable failures. This allows aging failures to be easily included in existing reliability evaluation techniques and tools. Differences between the two models using normal and Weibull distributions have been discussed. The BC Hydro North Metro system was used as an example to demonstrate an application of the proposed method and models. The results indicate that aging failures have significant impacts on system reliability, particularly for an "aged" system. Ignoring aging failures in reliability evaluation of an aged power system will result in an overly underestimation of system risk and most likely a misleading conclusion in system planning. View full abstract»

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  • Network-constrained multiperiod auction for a pool-based electricity market

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 646 - 653
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (295 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a multiperiod electricity auction market tool that explicitly takes into account transmission congestion and losses as well as intertemporal operating constraints such as start-up costs, ramp rates, and minimum up and down times that may be included in any generating unit's composite bid. This approach, which requires only existing mixed-integer linear solvers, provides the market operator with a valuable tool for scheduling participants in a competitive market where transparency, fairness, and confidentiality of participants' data are of paramount concern. Indeed, under this framework, only network data are of public domain; producers are not required to reveal corporate data, and they have more flexibility in specifying the structure of their composite bid. This paper demonstrates and illustrates, through numerical studies using test systems, that an efficient and fair competitive electricity market can be implemented, taking into account network constraints and losses. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of an A~C~E~1 decomposition method

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 757 - 761
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Having established feasibility and developed a method to decompose control area's A~C~E~1 into components attributable to load changes in subareas within the control area, this paper addresses some of the practical issues with an on-line implementation of the A~C~E~1 model and the decomposition method. Issues examined here include time-varying system conditions, nonlinearities in the governors' dead bands and AGC loop, and the impact of load disturbance external to the control area. An on-line recursive parameter estimation technique with adjustable forgetting factor to update the A~C~E~1 model parameters is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Gaming the uniform-price spot market: quantitative analysis

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 768 - 773
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a range of indices have been derived to quantify the incentives to game the uniform-price spot market. The gain of a portfolio generator due to withdrawing capacity and/or inflating the price bid has been found to be proportional to the in-merit market share of the gaming generator and the inverse combined price elasticity of supply/demand. A gaming index has also been derived, as a modification of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, which takes into account the reduction in the number of competitors as the demand goes up and the benefit the portfolio generators take from gaming. Price-elastic loads reduce gaming opportunities but do not remove them. Application of the indices has been illustrated using the the spot market in England and Wales. The results seem to confirm practical evidence from many countries that spot markets are vulnerable to gaming. View full abstract»

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  • Computation of optimal reclosure time for transmission lines

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 670 - 675
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    The reclosing time of a transmission line has a distinct influence on system stability. A new method of calculating the optimal reclosing time based on the transient energy function (TEF) is presented in this paper. It has been shown that an optimal reclosing time can be used to set the autoreclosing device so that the system stability or power-transfer capability can be significantly improved. Though power-system TEF is based on classical models, the results from simulation studies of a real system (46 generators and 230 buses) with complex models show that the optimal reclosing time calculated using TEF can be used effectively. View full abstract»

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  • Transition to an electricity market: a model for developing countries

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 885 - 894
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Market oriented restructuring of the electricity supply industry (ESI) in the West has led to a realization of the need for reform and competition in developing countries as well. However, there are fundamental differences between the two cases regarding the maturity of the ESI structure, economic priorities and the role of the state in development. This paper, therefore, synthesizes a model of reform which is sensitive to these realities. Consequently, the outlook is different from the prevailing tendency to simply transpose experience from elsewhere. The core issue that we identify is the approach to the transmission system. Thailand, since it is of medium size and reform oriented, is used as the main reference point, but short sections on Sri Lanka and China are included to widen the relevance of the discussion. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic security border identification using enhanced particle swarm optimization

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 723 - 729
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ongoing deregulation of the energy market increases the need to operate modern power systems close to the security border. This requires enhanced methods for the vulnerability border tracking. The high-dimensional nature of power systems' operating space makes this difficult. However, new multiagent search techniques such as particle swarm optimization have shown great promise in handling high-dimensional nonlinear problems. This paper investigates the use of a new variation of particle swarm optimization to identify points on the security border of the power system, thereby identifying a vulnerability margin metric for the operating point. View full abstract»

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  • Application of evolutionary algorithms for the planning of urban distribution networks of medium voltage

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 879 - 884
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Currently, an important issue in power distribution is the need to optimize medium voltage (MV) networks serving urban areas. This paper shows how an evolutionary algorithm can be used as the basis for the type of efficient algorithm such optimization demands. The search for optimal network solution will be restricted to a graph defined from the urban map, so each graph branch represents a trench. The solution space (networks) is assumed with "loop feeder circuits": networks with two electrical paths from the high voltage/medium voltage (HV/MV) substations to the customers. In the optimization process, the investment and loss load costs are considered taking into account the constraints of conductor capacities and voltage drop. The investment costs will take into account that some cables can be lying in the same trench. The process was applied for a Spanish city of 200,000 inhabitants. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission capacity: availability, maximum transfer and reliability

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 843 - 849
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The available transfer capability (ATC) is an important parameter for all companies participating in power transaction activities. The main objective of this work is to propose a new methodology to determine the best points in the system to add new agents (sellers and buyers), in order to maximize the ATC, without violating a pre-established reliability level. In the process, the ATC probability density function is determined considering uncertainties from equipment un-availabilities. The proposed algorithm uses Monte Carlo simulation to select system state and linear programming with a DC power flow model, to analyze and optimize each selected state. The IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS) is used to illustrate the proposed methodology. View full abstract»

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  • Market plurality and manipulation: performance comparison of independent system operators

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 762 - 767
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the authors present three different models that represent the coordinating functions of existing independent system operators (ISOs), and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Max-ISO is a centralized operator based on the pool model, and min-ISO is a decentralized operator based on the bilateral model. Mix-ISO is positioned in between, having multiple power exchanges or bilateral contracts. The performance of the different ISOs is compared by the total social welfare and the vulnerability to market manipulation. A numerical example is presented to compare the performance of different ISOs. The max-ISO is considered to be the most efficient model theoretically, but it does not necessarily provide the best market in terms of vulnerability to market manipulation. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Covers the requirements, planning, analysis, reliability, operation, and economics of electric generating, transmission, and distribution systems for general industrial, commercial, public, and domestic consumption.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Antonio J. Conejo
The Ohio State University