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Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date April-June 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Guest editors introduction: computer applications in libraries. 1

    Page(s): 3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A history of computer applications in libraries: prolegomena

    Page(s): 4 - 15
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    Modern libraries are constituted within and by a tradition of techniques and practices that represent 100 years of codified professional knowledge. This article provides a historical overview of this tradition that created a complex environment of expectation and misunderstanding for introducing library automation. A generation of systems development was needed to assimilate and further develop this tradition. View full abstract»

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  • IBM and the holocaust: the strategic alliance between Nazi Germany and America's most powerful corporation [Book Review]

    Page(s): 94
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Turing and the universal machine: the making of the modern computer [Book Review]

    Page(s): 95
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Getting the message: a history of communications [Book Review]

    Page(s): 95 - 96
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Global communications since 1844: geopolitics and technology [Book Review]

    Page(s): 96 - 97
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The code book: the science of secrecy from ancient egypt to quantum cryptography [Book Review]

    Page(s): 97 - 98
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • From gutenberg to the global information infrastructure: access to information in the networked world [Book Review]

    Page(s): 98
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Selected papers on analysis of algorithms, CSLI lecture notes, no. 102 [Book Review]

    Page(s): 98 - 99
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    Freely Available from IEEE
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  • MARC: keystone for library automation

    Page(s): 34 - 49
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    Libraries' most central and costly activity-cataloging material and maintaining the catalogs providing end-user access-had requirements that defied efficient automation until the mid-1960s, when the Library of Congress developed the MARC format for data records. The format became the foundation for automated systems for libraries that took data sharing to new levels and enabled exploitation of future computer developments to create today's online catalog environment. This article describes the complexity of the library application, how the MARC format was innovative, and why it was the foundation of automated systems development in libraries View full abstract»

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  • The beginning of automation in the University of Toronto Library, 1963-1972

    Page(s): 50 - 70
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    In 1962, the Province of Ontario established five new universities and asked the University of Toronto Library (UTL) to help build libraries for them, which it did. The main task was to determine a record format, coordinated with that developed later for the Library of Congress's MARC project. Eventually, UTL established the University of Toronto Library Automation Systems. The early decisions have enabled the UTL to develop electronic indexes and full-text document distribution systems at a rate that has kept it among the world's leading libraries View full abstract»

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  • The MESM and the monastery

    Page(s): 91 - 93
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    The first electronic digital computer in continental Europe was constructed not in Germany or France, but in the Ukraine. In the late 1940s, Sergei Alexeevich Lebedev began constructing the MESM (Malaya Elektronaya Schetnaya Mashina, or Small Electronic Calculating Machine). Although computer historians G.D. Crowe and S. Goodman (1994) trace the early career and work of Sergei Alexeevich Lebedev and the creation of the MESM in fine detail, many of the events and culture that surrounded this project deserve a closer look. The authors describe some of them View full abstract»

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  • A software lineage

    Page(s): 89 - 91
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    The author traces the lineage of the DEC software to the present day. The hardware legacy of the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) is well documented. From its humble beginnings in an abandoned New England textile mill as a specialized peripheral manufacturer, DEC grew to become one of the dominant computer companies in the 1970s and 80s. DEC engineers produced landmark computers, such as the PDP-8, PDP-11, and VAX. At the company's height, DEC hardware was synonymous with university, engineering, and research computing, but its machines could also be found in hospitals, financial institutions, and offices. The article outlines the operating systems developed by DEC for its machines View full abstract»

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  • Library automation at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1965-2000

    Page(s): 71 - 85
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    Successful library system automation depends on many factors, both technological and organizational, including institution's flexibility in making changes that are consistent with a system's optimal use. Here, as the authors reflect on more than three decades of system implementation trial-and-error, they also examine the many interrelated factors that contribute to achieving a complete integration of automated library services View full abstract»

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  • The use of punched cards in US libraries and documentation centers, 1936-1965

    Page(s): 16 - 33
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    Librarians, particularly those in traditional academic and public libraries, were slow to take advantage of punched cards. In contrast, special librarians and documentalists, with their small systems and focus on retrieving information for users, readily adopted punched cards. The results were dramatic: improved ability to index scientific and technical information and better user service. The paper presents a history of the use of punched cards in US libraries View full abstract»

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  • A well-intentioned query and the Halloween Problem

    Page(s): 86 - 89
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    The author's description of the Halloween Problem demonstrates the role of cautionary tales in the history of computing. The Halloween Problem emerged in the context of structured query language optimization in relational database research. Normally, a query optimizer works by measuring system calls and paging requests and applying heuristics to the entire access path tree. Query optimization was one of the most challenging tasks facing System R researchers at IBM. These experiments with query optimization form the milieu in which the Halloween Problem emerged View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

From the analytical engine to the supercomputer, from Pascal to von Neumann, from punched cards to CD-ROMs -- theIEEE Annals of the History of Computing covers the breadth of computer history.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lars Heide
Copenhagen Business School
Centre for Business History