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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 10 • Date Oct 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Propagation equation based theory of intermodal injection locking in semiconductor lasers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1705 - 1712
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)  

    Intermodal injection locking is analyzed theoretically through the use of propagation equations inside the amplifying semiconductor medium and the boundary conditions on the laser facets. In particular, the stability analysis is performed by considering the oscillation threshold of sideband waves generated inside the laser via intracavity nearly degenerate four-wave mixing processes. This study of injection locking is performed by taking into account the dispersion relationship of both the optical gain and linewidth enhancement factor. As a consequence, in intermodal injection locking, the injected-locked power is shown to be, in certain cases, lower than that of the free-running laser, and the frequency zones of stable injection locking broader than those obtained in the intramodal injection-locking case usually considered View full abstract»

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  • Mutual influence of the parametric effects and stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1815 - 1820
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    The effect of Raman gain parametric suppression is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained. The analysis of the effect of Raman nonlinearity on the process of modulation instability in the region of negative group velocity dispersion of fibers is presented. New dependencies for the modulational instability frequency and increment are calculated View full abstract»

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  • Temperature dependence of polarization characteristics in buried facet semiconductor laser amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1772 - 1778
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    The temperature dependence of gain and amplified spontaneous power for both TE and TM modes in semiconductor laser amplifiers are measured. Experiments are performed on three selected amplifier types, with higher TE, higher TM, and equal TE-TM gains, respectively. The gain differences are significantly reduced at higher temperature for the TE-dominant and TM-dominant amplifiers. For amplifiers with equal TE-TM gains, the TE and TM gains remain equal at high temperature. The measurements of the amplified spontaneous power show similar similar characteristics. More importantly, less polarization-sensitive gain characteristics can be obtained with some decrease in maximum gain by raising the operating temperature. The experimental results are explained by using the gain equations of the semiconductor laser amplifier View full abstract»

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  • CLADISS-a longitudinal multimode model for the analysis of the static, dynamic, and stochastic behavior of diode lasers with distributed feedback

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1728 - 1741
    Cited by:  Papers (65)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)  

    A computer model called CLADISS is presented for the analysis of multisection diode lasers. The model allows for the analysis of a wide variety of multisection devices with discrete or distributed internal reflections. The simulator can carry out a threshold, DC, AC, and a noise analysis. The threshold analysis determines the threshold of the various longitudinal modes of the laser. The power versus current and the wavelength versus current characteristics are found with the self-consistent DC analysis. CLADISS includes all of the longitudinal variations by dividing each laser section in many short segments. Both the optical field and carrier density are discretized according to this segmentation. To demonstrate the capabilities of CLADISS some nonlinear effects in DFB lasers are treated. Instabilities induced in the side-mode suppression ratio by spatial hole burning are considered. The effects of spatial hole burning and side modes on the FM response on the linewidth are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Coupled-mode analysis of second harmonic generation in the form of Cerenkov radiation from a channel optical waveguide

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1821 - 1826
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)  

    Optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the form of Cerenkov radiation from a channel waveguide is analyzed by a coupled-mode theory. A simple formula is given which expresses the SHG efficiency in terms of waveguide and optical nonlinear parameters and by which one can simulate the radiation pattern of SHG. Computational examples are plotted for LiNbO3 crystals and reasonably agree with reported results. The analysis shows that the efficiency could be increased significantly if the sign of a d-constant in a substrate were modulated with a proper period View full abstract»

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  • Optical switching in the twin-guide Fabry-Perot laser amplifier

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1764 - 1771
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    A recently developed theory of the twin-guide Fabry-Perot laser amplifier has been extended to include the case of optically induced switching. The effect of feedback from the facets serves to dramatically decrease the optical power required for switching as compared to that for a traveling-wave amplifier, but at the expense of accurate control of input wavelength. Switching is predicted at input powers on the order of microwatts, in good agreement with a first experimental demonstration of the effect View full abstract»

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  • Spatial mode structure of index-guided broad-area quantum-well lasers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1713 - 1716
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    The spatial mode characteristics of index-guided ridge-waveguide broad-area (BA) quantum-well lasers grown by organometallic chemical vapor deposition were investigated experimentally. The index-guided BA lasers lase in a high-order lateral mode, and thus emit a double-lobed far-field pattern. This is significantly different from their gain-guided counterparts, which lase in the fundamental mode. For BA lasers with the same width and made on the same or similar material, the index-guided lasers have lower threshold currents, higher quantum efficiencies, and better linearity in the light versus current characteristics. It is observed that the order of the dominant high-order lateral-mode increased with increasing laser width or effective index step of the laser waveguide. In addition, it is found that the mechanism for degradation in the spatial coherence at high pumping levels is the onset of higher order lateral modes View full abstract»

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  • Theory of hot carrier effects on nonlinear gain in GaAs-GaAlAs lasers and amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1689 - 1704
    Cited by:  Papers (47)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1216 KB)  

    A concise and straightforward model of nonlinear grain based on the carrier heating effect in semiconductor lasers is presented. The problem is formulated using the density matrix approach and includes a priori the effect of free-carrier absorption. Coupled field-medium equations involving photon densities, carrier densities, and carrier temperatures are derived using the results of the density matrix method. The propagation of ultrashort pulses in laser amplifiers is studied and a qualitatively new model along with results on the transient gain recovery dynamics are presented. The model accounts for the wavelength dependence of the asymmetric part of the nonlinear gain observed in direct mixing experiments observed in semiconductor lasers View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical study of a classically confined solid-state photomultiplier

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1838 - 1844
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)  

    A detailed theoretical analysis is presented of the workings of a new solid-state photomultiplier whose gain is derived through impact excitation events of classically confined electrons out of thin semiconductor layers. The highly doped layers containing the target or ionizing electrons are made sufficiently wide so as to avoid spatial quantization effects. The primary difference of this scheme is due to the different k vector conservation requirement implicit in confined quantum state devices. The calculations presented serve as a lower bound on the gain of a confined electron state photomultiplier. However, owing to the classical confinement, the dark currents, due to both thermionic emission and tunneling, are substantially lower, by several orders of magnitude, than that in a quantum confined device. Calculations of the ionization probability, average ionization rate, gain, dark current, and mean thermalization distance are presented View full abstract»

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  • Energy storage and heat deposition in flashlamp-pumped sensitized erbium glass lasers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1779 - 1787
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)  

    Measurements of population inversion energy storage and heat deposition in flashlamp-pumped Nd:Yb:Er:glass and Cr:Nd:Yb:Er:glass lasers are reported. A thermal camera is used to measure temperature changes following isolated flashlamp pulses. A rate equation model is developed in order to determine energy storage from the output versus input energy characteristics of erbium lasers operating in a free-oscillation mode. Contributions of different sensitizers are distinguished by spectrally filtering flashlamp-pump radiation. Ratios of the deposited heat per unit stored energy in both glasses are compared for several spectral regions View full abstract»

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  • Optical frequency scanning without deflection using an acoustooptic modulator

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1682 - 1685
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    A change in the RF frequency driving an acoustooptic modulator causes a change in the deflection of the diffracted light beam. It is found that for a certain angle of incidence upon multiple transducer acoustooptic modulators one can obtain diffracted beams which show no change in deflection for a change in acoustic frequency. However, the change in acoustic frequency is imparted to the optical beam. This effect occurs over an RF frequency band centered about the Bragg frequency. An explanation of this effect is presented View full abstract»

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  • Effect of a strong axial magnetic field in the plasma recombination and extreme ultraviolet emission from a highly-ionized capillary discharge

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1809 - 1814
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB)  

    The effect of an externally applied 70-100-kG axial magnetic field in the temporal evolution of the extreme ultraviolet emission from a 500-μm-diameter highly ionized LiH capillary discharge is studied. In the absence of external magnetic confinement, strong emission from ionic transitions excited by collisional recombinations is observed at the end of the current pulse. The externally applied magnetic field is observed to reduce the intensity of the recombination lines by decreasing the rate of plasma cooling by electron heat conduction to the capillary walls. In contrast, the self-generated magnetic field of the discharge aids to the generation of an initially hot plasma, and allows rapid conduction cooling at the end of the current pulse. The results are discussed in relation to a proposed capillary-discharge-excited extreme ultraviolet recombination laser scheme View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of oscillation characteristics of separated-electrode DFB laser diodes

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1717 - 1727
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)  

    The oscillation characteristics of separated-electrode distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are analyzed by a numerical approach. In the calculation, coupled-mode equations are used including the carrier-density nonuniformity along the laser axis, which is introduced by the spatial hole burning and/or the nonuniform current injection. When the center section of a DFB laser, with three equally separated electrodes, is more strongly pumped than the side sections, high performance is achieved: the mode stability is maintained in the high-power state, resulting in a narrow linewidth. This is because the spatial hole burning is compensated by the larger current injection into the center region. The wide tunable range is also obtained under this bias condition View full abstract»

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  • Output characterization of a frequency shifted feedback laser: theory and experiment

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1845 - 1851
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    Frequency shifted feedback cavity (FSFC) lasers can generate continuous broadband radiation or periodic picosecond pulses. To better understand these two different regimes a passive FSFC is modeled and its output in the time and frequency domains is calculated. Calculations of the FSFC output indicate that peaks observed using a Fabry-Perot spectrum analyzer can only occur when the FSFC cavity length and intracavity frequency shift satisfy a resonance condition. Calculations also indicate that a radio frequency spectrum analysis of the intensity should show sharp peaks which are independent of the FSFC frequency shift. Additionally, pulses propagating in a FSFC are insensitive to frequency shift detunings, suggesting applications as a stable source of ultrashort laser pulses. Experimental evidence confirming these findings is reported. Results indicate that a FSFC does not support conventional laser modes View full abstract»

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  • Acceleration of electrons by moving intensity minima of laser fields with dynamic superposition

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1833 - 1837
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)  

    The question of how the trapping and moving of electrons in the intensity minima is possible is addressed. It has been asked whether the electrons are not slipping through the standing wave field or the accelerated intensity minima if one would follow up the individual quiver motion of the electrons instead of the time averaged nonlinear forces. In order to demonstrate that the electrons are not slipping through the electromagnetic field according to the time averaged nonlinear force, a detailed numerical calculation is performed. A complicated differential equation problem is then solved. The results agree with the otherwise expected time averaged nonlinear force description, and no slipping through or other unexpected mechanisms occur View full abstract»

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  • External-cavity semiconductor laser with focusing grating mirror

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1747 - 1755
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB)  

    A novel external-cavity semiconductor laser with a focusing grating mirror (FGM), which enables a single-mode oscillation at a specified wavelength, is proposed. The optical properties of the FGM, which is a computer-generated holographic grating with chirp and bend structure, are numerically analyzed. An optimally designed FGM for realizing laser oscillation at a specific wavelength of 1.30 μm is fabricated by using a computer-controlled electron-beam writing system. The fabricated FGM with grating area of 1×1 mm2 is combined as an external feedback mirror with an InGaAsP-InP semiconductor laser of 1.3 μm wavelength range, and the lasing characteristics are experimentally measured. Stable and single-mode oscillations with spectral line width less than 10 MHz are observed View full abstract»

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  • Population inversion in the recombination of optically-ionized plasmas

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1797 - 1808
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB)  

    The possibility of using a high-intensity optical field in conjunction with a gas target to produce a highly ionized plasma filament suitable for recombination XUV lasers in both transient and quasi-steady-state regimes is examined. A distinction is made between low Z ions which can be stripped to the desired ionization state at nonrelativistic intensities and higher Z ions which require relativistic intensities to produce the desired ionization. In the nonrelativistic case (Ei<500 eV), it is shown that electron thermal conduction is extremely effective in cooling ~10-μm diameter filaments imbedded in cold background plasma. In the relativistic case, self-focusing of the ionizing laser radiation may lead to a very small diameter electron-cavitated filaments which will undergo a space-charge-driven expansion (Coulomb explosion) on the time scale of an ion plasma period, resulting in the emission of extremely high currents of moderate energy (E≈1/8 Zme c2) ions. The implications of such filamentation for the scaling of the present type of recombination laser to short wavelengths are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Lateral-mode selectivity in external-cavity diode lasers with residual facet reflectivity

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1756 - 1763
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    The relatively flat lateral gain profile across a wide-strip laser diode does not allow sufficient overlap with the Gaussian fundamental mode of an external resonator to achieve saturation of the gain in the wings of the mode profile. Thus, parasitic free-running oscillation of the diode in an external-cavity laser is permitted by residual facet reflectivity of the antireflection-coated diode, and degrades the lateral-mode-selectivity of the external resonator at injection currents exceeding the threshold of the solitary diode. A relation between the maximum injection current at which the external-cavity laser will operate in a single mode and the diode's facet reflectivity is given View full abstract»

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  • Theory of the spectral linewidth of N-element coupled-cavity semiconductor lasers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1686 - 1688
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)  

    A simple expression is presented for N-element coupled-cavity semiconductor lasers using semiclassical theory which can be used for both passive and active coupled-cavity configurations. The theoretical explanations are in good agreement with the experimental results. However, because of the low-frequency approximation in this analysis (carrier fluctuation is not considered), the theoretical results are not suitable for the noise properties in the high-frequency region View full abstract»

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  • Wavelength dependence of 1/f noise in the light output of laser diodes: an experimental study

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1742 - 1746
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)  

    The optical power emitted by a monomode GaAlAs laser is filtered with a monochromator. The 1/f noise in the filtered emission is found to be directly dependent on the noncoherent emission, such as SpαPncm. Here sp is the spectral density of the 1/f fluctuations, Pnc is the average noncoherent power, m=3/2 under spontaneous emission, and m=4 in the superradiation and laser regions. Study of the 1/f noise in the optical power in a band centered at the laser wavelength and with variable bandwidth shows three operating regions. (1) LED region (at low currents): the fluctuations with a 1/f spectrum are uncorrelated in wavelength. (2) Superradiation region (at currents close to the threshold): the fluctuations are correlated. (3) Laser region: the 1/f noise apparently is dominated by noncoherent emission within a small optical band around the laser wavelength View full abstract»

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  • Improved short-pulse pumping of stimulated Raman scattering in lead vapor

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1827 - 1832
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    Improved efficiency for short pulse stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in Pb vapor is obtained using accumulation of gain between a closely spaced pulse pair. The peak power conversion efficiency of the delayed pulse is increased to 40%, in contrast to 15% for a single pulse. Numerical modeling gives good agreement with observation, and suggests that this enhancement is caused by the continued presence of coherent excitation produced by the first pulse. The dependence of the enhancement in delayed-pulse efficiency on Xe buffer gas pressure in the Pb-vapor cell is attributed to changes in the transient response time T2 of the Pb medium with Xe pressure View full abstract»

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  • Closed-form expressions for the gain in three- and four-level laser fibers

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1788 - 1796
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    Exact and approximate theoretical models of the small-signal single-pass gain in single-mode three-level laser fibers are presented. These models are relevant to the behavior of rare-earth-doped (in particular Er3+) silica-based fibers. They account for the effects of both the pump and signal-mode structures and pump excited-state absorption (ESA), the latter being present for some pump wavelengths in Er-doped silica fibers. By relying on the modal overlap integral formalism for four-level lasers, relatively simple closed-form expressions for the pump absorption and the gain are derived. These expressions are also applicable to four level laser fibers by a simple adjustment of some of the model parameters View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University