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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • (Guest editorial) Special issue on wireless information technology and networks

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 558 - 559
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A 10- to 21-GHz, low-cost, multifrequency, and full-duplex phased-array antenna system

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 641 - 650
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel phased-array antenna system with multifrequency, full-duplex operation, and wide-beam scanning. The system consists of a wideband power divider, a low-loss and low-cost multiline phase shifter controlled by dual piezoelectric transducers (PETS), a four-channel multiplexer, microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers, and a stripline-fed Vivaldi antenna array. The multiline PET phase shifter has a low perturbation loss of less than 2 dB and a total loss of less than 4 dB up to 40 GHz, with a maximum phase shift of 650°. Using dual-aligned PETS for bidirectional phase shifting results in wide scan angles of 38.6°, 37.6°, 43°, and 40° for the four channels at 10, 12, 19, and 21 GHz, respectively. The four-channel diplexer demonstrates low insertion loss with high isolation between channels. The new multifrequency phased-array system provides wide-beam scanning and full-duplex capability using a simple, low-cost architecture. The system can be used for applications in mobile satellite communications View full abstract»

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  • A ray-tracing approach for indoor/outdoor propagation through window structures

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 742 - 748
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (311 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A ray-tracing approach for indoor/outdoor propagation through windows is proposed. Using both the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and a ray-tracing algorithm, several cases of indoor/outdoor propagation through windows were investigated. It is shown that wave transmission through windows cannot generally be accounted for through a single transmission coefficient parameter. Instead, a full diffraction pattern needs to be accounted for and multiple-ray representation is therefore required. It is also shown that a single window model may be used to calculate transmission through set of windows in a typical building structure as a building block. Results from the implementation of a multiple-ray representation and FDTD simulations showed good agreement. Results were validated for both normal and oblique incident cases. The developed ray-tracing approach, therefore, facilitates the use of the developed window model in available ray-tracing algorithms often used for propagation characterization of urban environments. Simulation results were further validated by conducting measurements on scaled models at 30 GHz. The experimental results agreed well with the simulation data, thus validating the accuracy of the developed ray-tracing model for transmission through windows View full abstract»

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  • A lens antenna array with adaptive optical processing

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 607 - 617
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an X band smart antenna array in which adaptive processing of the received signals is performed by dynamic holographic optical circuitry. The optical circuitry adaptively extracts the principal component of the received signal space, that is the strongest first-order independent temporal component of the ensemble of received signals. The adaptive receiver system can be used, for example, to mitigate multipath interference effects and can separate one received signal from another even though their power spectra may entirely overlap. A prototype two-channel system is designed to fit in a standard-size briefcase and consume less than 50 W of power. The input to the system are modulated waves with a carrier in X band and the output is an electronic demodulated signal. Three major components of this system are described in detail: (1) the quasi-optical lens antenna array front end with angle-of-arrival preprocessing and downconversion, (2) the two-channel electrooptic modulation and optical carrier suppression stage, and (3) the smart optical processor (auto-tuning filter). Component and end-to-end system measurements give quantitative indicators for the usefulness of optical processing in wireless communications View full abstract»

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  • A ray-tracing method based on the triangular grid approach and application to propagation prediction in urban environments

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 750 - 758
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB)  

    This paper presents a fast ray-tracing procedure based on triangular division of the propagation environments. Unlike other accelerating methods that are mostly based on pre-establishment of visibility, this method does not require knowledge of the position information of the base station and/or receiving antennas and is thus more general. Although the triangulation is done in a two-dimensional (2-D) plane, this method is suitable for three-dimensional (3-D) simulations when a proper data structure for buildings is constructed. Validation results show good agreement between calculated and measured data from the European COST 231 project. The improvement in the computational efficiency is clearly demonstrated in examples View full abstract»

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  • Polarimetric channel characterization of foliage for performance assessment of GPS receivers under tree canopies

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 713 - 726
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (637 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The attenuation, depolarization, and fluctuation of a microwave signal going through a tree canopy are investigated by developing a Monte Carlo based coherent scattering model. In particular, the model is used to analyze the performance of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers under tree canopies. Also the frequency and time-domain channel characteristics of a forest are investigated when a transmitter is outside and a receiver is inside a forest. A fractal algorithm (Lindenmayer system) is used to generate the structure of coniferous or deciduous trees whose basic building blocks are arbitrarily oriented finite cylinders, thin dielectric needles, and thin dielectric disks. Attenuation and phase change of the mean field through foliage is accounted for using Foldy's approximation. Scattering of the mean field from individual tree components and their images in the underlying ground plane are computed analytically and added coherently. Since tree trunks and some branches are large compared to the wavelength and may be in the close proximity of the receiver, a closed-form and uniform expression for the scattered near-field from dielectric cylinders is also developed. Monte Carlo simulation of field calculation is applied to a cluster of trees in order to estimate the statistics of the channel parameters, such as the probability density function (pdf) of the polarization state of the transmitted field, path loss, and the incoherent scattered power (the second moment of the scattered field), as a function of the observation point above the ground View full abstract»

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  • Influence of diffraction coefficient and corner shape on ray prediction of power and delay spread in urban microcells

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 703 - 712
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a low base-station (BS) antenna located on one street, signals propagate into crossing and parallel streets by reflection and diffraction at corners of buildings. Therefore, in order to accurately predict the received signals, it is necessary to properly model the diffraction coefficient at the building edge and to accurately represent the shape and the electrical properties of the building near the corner. This paper compares ray-tracing predictions to measurements of received power and root mean square (rms) delay spread and shows the need for a diffraction coefficient having larger values than suggested by the commonly used heuristic diffraction coefficient. A new heuristic diffraction coefficient is proposed that has higher diffracted field strength in the deep shadow region and in the region between the two shadow boundaries. The proposed diffraction coefficient shows better agreement with measurements of both received power and delay spread compared to the commonly used heuristic diffraction coefficient. The influence of building shape near the corner and its electrical properties on the ray-tracing predictions are also presented. The shape is shown to have an important role in accurately predicting both received power and delay spread View full abstract»

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  • Iterative site-based modeling for wireless infrared channels

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 759 - 765
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe an iterative site-based method for estimating the impulse response of wireless infrared channels. The method can efficiently account for multiple reflections of any order. A simple geometrical model of indoor environments is presented which includes interior features such as partitions, people, and furniture, thus permitting accurate evaluation of shadowing effects. For a reflection order of three, the iterative method is over 90 times faster than the existing recursive technique. A computer implementation is described and used to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the method View full abstract»

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  • A high-linearity 100-element diode grid mixer

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 698 - 702
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Grid-mixer arrays can achieve high linearity and dynamic range through quasi-optical power combining. We present a 100-element single-ended diode grid mixer operating at 2.45 GHz. Each element incorporates two diodes in series. We measure an input third-order intercept of 11 W (40.5 dBm), and output third-order intercept of 3.4 W (35.4 dBm), and an associated conversion loss of 5.1 dB. The power-handling capability of the array is 100 times larger than that of a microstrip mixer using a single element. The local oscillator (LO) drive requirement for the entire array is 1.4 W (31.6 dBm). The angular dependence of the array's IF power is also presented and is in agreement with theory View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive processing using a single snapshot for a nonuniformly spaced array in the presence of mutual coupling and near-field scatterers

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 582 - 590
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an adaptive technique to extract the signal of interest (SOI) arriving from a known direction in the presence of strong interferers using a single snapshot of data. The antenna elements in this method can be nonuniformly spaced and there can be mutual coupling between them. In addition, near-field scatterers can also be present. First, the voltages induced in the antenna elements of the array due to interferers, mutual coupling between the elements, and near-field scatterers is preprocessed by applying a transformation matrix to these voltages through a rigorous electromagnetic analysis tool. This electromagnetic preprocessing technique transforms the voltages that are induced in a nonuniformly spaced array containing real antenna elements to a set of voltages that will be produced in a uniform linear virtual array (ULVA) containing omnidirectional isotropic point radiators. In the transformation matrix we would like to include various electromagnetic effects like mutual coupling between the antenna elements, presence of near-field scatterers and the platform effects on which the antenna array is mounted. This transformation matrix when applied to the actual measured voltages yields an equivalent set of voltages that will be induced in the ULVA. A direct data domain least squares adaptive algorithm is then applied to the processed voltages to extract the SOI in the presence of interferers. Limited numerical examples are presented to illustrate the novelty of the proposed method View full abstract»

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  • A novel smart antenna system implementation for broad-band wireless communications

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 600 - 606
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB)  

    A novel design of smart antenna system with adaptive beamforming capability is introduced for broad-band wireless communication. To achieve high data throughput of the multi-antenna system, a parallel analog-digital (A/D) signal processing scheme is proposed. The essential idea is to realize the real-time beamforming using heterodyne RF and IF circuitry. The bottleneck of digital signal processor (DSP) I/O and processing speed is thus relieved, while the advanced signal processing capability of the DSP chip is utilized. Based on this idea, a 5.8 GHz smart antenna receiver is implemented. Various experiments are carried out to examine the direction of arrival (DOA) estimation, beam synthesis, and bit error rate (BER) performances of the system. A 20-Mb/s data throughput using binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation is demonstrated for this eight-element adaptive array View full abstract»

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  • Multibeam antennas with polarization and angle diversity

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 651 - 657
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (325 KB)  

    A 10-GHz discrete cylindrical lens array with multiple beams is designed and characterized as a receiving angle-diversity array for wireless communications in a multipath environment. The array also has dual-orthogonal polarization and therefore built-in polarization diversity. The array is designed for wide-angle scanning between -45° and 45° and measured scanning patterns are presented. The polarization isolation between the two channels is about 30 dB at boresite and about 10 dB for a 30° scan angle. The addition of the lens array at the very front end of a link shows significant reduction of multipath fading peak-to-null ratio View full abstract»

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  • Propagation path loss-a comparison between ray-tracing approach and empirical models

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 766 - 768
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (225 KB)  

    The results obtained with a two-dimensional (2-D) propagation model for wireless communications in an urban environment are compared against the results of other propagation models, such as COST-231 Walfisch-Ikegami (1988, 1984), Hata's (1980), and Zhang's (1997) View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain analysis of measurements on scaled urban models with comparisons to ray-tracing propagation simulation

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 736 - 741
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work deals with propagation prediction for wireless communications in urban environments. Its purpose is to clearly distinguish the different field contributions collected by the receiving antenna through a series of wide-band frequency measurements and a time-domain (TD) analysis of the obtained results. The experimental data are then compared to the field predictions given by a ray-tracing electromagnetic wave propagation simulator. The application of this research lies in the modeling of the urban channel for wireless communication systems of the third generation such as UMTS and beyond View full abstract»

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  • A retrodirective antenna array using a spatially fed local oscillator

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 638 - 640
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work investigates a spatially fed local oscillator (LO) for a retrodirective antenna array. Compared to conventional planar transmission-line feed networks, the spatial feed offers a more flexible array layout and easier implementation, especially in large two-dimensional (2-D) arrays. This method of delivery involves radiating the LO through free space to the back-side of the array where it is received by slot-coupled patch antennas and delivered to the mixing elements. A four-element linear retrodirective array utilizing this approach is demonstrated at an LO frequency of 10.7 GHz. Retrodirectivity is observed at scan angles from -40° to +40° View full abstract»

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  • Near-field antennas integrated with scanning probes for THz to visible microscopy: scale modeling and limitations on performance

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 670 - 675
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A promising approach to localized spectroscopy at far-infrared (λ > 5 μm) and terahertz frequencies (100-3000 GHz) is with scanning probe microscopes by transducing far-field radiation to the near field with a field confinement structure - a near-field antenna. We discuss the background of this idea and show encouraging results from a scale-model experiment using 3-GHz microwave radiation. We also present experiments to scale antennas to visible wavelengths and we discuss limits to scale modeling View full abstract»

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  • Near field in the vicinity of wireless base-station antennas: an exposure compliance approach

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 685 - 692
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (363 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Great social concern has risen about the potential health hazard of living near a cellular telephony base-station antenna, and certain technical questions have been posed on the appropriate way to measure exposure in its vicinity. In this paper, a standard spherical near-near field transformation is proposed to obtain the electromagnetic field close to the antenna in free space conditions. The field obtained in this way allows us to define an exclusion zone from the exposure compliance point of view, but also makes it possible to bound the error committed by standard field measurement procedures. Furthermore, the visualization of the electromagnetic field in the proximity of the antenna in free space conditions, allows us to define clearance templates that have to be met in the siting of the antenna in complex environments in order not to obstruct its main beam View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of micromachined transitions for high-speed integrated packages

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 693 - 697
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Micromachined transitions are characterized with abrupt and taper dielectric and conductor discontinuities. Constant impedance designs are studied for interconnects printed on the same substrate that traverse two different substrate heights. The best transition, when compared to the constant height design, has better than 20 dB return loss over 40 GHz. Its effective dielectric constant variation is less than 0.25 dB across the bandwidth, which indicates a low dispersion interconnect design with a micromachined transition View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of an ultra-wide-band propagation channel

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 561 - 570
    Cited by:  Papers (216)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (387 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the results of an ultra-wideband (UWB) propagation study in which arrays of propagation measurements were made. After a description of the propagation measurement technique, an approach to the spatial and temporal decomposition of an array of measurements into wavefronts impinging on the receiving array is presented. Based on a modification of the CLEAN algorithm, this approach provides estimates of time-of-arrival, angle-of-arrival, and waveform shape. This technique is applied to 14 arrays of indoor propagation measurements made in an office/laboratory building. Statistical description of the results is presented, based on a clustering model for multipath effects. The parameters of these statistical models are compared to results derived for narrowband signal propagation in the indoor environment View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the indoor MIMO wireless channel

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 591 - 599
    Cited by:  Papers (81)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper demonstrates the ability of a physically based statistical multipath propagation model to match capacity statistics and pairwise magnitude and phase distributions of measured 4 × 4 and 10 × 10 narrow-band multiple-input multiple-output data (MIMO) at 2.4 GHz. The model is compared to simpler statistical models based on the multivariate complex normal distribution with either complex envelope or power correlation. The comparison is facilitated by computing channel element covariance matrices for fixed sets of multipath statistics. Multipolarization data is used to demonstrate a simple method for modeling dual-polarization arrays View full abstract»

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  • Smart antenna system analysis, integration and performance for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs)

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 571 - 581
    Cited by:  Papers (50)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    This paper focuses on the interaction and integration of several critical components of a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) using smart antenna systems. A MANET is a wireless network where the communicating nodes are mobile and the network topology is continuously changing. One of the central motivations for this work comes from the observed dependence of the overall network throughput on the design of the adaptive antenna system and its underlying signal processing algorithms. In fact, a major objective of this work is to study and document the overall efficiency of the network in terms of the antenna pattern and the length of the training sequence used by the beamforming algorithms. This study also considers in sufficient detail problems dealing with the choice of direction of arrival algorithm and the performance of the adaptive beamformer in the presence of antenna coupling effects. Furthermore, the paper presents strategies and algorithms to combat the effects of fading channels on the overall system View full abstract»

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  • Measurements on scaled models of urban environments and comparisons with ray-tracing propagation simulation

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 727 - 735
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Scaled models of simple two-dimensional (2-D) urban environments are considered in order to investigate propagation along a vertical plane. Specifically, path loss measurements are taken for different positions of the transmitting and receiving antennas at 25 GHz. Then measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions computed by a ray-tracing polygonal line simulator. The measurements indicate a very good agreement between the ray-tracing model and the experiments View full abstract»

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  • Design, modeling, and optimization of mechanically reconfigurable aperture antennas

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 628 - 637
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The work in this study develops the framework for placement and actuation of novel reconfigurable dual-offset contour beam reflector antennas (DCBRA). Toward that end, the methodology for the antennas' design is defined. In addition, two separate optimization problems are stated and solved: actuator position optimization and actuation value optimization. For the former, a method termed as greatest error suppression method is proposed where the position of each actuator is decided one by one after each evaluation of the error between the desired subreflector shape and the actual subreflector shape. For the second problem, a mathematical analysis shows that there exists only one optimal configuration. Two optimization techniques are used for the second problem: the simulated annealing algorithm and a simple univariate optimization technique. The univariate technique always generates the same optimal configuration for different initial configurations and it gives the low bound in the evaluation of the error. The simulated annealing algorithm is a stochastic technique used to search for global optimum point. Finally, as an example the results of the proposed optimization techniques are presented for the generation of a subreflector shape corresponding to the geographical outline of Brazil View full abstract»

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  • Miniature multi-element antenna for wireless communications

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 658 - 669
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a novel broad-band miniature antenna and employ it in a multi-element geometry with diversity capabilities for wireless communications. This antenna (diameter < 0.2 λ and thickness < 0.06 λ) consists of two stacked circular patches that create two cylindrical slots resonating at two slightly different frequencies, fed by a strategically positioned coaxial probe. An extensive parametric study and results for a prototype working at 5.2 GHz are presented. A multi-element geometry with two or four of such elements follows. Microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based switches located within its geometry can not only change the working frequency of the design, but also activate a particular radiation beam depending on their specific location (resonant slot-aperture or feed line). Simulation results of a four-element antenna with dimensions 0.8 λ × 0.8 λ × 0.06 λ and a frequency band operation from 5 to 6 GHz are presented and compared to an experimental prototype. Circuit and radiation characteristics are discussed in terms of reconfigurability and diversity capabilities View full abstract»

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  • Novel low-cost beam-steering techniques

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 618 - 627
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper summarizes and compares several techniques for beam steering without the use of conventional ferrite or solid-state phase shifters. Three methods are presented: a microstrip patch antenna array fed by a dielectric image line (DIL) controlled by a reflector plate, a multimicrostrip line fed Vivaldi antenna array controlled by piezoelectric transducers (PETs) and a movable grating film fed by dielectric image line. Both theoretical analyses and experimental measurements have been carried out. The measurement results agree very well with the predictions. These new techniques have many advantages, including low cost, broad bandwidth, low loss, wide scan angle, and simplicity. These low-cost beam-steering techniques should have many applications in microwave and millimeter-wave commercial systems View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung