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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Jul/Aug 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • Performance testing low-voltage ground-fault protection

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 981 - 989
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (243 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The National Electrical Code (NEC) requires ground-fault protection of equipment by devices intended to detect and interrupt low-current arcing phase-to-ground faults on many solidly grounded low-voltage systems having current ratings of 1000 A or greater. The NEC also dictates field performance testing of ground-fault protection, but does not prescribe specific techniques to be used. This paper reviews the types of ground-fault protection equipment and systems in use today, ranging from simple bolted-pressure switch and relay combinations to complex multiple-source systems and zone-selective-interlocked systems. Conditions that can cause misoperation of ground-fault protection are reviewed, including a summary of problems identified during field testing of actual projects. Available testing techniques are reviewed and primary current injection is recommended as the most reliable means of field verification for most ground-fault protection systems. Required test equipment setup for each system configuration is described, and cautions to be observed during this type of testing are presented. This paper will benefit engineers and technicians responsible for acceptance testing of electrical equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of upsets and failures due to ESD by the FDTD-INBCs method

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1009 - 1017
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model of an electrostatic discharge (ESD) event is developed. Analytical expressions for the field radiated during the ESD discharge phase have been determined to test the FDTD model of the strike arc. In order to take into account the electromagnetic field penetration through shielding structures, the conductive panels are efficiently modeled in the FDTD by the impedance network boundary conditions (INBCs). The FDTD-INBCs method avoids the huge amount of cells needed to model accurately the penetration in the traditional FDTD algorithm based on the utilization of the regular Yee grid. The method is applied to the analysis of ESD events in some configurations. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorless control strategy for salient-pole PMSM based on extended EMF in rotating reference frame

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1054 - 1061
    Cited by:  Papers (169)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB)  

    This paper presents a novel sensorless control strategy for a salient-pole permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). A new model of a salient-pole PMSM using an extended electromotive force (EMF) in the rotating reference frame is utilized to estimate both position and speed. The extended EMF is estimated by a least-order observer, and the estimation position error is obtained from the extended EMF. Both estimated position and speed are corrected so that the position error becomes zero. The proposed system is very simple and the design procedure is easy and clear. Several experimental drive tests are demonstrated and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed sensorless control system. View full abstract»

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  • Improved speed estimation in sensorless PM brushless AC drives

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1072 - 1080
    Cited by:  Papers (32)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (393 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application of flux-observer-based sensorless control to permanent-magnet brushless AC motor drives is described. Current methods of speed estimation are assessed, both theoretically and experimentally, and an improved method, which combines the best features of methods in which speed is derived from the differential of rotor position and from the ratio of the electromotive force to excitation flux linkage, is proposed. Its performance is verified experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Motor primer. II

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 955 - 965
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, much has been written about applying motors with variable-speed drives, high-speed rigid-shaft motors, the impact of API Standard 541 on motors, motor diagnostics and much more. Most of these papers and articles assume that the reader has significant knowledge of motor theory and operation. However, this assumption is overly optimistic, considering that few, if any, colleges teach motor theory today and that application experience at motor user locations has been significantly reduced in recent years. This paper is the second of a series of papers on motor basics. The authors present motor theory and application information with an extensive reference list that will help engineers understand such questions as: why do motors make pulsating noises? This paper will also serve as a valuable reference for those who use or purchase motors. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE 844-2000: Recommended Practice for Electrical Impedance, Induction, and Skin Effect Heating of Pipelines and Vessels

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 921 - 926
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    IEEE Std 844 Recommended Practice for Electrical Impedance, Induction, and Skin Effect Heating of Pipelines and Vessels has recently completed its second revision cycle. Major changes include the addition of testing requirements for systems within the scope and the addition of a new clause-Induction Susceptor Heating Furnaces within a Vessel. This paper presents the major changes and reviews the background and development of the approved standard. View full abstract»

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  • Startup and commissioning procedures for electronically line-shafted paper machine drives

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 966 - 973
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electronic line-shafting control has demonstrated very promising features when applied to paper machine drives. To apply this new control methodology, it is necessary to develop a starting procedure for each individual section and a method for setting the parameters of the virtual line-shaft drive and in-shafts. This paper proposes and evaluates startup and commissioning procedures for electronically line-shafted paper machine drives. The procedure for acceleration of the individual sections is implemented using virtual variable-ratio gearboxes that emulate the physical clutches and conical pulleys used in the era of line-shafts. System stiffness is implemented using virtual in-shafts with active damping. Evaluation shows that the proposed virtual clutch/conical pulley assembly and active damping allow smooth acceleration of each section and maintain well-behaved response during load disturbances for all operating conditions, even with different numbers of sections effectively connected. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to IEEE 841-2001, IEEE standard for petroleum and chemical industry-severe duty totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) squirrel-cage induction motors-up to and including 370 KW (500 HP)

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 941 - 947
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    IEEE 841-1994, IEEE Standard for Petroleum and Chemical Industry Severe Duty Totally Enclosed Fan-Cooled (TEFC) Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors-Up to and Including 500 hp, issued in 1994, has been updated and improved. The scope includes three-phase severe duty TEFC squirrel-cage induction motors with antifriction bearings in sizes up to and including 370 kW (500 hp) and motor rated voltages of 200, 230, 460, 575, 2300, and 4000 V at 60 Hz. Changes to the standard are reviewed in detail. Requirements are identified that improve motor reliability and increase motor life. View full abstract»

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  • Zone-branch reliability methodology applied to Gold Book standard network

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 990 - 995
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (314 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is a need recognized in the power industry to identify and utilize a standard tool or a set of tools to analyze the reliability of industrial and commercial power systems. Historically, the reliability results of different reliability methodologies varied significantly and comparisons were extremely difficult. The Reliability Analysis Technique Working Group of the Gold Book (i.e., IEEE Std. 493) developed a standard network to enable comparison of analytical techniques. This paper identifies the different analysis techniques currently available. This paper is the second of a series of papers applying the zone-branch methodology to the Gold Book standard network configuration. Two case studies are presented for different network operating practices. Future papers applying these different techniques to the same Gold Book standard network configuration will be presented and the results compared to determine accuracy of these analytical techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Sleeve versus antifriction bearings: selection of the optimal bearing for induction motors

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 909 - 920
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The decision between which hearing type to utilize is not always easy or even obvious. There is no choice in bearing selection on small motors (less than 200 hp), where only antifriction bearings (AFBs) are readily available. Likewise, a choice does not always exist on larger motors in excess of 2000 hp, where various design requirements leave only the sleeve bearing (or tilting pad bearing) as a viable option. On intermediate size motors, a choice will have to be made. In general, AFBs are less expensive, and result in a more compact motor. However, there are potential disadvantages associated with AFBs. The "best" bearing decision depends on the details of the particular application. This paper explores the advantages/disadvantages of both types of bearings. Additionally, it provides guidelines to help select the best bearing for the application. Judicious selection of bearings will result in motor purchasing savings without sacrificing process reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Design and application of semiconductor rectifier transformers

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 927 - 933
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (211 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design of semiconductor rectifiers made obsolete the older mercury-arc rectifiers. Accordingly, the transformer standards were modified to address the differences in the two types of transformers supplied for these applications. Short-circuit problems were reduced with the new technology, but harmonic heating became a bigger problem. The Transformers Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society developed the new standard for semiconductor power rectifier transformers. This paper intends to highlight some of the major aspects of how specification, design, and testing of semiconductor rectifier transformers have changed based on the new standard, as well as other design and application consideration. View full abstract»

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  • Changes in the 2002 National Electrical Code

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 974 - 980
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The 2002 edition of the National Electrical Code (NEC) was published in September 2001. A number of changes have been made that effect the entire NEC as well as individual changes related to wire and cable. The 2002 NEC will utilize SI units as the primary units with inch-pound units secondary. Chapter 3 has been completely reorganized and renumbered for consistency and to enhance usability. View full abstract»

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  • Rate of charging of spherical particles by monopolar ions in electric fields

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1001 - 1008
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (287 KB)  

    This paper presents a numerical algorithm to simulate the charging dynamics of high-resistivity spherical particles by the ionic bombardment in an electric field. The algorithm is based on solving the Poisson equation, governing the electric field distribution, and the differential equation expressing the charge conservation law. The Poisson equation is solved be means of the finite-element method using the triangular discretization and the first of interpolation. The finite-volume method (in a version called the donor-cell method) is used to handle the charge conservation equation. Results of simulation are also presented and they illustrate the effect of different parameters on the charging dynamics. For high-conductivity particles, the charging rate is practically identical to that given by the Pauthernier formula. Charging of high-resistivity particles leads to more complicated solutions and is much slower. View full abstract»

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  • High-performance fully digital switched reluctance motor controller for vehicle propulsion

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1062 - 1071
    Cited by:  Papers (53)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (598 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-performance fully digital controller has been designed for the control of a switched reluctance (SR) motor built for vehicle propulsion. The SR machine is specifically designed and built to have high density and low noise. The controller is designed to maximize the machine efficiency, the peak overload capability, and to minimize torque ripple at low speed. Lookup tables are stored in a digital-signal-processor-based controller to calculate the control parameters online. Three interpolations, between torque command, motor speed, and battery voltage, are performed to obtain the control parameters. Difficulties associated with the interpolation scheme are addressed. A high-bandwidth fully digital proportional plus integral current regulator has been designed for the control of the phase current. Advantages as well as the difficulties with the operation of the SR machine and its control have been addressed. A complete characterization of the controller for the entire torque-speed plane has been made through extensive dyno testing. Simulation and dyno test results have been presented to demonstrate the performance of this controller. View full abstract»

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  • Harmonic losses in LCI-fed synchronous motors

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 948 - 954
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (302 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Load-commutated inverters produce considerable current harmonies, which can cause losses and heating inside the machine. As drive outputs increase, it is important to be able to accurately predict not only the magnitude of these losses, but also the precise location of the losses within the motor. Recent experience and modern calculation techniques have shown that the effects of these losses in large motors can be quite dramatic. If not considered at the design stage, they can lead to high-temperature hot spots. These potential hot spots need eliminating to prevent surface temperatures in excess of gas ignition temperatures and also possible early machine failure. New detailed calculations have been performed which allowed a novel technique to be determined to reduce these losses and allow larger ratings of drives to be safely engineered. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of potential differences for a three-body problem

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 996 - 1000
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (239 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An investigation to assess potential differences for a three-body geometry was conducted. Using conducting cylinders of different sizes to model the test system's conductors, capacitance coefficients were measured and body potentials calculated for different geometries of the three floating conductors in close vicinity. The test geometry was chosen to model the approach of the charged human body to an electronic system which has a neighboring floating conductor. Parameters studied include body sizes, test geometries, and the relative magnitude and polarity of the charges on the three bodies. The results of this work provide a better understanding of the fundamental principles involved in the electrostatic discharge (ESD) event involving three bodies. The results have application in assessing the possibility of ESD in different geometries. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing losses in three-phase PWM pulsed DC-link voltage-type inverter systems

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1114 - 1122
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (357 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with pulsewidth modulation (PWM) strategies that synchronize clamped voltage segments using the current peak in the corresponding phases of a three-phase quasi-resonant DC-link (QRDCL) voltage inverter. It is shown that, instead of employing lookup tables, these strategies can be easily implemented by using, the concept of hybrid modulation in this type of pulsed DC-link voltage (PDCLV) inverter. In fact, such concept leads to a systematic and straight approach to the generation of any continuous or discontinuous PWM strategy. A topology that is shown to produce fewer losses than either PDCLV inverters or the hard-switched inverter version is used to compare the losses produced when the two strategies discussed in the paper are employed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • An isolated high-voltage DC-to-DC converter with fast turn-off capability for X-ray tube gridding

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1139 - 1146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (334 KB)  

    X-ray tube gridding requires that a high-voltage, in the range of a few kilovolts, be applied and removed very quickly while the lengths of the voltage on- and off-periods are measured in tens of milliseconds. The application requires high-voltage isolation, as the gridding circuit is referenced to the cathode potential, and requires minimal circuit power dissipation, due to cooling limitations in the environment in which this converter is operated. The main challenge, however, is how to turn off the converter and discharge the output capacitor within the required time of approximately 100 μs. The proposed converter provides these features and has a higher reliability, better performance, and lower cost than other known solutions. (The disclosed circuit has been protected by several patents and filed disclosures.) It employs the conventional forward topology, with peak-forward energy transfer. To achieve fast turn-off, a novel crowbar arrangement has been implemented that is controlled via the isolation transformer used for energy transfer. This paper describes the application requirements, the proposed circuit arrangement and its operation, and provides detailed circuit analysis, design guidelines, and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • A new method of damping harmonic resonance at the DC link in large-capacity rectifier-inverter systems using a novel regenerating scheme

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1131 - 1138
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (318 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new method of damping harmonic resonance at the DC link of a large-capacity rectifier-inverter system such as in rapid-transit railways. A voltage-source pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) converter is connected in series to the DC capacitor of the rectifier through a matching transformer, acting as a damping resistor to the dc capacitor current. No filters are needed to extract harmonic components from the DC capacitor current. This results in a quick response and highly stable damping. The required rating of the PWM converter is less than one-thousandth of that previously proposed. The basic principle of the proposed damping method is discussed in detail, then confirmed using digital computer simulation. Experimental results verify the validity and practicability of the proposed damping method. View full abstract»

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  • On-field experience with online diagnosis of large induction motors cage failures using MCSA

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1045 - 1053
    Cited by:  Papers (70)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The experience gained by ENEL Produzione (previously the Italian Electric Board) on monitoring the cage condition of large induction motors is reported in this paper. The diagnostic procedure is based on the motor current signature analysis and, in particular, on the two sideband current components near the frequency fundamental line that appear in the current power spectrum when a rotor bar/ring breakage occurs. According to the developed procedure, a diagnostic index obtained from these components is stored and its trend as a function of time allows for the detection of the occurrence of a failure in most cases. This event is clearly shown by the overcoming of a prefixed and triggered threshold. Moreover, machines with particular rotor magnetic structure are considered. In this case, unexpectedly high sideband components appear, even in the presence of healthy cages, and the test procedure was adapted to account for these conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A unity-power-factor three-phase PWM SCR rectifier for high-power applications in the metal industry

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 898 - 908
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (343 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new thyristor current-source rectifier that achieves unity power factor, low-current total harmonic distortion (THD), and DC-bus current and voltage control is presented. The rectifier is suitable for high-power applications such as induction heating and DC arc furnaces. It combines a traditional six-pulse thyristor bridge and a DC chopper that together solve power quality problems such as poor power factor and flicker generation. This topology achieves low input current THD and DC power control without additional power-factor-correction equipment, harmonic trap filters, use of multiple pulse rectifiers or high-K-factor transformers. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a power oscillation damping scheme using a voltage-source inverter

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1105 - 1113
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In many cases, poorly damped electromechanical oscillations prevent utilities from increasing power transfer over existing transmission lines. One method of improving the damping of such oscillations is to actively vary the inductive reactance of a transmission line using a controllable series compensator. This paper describes an investigation into the use of a particular inverter-based compensator for power oscillation damping. Detailed simulation results and practical measurements of a small, but representative, laboratory-scale power system are presented to demonstrate that the inverter-based compensator can successfully be used to damp the electromechanical oscillations of a generator. View full abstract»

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  • Considerations of a shunt active filter based on voltage detection for installation on a long distribution feeder

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1123 - 1130
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a curious phenomenon referred to as the "whack-a-mole" that may occur in a long-distance distribution feeder having many capacitors for power-factor correction. The idea of whack-a-mole is that installation of an active or passive filter on the feeder makes voltage harmonics increase on some buses, whereas it makes voltage harmonics decrease on other buses, especially at the point of installation. The distributed-parameter representation is applied to a simplified feeder, thus making it possible to perform analysis of the whack-a-mole. As a result, this analysis yields such a basic way as to avoid the whack-a-mole. Moreover, both theory and experiment clarify that installation of the active filter acting as a harmonic terminator on the end bus of the feeder can damp out harmonic propagation throughout the feeder without causing any whack-a-mole. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-input DC/DC converter based on the multiwinding transformer for renewable energy applications

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1096 - 1104
    Cited by:  Papers (87)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A multi-input DC/DC power converter based on the flux additivity is proposed in this paper. Instead of combining input DC sources in the electric form, the proposed converter combines input DC sources in magnetic form by adding up the produced magnetic flux together in the magnetic core of the coupled transformer. With the phase-shifted pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) control, the proposed converter can draw power from two different DC sources and deliver it to the load individually and simultaneously. The operation principle of the proposed converter has been analyzed in detail. The output voltage regulation and power flow control can be achieved by the phase-shifted PWM control. A prototype converter with two different DC voltage sources has been successfully implemented. Computer simulations and hardware experimental results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed multi-input DC/DC power converter. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of acoustic noise from variable-speed induction motors: deterministic versus statistical approaches

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1037 - 1044
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The traditional approach for the prediction of noise radiated from induction motors is usually based on a deterministic approach in which the motor is modeled using finite-element and/or boundary-element methods (FEM/BEM). A great deal of structural details has to be modeled using the deterministic approach. While these deterministic methods have been shown to provide reasonable estimates of the radiated acoustic noise at low frequencies (usually, well below 2 kHz) and for small motors, the demands on computing memory and time render calculations at high frequencies and for large motors almost impossible to make. In this paper, a statistical method especially suited for calculations at high frequencies is introduced. The statistical approach does not require the same amount of details to be modeled as in the FEM/BEM because only the averaged noise within a given frequency band is sought. Furthermore, it utilizes the analytical results obtained from simple structural elements that make up the motor structure. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the method, its ability to discern the contribution of various components of a motor to the overall radiated noise, and substantial savings in the computational effort compared with FEM/BEM. View full abstract»

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The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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