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Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

Issue 3 • Date May-June 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 9 of 9
  • The IEEE bronze book [Book Review]

    Page(s): 4 - 5
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Charles LeGeyt Fortescue and the method of symmetrical components

    Page(s): 7 - 9
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    The author gives a brief review of the life and work of Charles LeGeyt Fortescue with particular reference to his 1918 paper on the "Method of Symmetrical Co-Ordinates Applied to the Solution of Polyphase Networks" which grew out of his investigations of problems related to railway electrification, which began in 1913. As a postlude to the author's article, the paper presents Fortescue's own writing on the topic of symmetrical components, which he included in a document he produced on 8 October 1934, titled "High Points in My Career". View full abstract»

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  • Electrical heat tracing: international harmonization-now and in the future

    Page(s): 50 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3203 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the past, electrical heat tracing has been thought of as a minor addition to plant utilities. Today, it is recognized as a critical subsystem to be monitored and controlled. A marriage between process, mechanical, and electrical engineers must take place to ensure that optimum economic results are produced. The Internet, expert systems, and falling costs of instrumentation will all contribute to more reliable control systems and improved monitoring systems. There is a harmonization between Europe and North America that should facilitate design and installation using common components. The future holds many opportunities to optimize the design View full abstract»

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  • Vegetable-oil-based dielectric coolants

    Page(s): 34 - 41
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrical transformer insulation systems are evaluated based on economic, safety, and environmental standpoints using total life cycle analysis. Because of the inherent high efficiency of liquid-cooled transformer designs, new developments focus on improving the environmental and safety properties of fire resistant (less-flammable, high fire point) fluids. This article reports the latest findings on dielectric systems using natural ester (vegetable oil) fluids. Because esters naturally have lower oxidation resistance than mineral oils, a novel blend of base oils and additives were developed to overcome this potential handicap. Single- and three-phase prototype field installations using these new dielectric coolants are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Minimizing burn injury: electric-arc hazard assessment and personnel protection

    Page(s): 18 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (393 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the arc flash hazard and protecting people. Standard tests have been established to determine the incident energy required to cause ignition of non-FR clothing and evaluate the protective characteristics of FR clothing. One process for selecting FR clothing to protect personnel against arc flash injury has been presented. Protective characteristics for classes of FR clothing and rainwear have been summarized. This performance information is based upon test data produced in a laboratory simulation, not in real-life conditions that may vary. The user is responsible for determining appropriate FR clothing and protective equipment based upon the actual conditions of use and exposure. Incident energy levels produced by three-phase arcs with a 1.25 in electrode gap on a 600 V electrical system with varying bolted fault values have been experimentally determined in a laboratory setting. Algorithms have been developed for predicting incident energy as a function of available bolted fault current, arc duration, and distance from the arc electrodes; and constant incident energy boundary distances View full abstract»

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  • Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines

    Page(s): 26 - 33
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    This article shows that adjustable speed generators for wind turbines are necessary when output power becomes higher than 1 MW. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system presented in this article offers many advantages to reduce cost and has the potential to be built economically at power levels above 1.5 MW, e.g., for off-shore applications. A dynamic model of the DFIG was derived to develop a vector controller to decouple dynamically active and reactive power control. Simulations show excellent response of the DFIG independent of speed. Measurements obtained from 1.5 MW units currently in operation confirm the theoretical results View full abstract»

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  • Bright idea, radio-frequency light sources

    Page(s): 42 - 49
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    The idea of radio frequency (RF) lighting, as well as the first RF lamp patent, appeared long before the first fluorescent and high-pressure lamps came onto the market. It took over a century for the first commercial RF lamp to appear, introducing a new era in the production of light. Progress in semiconductor power switching electronics, along with a more thorough understanding of fundamental processes in RF plasmas, have resulted in commercially viable RF light sources. RF light sources follow the same basic principles of converting electrical power into visible radiation as conventional gas discharge lamps. The fundamental difference between RF lamps and conventional lamps is that RF lamps operate without electrodes (anode and cathode). This has profound consequences on RF lamp characteristics and features. We consider different kinds of RF discharges and their advantages and restrictions for lighting applications. We also describe examples of successful realizations of different kinds of RF lamps View full abstract»

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  • Key learnings from the IAS Electrical Safety Workshops

    Page(s): 11 - 17
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    The IAS Electrical Safety Workshop has three components in its mission: accelerate the application of breakthrough improvements in human factors, technology, and managing systems that reduce the risk of electrical injuries; stimulate innovation in overcoming barriers; and change and advance the electrical safety culture to enable sustainable improvements in the prevention of electrical accidents and injuries. This paper gives a brief history highlighting the profound impact IAS safety workshops have had on planning and implementing safety programs and standards View full abstract»

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  • Process control using a fiber-optic unified cabling systems

    Page(s): 57 - 61
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    In an ideal world, communications cabling for process control would be simple-buy all the computer, instrumentation, and electrical equipment from a single vendor, and connect it all together using a single cabling standard. But real life is never that simple; rarely are the programmable logic controllers (PLC), distributed control systems (DCS), drives, motor controls, field instrumentation, and computers all purchased from the same vendor. Supplying power to all this different equipment certainly doesn't require separate cabling structures, so why shouldn't the same be true for communications needs? Wouldn't a standard cabling infrastructure minimize the cabling infrastructure cost and complexity? The engineering group of a Canadian pulp and paper mill wondered about these two questions. They were designing a new steam plant and decided to investigate the possibility of making a single process communication cabling "utility" through the plant. The result was a design methodology that allowed a standardized cabling system to serve all communications needs throughout the process areas. Fiber-optic cable was chosen for all communications cabling outside of the control or electrical rooms. While the noise immunity and high data carrying capacity of fiber-optic cable was a factor, the primary reason was that fiber-optic cabling was the only system that could provide a single medium suitable for the very wide range of communications equipment in the mill View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Industry Applications Magazine reports on the development and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; and the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Landis "Lanny" Floyd