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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • An online neural network triggering system for the Tile Calorimeter

    Page(s): 369 - 376
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS, TileCal, neural processing is used to establish an efficient methodology for the online particle identification in beam tests of calorimeter prototypes. Although beam purity is usually very good for a selected particle type, background from wrong-type particles cannot be avoided and is routinely identified in the offline analysis. The proposed neural system is trained online to identify electrons, pions, and muons at different energy levels and it achieves more than 90% efficiency in terms of particle identification. The neural system is being implemented by integrating it to the readout drive (ROD) of the TileCal. View full abstract»

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  • Conference author index

    Page(s): 537 - 538
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (143 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Ethernet-based real-time control data bus

    Page(s): 478 - 482
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wendelstein 7-X is designed as a steady-state experiment to demonstrate the fusion reactor relevance of the advanced stellarator concept. The experiment's control and data acquisition will be performed by a distributed system of computers and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Data of several systems have to be combined flexibly to control the machine, requiring a data exchange on a millisecond time scale between several connected units. A discharge can last up to half an hour, thus, the connections may vary during a discharge. Hence, it is desired to provide control relevant data, e.g., measurands, set points, interlock signals, cyclically via a bus system. The paper will analyze the special quality of control data streams and deduce the basic requirements for a real-time data bus. An Ethernet is a candidate for the data bus since it is a widely used broad-band bus with a foreseeable potential for development. Because of its nondeterministic arbitration algorithm Ethernet is generally considered not to be suited for hard real-time applications. It is possible to circumvent this disadvantage of Ethernet either by using switching techniques or a software token to obtain a reliable base for hard real-time data transport View full abstract»

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  • The VINCI instrument software in the very large telescope environment

    Page(s): 483 - 490
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (302 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) very large telescope interferometer (VLTI) got first fringes on March 17, 2001 at Mount Paranal in Chile. The VINCI instrument has played a key role in the achievement of this important milestone and is a fundamental component for the current VLTI operations. This paper, after a brief introduction of the VLTI and the instrument itself, will focus mainly on control software aspects. It describes the VINCI hardware and software architecture in the context of the whole VLT control concept. Particular emphasis is given to real-time control aspects, data acquisition, distribution of control over several hardware platforms, networks, standardization of hardware and software components, and software configuration control management View full abstract»

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  • A parallel systolic array ASIC for real-time execution of the Hough transform

    Page(s): 339 - 346
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many pattern recognition problems can be solved by mapping the input data into an n-dimensional feature space in which a vector indicates a set of attributes. One powerful pattern recognition method is the Hough transform. In reducing the n-dimensional feature space to two dimensions, the coordinate transform can be executed by a systolic array consisting of time-delay processing elements and adders. The application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation of the Hough transform as a systolic array for real-time recognition of curved tracks in multiwire drift chambers is presented. The array can handle 32 parallel input data streams. It mainly consists of 512 identical programmable processing elements. Sixteen histogram pixels in the feature space are produced in parallel per clock cycle. The ASIC is implemented in 0.6 μm CMOS, two-metal layer technology (CUB) from Austria Micro Systems (AMS) and operates with a clock frequency of 100 MHz. The interconnectivity pattern of the processing elements required to initialize the chip according to the pattern recognition task is computed on the host computer using the Hough-transform equations. This pattern is then downloaded to the chip via the data input lines. The Hough-transform ASIC is suitable for a wide range of pattern recognition applications. The integrated circuit is a powerful building block for systems requiring real-time execution of the Hough transform View full abstract»

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  • Track finding at 10-MHz hadronic event rate

    Page(s): 347 - 356
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (441 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hera-B is a fixed target experiment using a halo target inside the HERA proton ring to generate B mesons in 920 GeV proton-nucleus interactions. The first-level trigger (FLT) of the experiment has to reduce the primary 10-MHz input rate by a factor 200 in less than 10 μs to make it acceptable to the second level trigger (SLT). The trigger strategy is based on the tracking of charged particles and on the reconstruction of their kinematic parameters. The combination of track pairs can also be used for the final decision. A parallel and pipelined set of approximately 60 dedicated boards was designed and built to perform this job. In this paper, the working principle of the system and some results obtained by analyzing the data collected during the run in the year 2000 are described View full abstract»

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  • The distributed control and data system in HT-7 tokamak

    Page(s): 496 - 500
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A control and data processing system for HT-7, the first super-conducting tokamak in China, is developed in order to both control the experimental system and process the huge amount of experimental data (600 MB/shot). A fully distributed structure is adopted. The distributed control system (DCS) includes several subsystems, such as those for the main control, synchronization, safety, interlock, data acquisition and data analysis, physical data management, remote control facility via networks, etc., The basic element of the DCS is the personal computer (PC) with a Fiber Distributed Data Interface based on a fast network. The system uses multiple data-transfer paths in parallel and categorizes the entire computer functions into the servers. The subsystems for main control, communication, and data management are described in detail View full abstract»

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  • A new finite-state machine queuing tool for the "EPICS" control system toolkit

    Page(s): 460 - 464
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (197 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new sequencing tool, the finite-state machine queueing tool (FSQT) for the EPICS control system toolkit, is presented, and its design and implementation are described. The advantages of applying this new tool in a new release of our magnetic measurements test-bench application are discussed. FSQT was originally conceived to overcome the limitations of the equivalent EPICS tool (the Sequencer) and considered a complementary alternative. A performance comparison between them is also shown. This new utility has been presented to the EPICS collaboration and it is currently under evaluation View full abstract»

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  • A remote control system for FPGA-embedded modules in radiation environments

    Page(s): 501 - 506
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A remote control system has been developed for versa module Eurocard (VME) modules located in a radiation environment. Two new VME modules-the remote controller (RC) and local interface modules-are introduced to mediate between the local host and remote slave modules. These two modules are connected with optical links and the local host can master the remote VME bus to access the slave modules through these intermediate modules. This control system can perform watchdog for field programmable gate array (FPGA)-embedded modules whose configuration data are susceptible to single event upsets (SEUs). The architectural study and first prototyping of this system are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Testing ethernet networks for the ATLAS data collection system

    Page(s): 516 - 520
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports recent work on ethernet traffic generation and analysis. We use gigabit ethernet network interface cards (NICs) running customized embedded software and custom-built 32-port fast ethernet boards based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to study the behavior of large ethernet networks. The traffic generation software is able to accommodate many traffic distributions with the ultimate goal of generating traffic that resembles the data collection system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. Each packet is time stamped with a global clock value and, therefore, we are able to compute an accurate measure of the network latency. Various other information collected from the boards is displayed in real time on a graphical interface. This work provides the tools to study a test bed representing a fraction of the 1600 ATLAS detector readout buffers and 600 Level 2 trigger central processing units (CPUs) using a combination of the fast ethernet boards and the gigabit ethernet NICs View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation of the HT-7U data system

    Page(s): 428 - 431
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The HT-7U data system is being designed to support the HT-7U superconducting tokamak. For the HT-7U to achieve its mission of extremely long pulse and steady-state operation, the HT-7U data system must be flexible and robust. Corresponding to the various operation modes of the HT-7U experiment, a variety of system configurations and workload models are considered. A trace-driven simulation-based method and steady-state operational analysis technique is used for performance evaluation. These analyses show that much better performance may be obtained by applying the performance optimization techniques of fast switching networking, data compression, caching/buffering, pipelining, a real-time operating system, a real-time database, etc View full abstract»

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  • FPGAs widen the ARGO-YBJ experiment's eyes

    Page(s): 401 - 404
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is presently under construction at the Yangbaijing High-Altitude Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a.s.l), 90 km north to Lhasa (Tibet, People's Republic of China). ARGO will study fundamental issues in cosmic ray and astroparticle physics by detecting small-size air showers. The detector covers 74 × 78 m2 with single layer resistive plate counters (RPCs), surrounded by a partially instrumented guard ring. The ARGO Data Acquisition System is designed around static random access memory (SRAM)-based field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), in order to achieve a fully reconfigurable architecture. In this environment, the same hardware platform performs different functions provided by companion FPGAs' configuration files. Control and monitoring software exploits a web browser to deliver commands and perform diagnostic tests on the boards. In this paper, we describe the hardware and the software strategies that allow the ARGO DAQ to benefit from the flexible architecture of in-system reconfigurable FPGAs View full abstract»

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  • Hardware preprocessing for the H1-Level 2 neural network trigger upgrade

    Page(s): 362 - 368
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The H1-Level 2 neural network trigger has been running successfully at Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) for four years. In order to provide increased selectivity at the higher luminosity planned for the HERA upgrade, an improved "intelligent" preprocessing has been devised. This system extracts complementary physics information from the Level 1 trigger stream and furnishes it to the L2 neural network in order to improve its decision. A new preprocessing board (the Data Distribution Board Version 2-DDB2) is currently being designed at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, Germany, in order to implement the necessary algorithms in fast field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), taking advantage of parallelism and pipelined structures in order to meet the timing requirement of 8 μs. We present the different algorithmic steps and report on the current status of the DDB2 hardware upgrade View full abstract»

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  • A parallel optical link architecture using FPGAs

    Page(s): 507 - 512
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel chip-sets allow designing parallel optical links for short-haul applications in the range of several gigabyte/s. This aggregate bandwidth is shared across multiple fibers and the system clock required to cope with such a data rate falls into the last generation FPGAs' capabilities. In this paper, we present a point-to-point parallel optical link architecture based on the INFINEONs PAROLI-DC devices and Xilinx field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The system works at 160 MHz and sustains a payload transfer rate higher than 240 megabyte/s. The link exhibits a low and deterministic latency in order to be used in critical real-time environments as trigger and data acquisition system (DAQ) systems in high-energy physics experiments. We examine the transport and data-link layers, focusing on both the system performances and the FPGAs' layout View full abstract»

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  • CHIMERA data acquisition and computational system using DSP-based VME modules

    Page(s): 432 - 436
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have built and tested a computational unit for on-line processing of special algorithms to be embedded in the central processing unit VERSAmodule Eurocard (CPU VME)-crate of the CHIMERA data acquisition system. The computational unit consists of a number of VME digital signal processor (DSP)-based commercial boards delivering 720 MFlops/board View full abstract»

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  • The environmental monitoring system of VIRGO antenna for gravitational wave detection

    Page(s): 405 - 410
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The VIRGO antenna for gravitational wave detection is a very sensitive interferometer. All the noise sources are very low and continuously monitored by a complex monitoring system. This is a modular system whose architecture has been designed to guarantee the fulfillment of present and future VIRGO needs. Particular care has been devoted both to the management of probes different in type, sensitivity, and bandwidth distributed along the whole antenna and to the system integration within the main VIRGO data acquisition system architecture. The goal of this system is not only distributed synchronous acquisition, but also an on-line pre-analysis of environmental quantities necessary to implement a real-time data quality control View full abstract»

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  • Advanced digital processing for amplitude and range determination in optical RADAR systems [fusion reactor inspection]

    Page(s): 417 - 422
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An amplitude modulated laser radar has been developed by the Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA) for periodic in-vessel inspection in large fusion machines. The viewing system is based on a transceiving optical radar using a radio frequency (RF) modulated single-mode 840-nm wavelength laser beam. The sounding beam is transmitted through a coherent optical fiber to a probe, on the tip of which a focusing optics and suitable scanning system, using a silica prism, steers the laser beam in order to obtain a complete 3-D mapping of the in-vessel surface. This paper describes the digital signal processing system used to modulate the laser beam, as well as to measure both the amplitude of the backscattered laser beam and the phase difference between it and the modulation signal. This information, together with the information on the scanning system position, are acquired and then used by the visualization system to produce both 2-D and 3-D images. The system is based on VME boards and directly acquires and processes in real-time three 79.5-MHz RF signals by using a digital receiver and four digital signal processors. The system principles, the mathematical algorithm, and the system architecture are described hereafter View full abstract»

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  • Remote participation infrastructure in the European fusion laboratories

    Page(s): 532 - 536
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The large experiments in the European fusion community are increasingly run as shared facilities. This is following the lead of the Joint European Torus (JET) Facilities that have been run in this way since the beginning of 2000 under the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). The remote participation (RP) technical infrastructure being put in place for the joint scientific exploitation of the JET Facilities serves as a blueprint for the future shared exploitation of several other large experiments. At the same time the scope of the remote access and remote collaboration is being extended from the purely scientific exploitation to include shared engineering design work for major JET enhancements that are conducted jointly by several laboratories, and for the next-step design work (ITER) as well View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of SCI as a fabric for a computer-based pattern recognition trigger running at 1.17 MHz

    Page(s): 389 - 393
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The future CERN experiment, LHCb, has the need for a high-speed first-level vertex trigger. The silicon vertex trigger of LHCb processes events at a rate of 1.17 MHz for a total of 3 GB/s of data. To handle this amount of data at the given rate, the plan is to build a cluster of approximately 250 nodes connected by a low-latency network. We have evaluated SCI as a possible candidate for this network. It is especially appropriate due to its low latency and overhead. The memory-mapped character of the connection makes it well-suited for applications relying on device-to-device copy mechanisms. We will present the results obtained with the Dolphin 66/64 PCI cards built around the PSB66 and LC3 chips. The behavior of two different topologies, two-dimensional (2-D) torus and ring, have been studied in detail. Results of DAQ/realtime relevant scenarios have been obtained using transport methods as programmed I/O, DMA, and device-to-device copy mechanism. Analysis of both hardware and software has been used to obtain a detailed picture of the traffic patterns on the buses involved View full abstract»

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  • Real-time procedure for noise uncoupling in laser interferometry

    Page(s): 411 - 416
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A numerical procedure for noise uncoupling is described. The procedure is applied to a Michelson interferometer and is effective in seismic and acoustic noise uncoupling from the output signal of the interferometer. Due to the low data flow coming from the instrumentation, this uncoupling can be performed in real time View full abstract»

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  • Controlling front-end electronics boards using commercial solutions

    Page(s): 474 - 477
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (225 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    LHCb is a dedicated B-physics experiment under construction at CERN's large hadron collider (LHC) accelerator. This paper will describe the novel approach LHCb is taking toward controlling and monitoring of electronics boards. Instead of using the bus in a crate to exercise control over the boards, we use credit-card sized personal computers (CCPCs) connected via Ethernet to cheap control PCs. The CCPCs will provide a simple parallel, I2C, and JTAG buses toward the electronics board. Each board will be equipped with a CCPC and, hence, will be completely independently controlled. The advantages of this scheme versus the traditional bus-based scheme will be described. Also, the integration of the controls of the electronics boards into a commercial supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system will be shown View full abstract»

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  • MUSE: an integrated trigger and readout control system for CHIMERA

    Page(s): 334 - 338
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The CHIMERA 4π detector trigger system is described. The trigger decisions are based on a combination of geometrical multiplicity of detected particles and other logic signals. The trigger can manage the buffer memory of the used analog to digital converters. This allows performance of parallel data conversion and readout and substantial improvement of the acquisition system dead-time performances. The trigger module generates all the necessary gate signals for the converters and the control signals necessary to synchronize the readout. It also allows the remote control of the whole system View full abstract»

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  • Conceptual design of the real-time control system of MHD modes in RFX

    Page(s): 491 - 495
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Real-time control is a key issue in the upgrade of the magnetic boundary of the reverse field experiment (RFX) machine, a toroidal experiment in nuclear fusion research. The upgrade aims at providing RFX with effective instruments for the active plasma control. A new active system has been designed consisting of 48 (toroidal)×4 (poloidal) saddle coils arranged to cover the toroidal shell surface, a set of insulated gap bipolar transistors (IGBT)-based fast power supply units to feed the coils, an extensive number of magnetic probes to measure the local radial and toroidal field inside the vacuum vessel. By properly driving the currents in the saddle coils, the system can control the radial magnetic field outside the vacuum vessel (active shell), can generate magnetic rotating perturbations to drag the Magneto-hydro dynamic (MHD) modes, and can affect the plasma equilibrium and shape. The paper describes briefly the hardware arrangement of the new shell, focusing on the control operational scenarios. The requirements of the digital systems implementing the control are derived and presented, with particular reference to the required system reaction times and the envisaged data flow. Possible system architectures suitable for the implementation are discussed with emphasis on real-time communication and system distribution View full abstract»

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  • An object-oriented network-transparent data transportation framework

    Page(s): 455 - 459
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An object-oriented data transportation framework based upon the publisher-subscriber (producer-consumer) principle has been developed that transparently incorporates a network transport mechanism independently of the underlying network technology and protocol View full abstract»

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  • Data monitoring in high-performance clusters for computing applications

    Page(s): 525 - 531
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (269 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The shared memory in a LAN-like environment (SMiLE) project at Lehrstuhl fur Rechnertechnik und Rechnerorganisation, Technical University of Munich (LRR-TUM) investigates in high-performance cluster computing using system area networks. In the context of this project, a hardware monitor is being developed to observe the system area network (SAN) traffic. This hardware monitor is, therefore, capable of delivering detailed information about the run-time communication behavior of applications running on SMiLE clusters. The central part of this monitor consists of a content-addressable counter array managing a small working set of the most recently referenced memory regions View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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