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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 403
  • 17th International Conference on Magnet Technology

    Page(s): 1 - 16
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Eddy currents and their effects on the mechanical structures of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor of the TEXTOR 94 tokamak

    Page(s): 1463 - 1466
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    The Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) of the TEXTOR 94 tokamak will work at the regimes of DC current and AC current at frequencies up to 10 kHz. In order to design the mechanical structures supporting the DED coils and the graphite protective tiles it is necessary to take into account the induced eddy currents, especially at high frequencies. The temperature rise and mechanical forces in the structures should be within acceptable limits. The screening effect of the DED coils in the plasma region should be minimized. The modeling of the DED electromagnetic field is discussed. The problem is solved numerically with the ANSYS code. For comparison, some simplified technique is employed. Two approaches are used for the different types of structures: thin shell approach and infinitely thin skin-layer approach. The eddy currents and energy losses in the structures have been defined. The 2-D and 3-D nonstationary thermal problems have been solved and the temperature rise in the structures has been calculated for the steady state regimes. The evaluation of the static and cyclic strength of the structures has been made. Based on parametric studies, the parameters of the coil and tile supporting structures have been optimized. View full abstract»

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  • An evaluation of mechanical properties of YBaCuO and (Sm,Gd)BaCuO bulk superconductors using Vickers hardness test at cryogenic temperatures

    Page(s): 1755 - 1758
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    Vickers hardness properties of bulk superconductors have been investigated to estimate the mechanical properties of bulk materials. However, the test at cryogenic temperatures had not been conducted at all. Then we conducted Vickers hardness test on (001) plane of YBaCuO and (Sm,Gd)BaCuO bulk superconductors from 40 to 293 K. The hardness of YBaCuO and (Sm,Gd)BaCuO increased with decreasing temperature up to 19 000 MPa and 10 000 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, the cracks caused by the indentation were observed with SEM, and the fracture toughness KIC at cryogenic temperatures was calculated. The KIC of YBaCuO and (Sm,Gd)BaCuO decreased with decreasing temperature to 0.6 MPa√m and 0.8 MPa√m, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Batch testing of BSCCO 2212 cable in subcooled liquid nitrogen

    Page(s): 1128 - 1131
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    A technique has been developed for testing long lengths of superconducting cable made from BSCCO 2212 wires in liquid nitrogen. The cable is tested as a large diameter spiral with removable voltage taps so that the conductor can be recovered for use in fabricating developmental magnets. Since the transition temperature of BSCCO 2212 conductors is often lower than 77 K the nitrogen bath must be pumped to reduce its temperature. As the pressure is slowly reduced the transition temperature can be determined and the current carrying capabilities measured as a function of temperature. 55 K can be easily achieved with the same equipment used for superfluid testing in liquid helium. Four cables have been tested ranging in length from 30 in to 0.6 m. A steady improvement in the superconducting properties of these cables was observed, reflecting the experience gained in strand fabrication and heat treatment by the manufacturer. For some of these cables, measurements were also made at 4.2 K to establish a correlation between the transition temperature and the expected current carrying capabilities in liquid helium. View full abstract»

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  • Shape design sensitivity for force density distribution of magnetic systems

    Page(s): 1471 - 1474
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    This paper presents a design method for handling magnetic force density distributions in 2-D linear magnetic systems. In order to control not the global force but the distribution of local force density, the discrete sensitivity analysis is combined with the magnetic charge method. For calculation of the magnetic force density, we use the magnetic charge method that is valid from the viewpoint of mechanical deformation. The design sensitivity is obtained through the direct differentiation of the finite element system matrices. Two models of a levitated rod and a cantilever electromagnet are designed to produce the desired force density distribution. Their results show the validity of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic properties of fluorinated Pb-doped Hg-1223 high Tc superconductors

    Page(s): 1132 - 1135
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    Fluorination of Pb-doped HgBa2Ca2Cu3Oy (Hg-1223) system was investigated. Structural and magnetic measurements reveal that fluorine addition promotes the phase formation, optimize the charge carrier concentration, and enhance flux pinning. We report an increase in both the transition temperature and the critical current density through controlled fluorine incorporation. Even a possible change in the pinning mechanism in this technologically important system is suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Design and fabrication of an HTS magnet for the VASIMR experiment

    Page(s): 993 - 996
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    An International Team consisting of DuPont Superconductivity, Oak Ridge National Lab, the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory, and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has designed and fabricated a conduction-cooled High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) coil for use in the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). The HTS coil will be installed and tested in the ongoing VASIMR experiment at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. The HTS coil is 0.04 m in length, with a 0.23 m inner diameter, and has a mass less than 5.0 kg. The central operating magnetic field is a nominal 0.28 T with a design operating current of ∼105 A. The HTS coil is conduction cooled with a nominal operating temperature of 40 K. The HTS conductor uses a Bi-2223 material with a stainless steel backing strip for reinforcement. Details and test results of the mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic analyses are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Heat deposition in the ITER FEAT poloidal field coils during a plasma scenario

    Page(s): 562 - 566
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    During the last phase of the EDA (Engineering Design Activities) of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) project, a fully superconducting PF (Poloidal Field) system has been designed to cope with the requirements of the FEAT (Fusion Energy Advanced Tokamak) version of ITER: providing the magnetic field required to develop, shape and control the 15 MA plasma during the 900 s of a typical plasma scenario. The CS (Central Solenoid), divided into 6 Nb3Sn subcoils, and the six outer NbTi PF coils will experience severe heat loads especially during the 400 s of the plasma burn: nuclear heating due to the 400 MW of fusion power, thermal radiation, and ac losses (30 to 300 kJ in the PF coils). The ac losses along the PF coil pancakes are deduced from accurate magnetic field computations performed by the TRAPS code (analytical integration of the Biot-Savart law over the cross section of 3-D current elements). Using as input these heat loads, including thermal radiation and nuclear heating, a thermal-hydraulic analysis of the PF coil cable-in-conduit conductor is performed with a finite element code, GANDALF: the temperature increases (0.1 to 0.3 K) are computed, the temperature margins of the conductor are thus evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a 600 A HTS current lead using modular design

    Page(s): 1310 - 1312
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    The paper reports about the development and fabrication of a 600 A HTS current lead prototype. Main focus of this task was an economic and robust design. Thus we used a fiberglass housing, also providing electrical insulation, replaceable parts and common soldering technology. The HTS part was made from an YBCO bar fabricated according to the ATZ in-house Ceramo Crystal Growth technology. Due to mechanical reasons and to reach a sufficient low contact resistance, a bar had to be used which had a far higher transport current carrying capability than the required 600 A. The measurements at low temperatures showed, that the chosen design is suitable for application. Especially advantages for high current applications can be expected. View full abstract»

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  • Transient behavior of Bi2223/Ag HTS tape for sharp rising current

    Page(s): 1422 - 1425
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    For the application of HTS composite conductor to electric power apparatuses such as power cables or transformers, its stability under a short circuit fault condition is very important. In an actual power system, we have to take into consideration the large short circuit current. Meanwhile, so far, the only available HTS conductor for a practical application seems to be Bi2223/Ag HTS tape. So, we have started a study on a transient behavior of Bi2223/Ag HTS tapes during a short circuit condition in liquid nitrogen under self-magnetic field. In this paper, we have carried out an experiment and a numerical study on a transient of the voltage and the thermal behavior of HTS tape. In the experiment, the current was increased rapidly from a small steady state level to a large level higher than the critical current. We have produced the calculation code that simulates the transient phenomena. The experimental results were compared with the numerical ones. View full abstract»

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  • R & D for accelerator magnets with react and wind high temperature superconductors

    Page(s): 75 - 80
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    High temperature superconductors (HTS) have the potential to change the design and operation of future particle accelerators beginning with the design of high performance interaction regions. HTS offers two distinct advantages over conventional low temperature superconductors (LTS)-they retain a large fraction of their current carrying capacity (a) at high fields and (b) at elevated temperatures. The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has embarked on a new R & D program for developing technology needed for building accelerator magnets with HTS. We have adopted a "React and Wind" approach to deal with the challenges associated with the demanding requirements of the reaction process. We have developed several "conductor friendly" designs to deal with the challenges associated with the brittle nature of HTS. We have instituted a rapid turn around program to understand and to develop this new technology in an experimental fashion. Several R & D coils and magnets with HTS tapes and "Rutherford" cables have been built and tested. We have recently performed field quality measurements to investigate issues related to the persistent currents. In this paper, we report the results to date and plans and possibilities for the future. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of high magnetic field on the corrosion of carbon steel

    Page(s): 997 - 1000
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    An experimental study of the corrosion pattern of steel exposed to intense magnetic fields is reported. Experiments were performed on two different shaped surfaces, cylinders and grooves. Uniform magnetic fields of up to 10 T were applied to these samples. Non-uniform corrosion patterns on the steel cylinder surface were observed. Further, when the magnetic field was applied parallel to the plane of the groove, it was found that the corrosion increased on the inside of the groove. In addition, the interpretation of the corrosion pattern is supported by an experiment using aerobic bacteria (i.e., escherichia colis). The relationship between the corrosion pattern and a magnetic field gradient near the steel is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of lamination measurements for CERN's twin aperture quadrupoles

    Page(s): 1723 - 1726
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    The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC's cleaning insertions require 48 twin aperture resistive quadrupoles. The laminations for these magnets are punched from low carbon steel sheet 1.5 mm thick. To check the quality of the laminations, samples are regularly collected and measured. This paper describes how these measurements are analyzed. This work is part of the Canadian contribution to the LHC. View full abstract»

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  • Self field measurements by Hall sensors on the SeCRETS long sample CICCs in SULTAN

    Page(s): 1667 - 1671
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    The aim of this work is to determine the existence and degree of the current unbalance of two types of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) of the SeCRETS long sample experiment, and its influence on the conductors' performance. The self-field measurements are performed by using six sets of annular Hall sensors, each containing six sensors, and two linear arrays with ten sensors. The change of the self-field is associated with the redistribution of the transport current between the strands inside the conductor during and after a ramp of current, due to changes of the applied magnetic field or temperature of the conductor. During the DC, AC losses and stability tests, the signals from the Hall sensors were recorded. In DC tests, a clear change of the self-field pattern is observed in the high field region when either current or temperature approached their critical (Ics and Tcs) values. No change in the self-field pattern is observed in the experiments with pulsed fields. The method requires improvements for a reasonable quantitative assessment of the current unbalance in the conductor. View full abstract»

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  • Current distribution in a reusable junction for W7-X coil tests

    Page(s): 1313 - 1318
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    In the frame of the W7-X stellarator project, CEA has to perform the acceptance tests of the 70 superconducting coils of the magnet system. A new test facility has been built at Saclay for that purpose. As the coils are delivered to CEA with bare end, it has been necessary to develop a junction that can be easily applied on a CIC conductor and that can be easily dismantled and reusable due to the large number of coils to be tested. As inhomogeneous current distribution within the conductor could lead to unexpected low quench current (i.e., ramp rate limitation), an experiment has been developed in order to estimate that distribution at the outlet of the junction. The experimental set-up is made of 16 pick-up coils measuring the current within the 16 sub-stages of the CIC (Cable-In-Conduit). This paper will present our experimental results and the conclusion of our analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Recovery process of a transformer type superconducting fault current limiter

    Page(s): 880 - 884
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    Recovery process of a transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SCFCL) was investigated by experiments using three-phase test SCFCL designed and made. "Recovery time" decreases, as "fault time" is longer. It is pointed out that the FCL current at the limiting mode affects the cooling process of the secondary wire during the current limiting operation. A simple simulation of the SCFCL based on the heat equation was performed. The simulation results of the "recovery time" agree well with the experimental ones. The temperature of the normal zone was estimated by use of the simulation. It decreases even in the current limiting mode and its decreasing rate depends on the limiting current. After a long limiting operation (over 5 s), the temperature saturated at about 22 K, the secondary coil current is the minimum propagation current of the wire and the "recovery time" is quite short and independent of the limiting current. View full abstract»

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  • Performance test of Bi-2212 HTS current leads prepared by the diffusion process

    Page(s): 1332 - 1335
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    Bi-2212 HTS bulk conductors have been prepared by the two components diffusion process for current lead application. The Bi-2212 HTS layer is synthesized through a diffusion reaction between a Sr-Ca-Sr oxide substrate and a Bi-Cu oxide coating with Ag addition. The HTS diffusion layer about 150 μm in thickness formed around the cylindrical tube 27/19 mm in outside/inside diameter and 200 mm in length. The transport current of the tubular specimen exceeds 4000 A at 4.2 K and self-field, which corresponds to a transport current density of 20000 A/cm2. The Joule heating of the joint at an end. of the specimen is estimated to be 200 mW from the overall joint resistance of 12 nU. Therefore, the total heat load, including heat leakage conducted through the tubular specimen between 4 K and 40 K, is expected to be less than 400 mW at 4000 A. Present Bi-2212 HTS conductors with large transport current as well as low joint resistance and thermal conductivity, seem to be promising as a current lead for superconducting magnets. View full abstract»

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  • Production and qualification of 40 km of Al-stabilized NbTi cable for the ATLAS experiment at CERN

    Page(s): 1215 - 1218
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    The production of the conductor for the superconducting toroids of the ATLAS experiment at LHC (CERN) is now in progress. The toroid system, composed of one barrel toroid (BT) and two end cap toroids (ECTs), exploits aluminum-clad Rutherford-type NbTi conductors of large size (57 × 12 mm for BT, 42 × 12 mm for ECTs) and high critical current (Ic) (58 kA for BT and 60 kA for ECTs @ 4.2 K, 5 T). Some 55 km of conductor are required for the BT and 26 km for the ECTs, respectively. An Italian-Swiss (ETH Zurich and INFN) consortium is in charge of the delivery of half of the whole amount. This paper describes the results of this production with particular emphasis to the quality control system developed to monitor the production with both on-line controls and the post-production quality assessment protocols. The main result is the confirmation that the technologies selected and the whole process are reliable and reproducible over large production quantities. The overall degradation due to the cabling and the co-extrusion, was rather moderate, 34% in total, and did not change significantly along the production. An ultrasonic system was developed to assess the quality of the bonding between the Rutherford and the aluminum matrix over the whole length, and its results were combined with the quantitative results from pull-out tests at the conductor's extremities: in all the cases the 20 MPa limit for the BT and 15 MPa for the ECTs, respectively was largely exceeded, and no relevant change was detected among the lengths. View full abstract»

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  • Model of heat deposition during fast discharge tests of the ITER toroidal field model coil

    Page(s): 1426 - 1429
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    In the framework of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) project, the TFMC (Toroidal Field Model Coil) has been manufactured by European industry, using about 800 m of a 80 kA Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor to wind the 98 turns of the coil. These turns are wound in 10 pancakes which are inserted inside machined stainless steel radial plates, and the whole winding pack is enclosed in a thick stainless steel casing. These passive conductive structures are expected to experience severe induced eddy currents and associated Joule heating during the last testing phase of the TFMC, when fast discharges are triggered to study the electromagnetic and thermal-hydraulic transient behavior of the coil. Diffusing through insulation, the Joule heating induced in the radial plates will add to the AC losses induced in the superconducting cable. The AC losses along the TFMC winding pack are deduced from accurate magnetic field computations performed by the 3-D magneto-static code TRAPS, the eddy currents are calculated with an analytical model using circuit equations, and the Joule heating diffusion is studied with a 1-D thermal analysis model. Using these heat loads as input data, the helium temperature and pressure increases in the conductor are computed with the finite element code GANDALF. The possibility of a quench of the whole magnet is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Relation between inter-sub-cable contact resistance and coupling loss in multiple-stage stranded cable

    Page(s): 1635 - 1638
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    AC losses in superconducting multi strand cables, those that are used in large scaled applications, e.g. fusion, are governed by contact resistances between the strands. Especially, in the cable with multiple-stage twisting, a variety of magnetic field diffusion time constants exist and these correspond to the quantities of inter-strand coupling losses in each cabling stage. The rate of magnetic field change is less than several T's in usual fusion machines. In this condition, the magnetic field penetrates well into the cable and the coupling current circuit with the larger time constant shows larger AC loss. Here, the time constant is equal to the leakage inductance divided by resistance along the coupling current loop. Therefore, evaluating the coupling current in the larger loop, which consists of a higher twisting stage, e.g., usually the final cabling stage, loss in the whole cable could be expected. The leakage inductance between sub-cables could be estimated considering electrical centers of them. On the other hand, inter-sub-cable contact resistances have not been evaluated until now. In this study, by establishing the inter-sub-cable contact resistance model, the AC loss in the cable with multiple cabling stage was evaluated numerically. We discussed the modeling of contact resistance between sub-cables intensively. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of AC loss characteristics of Bi2223 twisted multifilamentary tape

    Page(s): 1612 - 1615
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    AC loss characteristics of the twisted and non-twisted Bi2223/Ag/AgMg multifilamentary tapes in the longitudinal and transverse AC external magnetic fields were experimentally investigated. The measured AC transport current loss and the AC magnetization loss in the twisted tape were affected by the amplitude and the direction of the longitudinal AC magnetic field. The magnetization loss in the transverse AC magnetic field in the twisted tape was smaller than that in the non-twisted tape. The total AC loss properties were discussed. View full abstract»

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  • (Nb,Ti)3Sn superconducting wire with CuNb reinforcing stabilizer

    Page(s): 1067 - 1070
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    An in-situ CuNb composite shows a high strength and a high electrical conductivity. Therefore, it is a suitable material for the reinforcement of Nb3Sn superconducting wire. Many studies about mechanical and electrical properties of Nb3Sn wire with CuNb reinforcing stabilizer have been carried out, but a fabricability of the long-length wire was not confirmed. In this study, 1 mm-diameter (Nb,Ti)3Sn superconducting wire with Cu-20 wt%Nb reinforcing stabilizer was fabricated 22 km in length. The wire showed a good fabricability throughout the production. Mechanical properties and critical currents are evaluated in comparison with un-reinforced one. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication and test of the model coil for a SMES

    Page(s): 770 - 773
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    For the development of a small-sized superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system we designed, fabricated and tested a model coil consisting of five coils with different features, e.g., winding tensions, bore diameters and materials, cooling channels. The results show that even in the highly prestressed small coil, about 70% of the coil's critical current is degraded. The quench currents of the coils with narrow cooling channels are two times as high as that of the coil without spacers. The test results also indicate that the usual training effect depends on the winding tensions of the coils but the quench characteristic does not change according to materials of the bobbin. View full abstract»

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  • Cryocooler assisted cryostat for a 4 T split-coil NbTi magnet

    Page(s): 1351 - 1354
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    A cryocooler assisted cryostat for a 4 T split-coil NbTi magnet operated in liquid helium bath is under development at the ANSALDO-CRIS. A two stage GM cryocooler (1st stage 15 W @ 45 K, 2nd stage 5 W @ 15 K) is used for the cooling of two radiation shields at temperatures less than 45 K and 15 K respectively. For magnet charge, a couple of 100 A vapor cooled HTS current leads, based on Bi-2223/AgAu tapes, operates between the 1st stage of cryocooler and the helium bath. AlN plates have been used to obtain a good thermal contact electrically insulated between HTS lead and cryocooler. The developed configuration allows to eliminate liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shields and to minimize static liquid helium consumption. Calculated and measured system performances are compared. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical and thermal designs and analyses of joints for the ITER PF coils

    Page(s): 538 - 542
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    The Poloidal Field (PF) coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are designed with NbTi cable-in-conduit conductors wound in double pancakes which are connected in series by joints. The electrical analysis of these joints includes estimation of the dc resistance, calculation of ac loss power, of loop currents and local Joule heating during the whole plasma scenario. The effect of a plasma disruption is also considered. The thermal analysis is performed using a transient thermohydraulic two-fluid code, modeling the two-channel structure of the cable as well as the counter-flow heat exchanger created in the joint. We show that the CEA twin-box concept using compressed cables inside independent copper-steel boxes is quite usable in all the ITER PF coils. A discussion about possible options (copper RRR) is also presented. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity contains articles on the applications of superconductivity and other relevant technology.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Britton L. T. Plourde
Syracuse University
bplourde@syr.edu
http://www.phy.syr.edu/~bplourde