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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • An efficient method to determine Green's functions of a two-dimensional photonic crystal excited by a line source - the phased-array method

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1380 - 1391
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel and efficient method to determine Green's functions in photonic crystals (PCs), i.e., the phased-array method (PAM), is presented. The PAM is a combination of the plane-wave method and the array-scanning method, which is both more flexible and computationally faster than the eigenmodes expansion method. A complete derivation of the electric- and magnetic-field Green's functions associated, respectively, with an infinite electric and magnetic current line exciting a two-dimensional PC is given. Although the developments are presented only for a line source, the PAM can be extended to a dipole source. Thus, the PAM represents a promising method for the analysis of printed-circuit elements or antennas on PC materials. Numerical results for the Green's functions are shown for different positions of the source and a discussion about radiation patterns, asymptotic behaviors, and convergence characteristics is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial optical beam-forming network for receiving-mode multibeam array antenna - proposal and experiment

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1425 - 1430
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an array antenna for multibeam reception with a beam-forming network (BFN) that uses spatial optical signal processing and also presents experimental results. In this antenna, signals received at individual antenna elements are converted to optical signals, and are optically divided from the directions of signal arrival by means of optical spatial Fourier transformation, and then the optical signals are reconverted into microwave signals at the BFN. In this BFN, to maintain optical path-length conditions, an optical integrated circuit is employed. We have experimentally investigated the optical signal processing performances of the BFN for multibeam reception. The experimental results show that optical beam direction is changed according to the signal arrival direction of an array antenna. Two multiple RF signals with different phase distributions are separated. The sidelobe level of the optical signal is reduced when amplitude distributions of optical signals are Chebyshev distributions. We also present the signal transmission behavior of this BFN. The measured carrier-to-noise-ratio degradation of this BFN is 2 dB at BER=10-6 when 118.125-Mb/s QPSK modulated signal is input into the BFN View full abstract»

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  • Calculated and measured characteristics of a microstrip line fabricated on a Y-type hexaferrite substrate

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1280 - 1288
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB)  

    Numerical calculations have been applied to a microstrip line fabricated on a Y-type hexaferrite substrate using the Green's function technique. The formulation allows the ferrite substrate to be magnetized along an arbitrary direction. Current potentials have been used to construct the Galerkin elements and the resultant calculational scheme is applicable even when ferrimagnetic resonance is approached. Calculations compared reasonably well with measurements View full abstract»

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  • Modeling microwave and hybrid heating processes including heat radiation effects

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1346 - 1354
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an efficient simulation tool for conventional, microwave, and combined heating. Two heat-transfer mechanisms are included: conductive and radiant heat transfer. The conductive heat transfer is modeled by a finite-difference algorithm. A modeling technique for radiant heat transfer in nonuniform grids has been developed and is here presented for the first time. For the radiant heat transfer a finite-difference scheme is not applicable, as radiation from a material surface; is not bounded to the immediate vicinity, as is conductive heat transfer. Therefore, ray optical methods are used. Rays connecting mutually visible surfaces are obtained by a new fast method. Necessary, but acceptable simplifications allow fast computations. The algorithms are integrated conveniently together with an electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain program to one simulation tool. Representative simulations are presented for an oven heated conventionally, by microwaves, and by a combination of both View full abstract»

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  • Piezoelectric-transducer-controlled tunable microwave circuits

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1303 - 1310
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (607 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new method to tune microwave circuits of phase shifters, filters, resonators, and oscillators, controlled by a piezoelectric transducer (PET) with computational and experimental results. An optimized PET-controlled phase shifter is demonstrated to operate up to 40 GHz with a maximum total loss of 4 dB and phase shift of 480°. PET-controlled tunable bandpass filter, ring resonator, and one-dimensional photonic-bandgap resonator show a very wide tuning bandwidth of 17.5%-28.5% near 10 GHz with little performance degradation. A new PET-controlled or voltage-controlled dielectric-resonator oscillator (DRO) is demonstrated with a tuning bandwidth of 3.7% at the center frequency of 11.78 GHz. The tuning bandwidth is slightly less than that of a mechanical tuning using a micrometer-head-controlled tunable DRO with a tuning bandwidth of 4.7%. The new tuning method should have many applications in monolithic and hybrid microwave integrated circuits View full abstract»

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  • Multioctave spatial power combining in oversized coaxial waveguide

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1355 - 1360
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a multioctave power-combiner structure using finline arrays in an oversized coaxial waveguide. The spectral-domain method (SDM) is used to compute the propagation constant in this structure, and is verified with HFSS simulations. The SDM method is then employed to synthesize broad-band tapered impedance transformers in finline for coupling energy to and from a set of monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers. A modular assembly is described using a sectoral tray architecture. The concept is demonstrated for a 32-MMIC system using low-power traveling-wave amplifier MMICs, providing a 3-dB bandwidth of 13 GHz (3-16 GHz). An output combining loss of 1 dB is estimated from the small-signal measurements, suggestion a combining efficiency of ~75% for 32 MMICs View full abstract»

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  • An inverse scattering technique for microwave imaging of binary objects

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1439 - 1441
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (273 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an inverse scattering method for detecting the location and estimating the shape of two-dimensional homogeneous scattering is presented. It is assumed that the permittivity and conductivity of the scatterer are given. Thus, the method concentrates on reconstructing the domain occupied by the scatterer. The inversion is based on scattered electric far-field measurements and is carried out by a combined finite- element-nonlinear optimization technique. The computational burden is reduced by use of the adjoint-state-vector methodology. Finally, the proposed method is applied to both penetrable and impenetrable scatterers. View full abstract»

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  • A novel common-gate mixer for wireless applications

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1433 - 1435
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (222 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a balanced 27 GHz common-gate downconvert mixer is presented. The common-gate configuration allows 0.8 μm MESFETs to be used at frequencies in excess of those practical for the common-source configuration. Measurements indicate a conversion loss of 10.7 dB at an input RF frequency of 27 GHz and local-oscillator power of 7.4 dBm, with a third-order intercept at -5.3-dBm output power. This performance is in the range of reported mixers at this frequency, even though most use higher tolerance and more expensive processes View full abstract»

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  • Frequency stabilization of power-combining grid oscillator arrays

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1400 - 1407
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we report the results of phase locking of grid oscillator arrays. First, a voltage-controlled grid oscillator array with a center frequency of 4.7 GHz and with a 300-MHz electric tuning range was locked to a frequency synthesizer through a phase-locked loop. Second, a 4 × 4 and a 6 × 6 grid oscillator arrays were locked by way of the injection locking. In both methods, a simple loop antenna mounted on the reflection mirror was used for taking/injecting signals from/to the array. Results show that the phase noise performance is improved significantly in the locked oscillator arrays View full abstract»

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  • An improved thin-wire model for FDTD

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1245 - 1255
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (387 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An improved thin-wire model for the finite-difference time-domain method is proposed. The new model can be used to accurately model straight wire sections connected to other metal structures. In addition, the model includes the effect of charge accumulation at wire end caps. The end-cap model is based on conservation of charge and Coulomb's law. Using the end-cap model, unconnected wires such as wire antennas are also accurately modeled. The results indicate a significant improvement in predicting the resonance frequency of a dipole antenna View full abstract»

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  • Generation of a wide-band electromagnetic response through a Laguerre expansion using early-time and low-frequency data

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1408 - 1416
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB)  

    The objective of this paper is to generate a wide-band and temporal response for three-dimensional conducting structures. This is accomplished through the use of a hybrid method that involves generation of early-time and low-frequency information for the electromagnetic structure of interest. These two, early-time and low-frequency information, are mutually complementary and contain all the necessary information for an ultrawide-band response for a sufficient record length. The time-domain response is modeled as a Laguerre series expansion. The frequency-domain response is also expressed in an analytic form using the same expansion coefficients used in modeling of the time-domain response. The data in both the domains is used to solve for the polynomial coefficients in a data-fitting procedure. Once the polynomial coefficients are known, the available data is simultaneously extrapolated in both domains. This approach is attractive because expansions with a few terms give good extrapolation in both time and frequency domains. The computation involved is minimal with this method View full abstract»

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  • Phase-noise analysis of MEMS-based circuits and phase shifters

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1316 - 1323
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of Brownian, acceleration, acoustic, and power-supply noise on MEMS based circuits has been calculated for MEMS.-based circuits (phase shifters, delay circuits). The calculations are done for capacitive shunt MEMS switches and metal-to-metal contact series MEMS switches. It is found that these effects result in both an amplitude and phase noise, with the phase noise being around 100× larger than the amplitude noise. The phase noise due to Brownian motion is negligible for MEMS switches with k ≃ 1.0 N/m, g0 > 2 μm, Q > 0.5, and f0 ≃ 50 kHz. The effect of acceleration and acoustic noise is negligible for a total acceleration noise of 10 g or less and a total acoustic noise of 74-dB sound pressure level. The power-supply noise depends on the bias conditions of the MEMS element, but is negligible for MEMS switches with a bias voltage of 0 V and a total noise voltage of 0.1 V or less. It is also found that metal-to-metal contact series switches result in much less phase noise than standard capacitive shunt switches. The phase noise increases rapidly for low spring-constant bridges (k = 0.24 N/m), low-height bridges, and bridges with a large mechanical damping (Q < 0.3). Also, varactor-based designs result in 30-40 dB more phase noise than switch-based circuits. This paper proves that microwave passive circuits built using MEMS switches (with a proper mechanical design) can be used in most commercial and military applications without any phase-noise penalty View full abstract»

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  • An efficient method for electromagnetic characterization of 2-D geometries in stratified media

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1264 - 1274
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (463 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A numerically efficient technique, based on the spectral-domain method of moments (MoM) in conjunction with the generalized pencil-of-functions (GPOF) method, is developed for the characterization of two-dimensional geometries in multilayer planar media. This approach provides an analytic expression for all the entries of the MoM matrix, explicitly including the indexes of the basis and testing functions provided that the Galerkin's MoM is employed. This feature facilitates an efficient modification of the geometry without the necessity of recalculating the additional elements in the MoM matrix. To assess the efficiency of the approach, the results and the matrix fill times are compared to those obtained with two other efficient methods, namely, the spatial-domain MoM in conjunction with the closed-form Green's functions, and a fast Fourier transform algorithm to evaluate the MoM matrix entries. Among these, the spectral-domain MoM using the GPOF algorithm is the most efficient approach for printed multilayer geometries View full abstract»

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  • Extraction of a nonlinear AC FET model using small-signal S-parameters

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1311 - 1315
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The nonlinearities of an RF FET can be obtained by a set of small-signal circuit elements extracted over a range of terminal voltages and temperatures. This study used pulsed S-parameter measurements on a 3 × 3 DC-bias-point grid at two different temperatures to obtain electrical and electrothermal nonlinearity coefficients up to the third order. The extracted nonlinear AC model can be used in a Volterra analysis to gain an insight into the distortion mechanisms. The measurement results were in good agreement with the calculated third-order intermodulation values View full abstract»

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  • Properties of guided modes on open structures near the cutoff region using a new version of complex effective dielectric constant

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1417 - 1424
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    Radiation region for open guiding structures is known to be further divided into antenna- and reactive-mode regions, and there is no clear cutoff point defined between the two regions. For a leaky-wave antenna, it is crucial that the antenna is designed to operate in the antenna-mode region so as to increase radiation efficiency, whereas in integrated circuits, the leakage should be suppressed to avoid unwanted coupling among circuits. Therefore, a reasonable definition of the two above-mentioned mode regions is necessary. In this paper, we propose a simple, but good alternative to define these two regions by means of a new version of complex effective dielectric constant, where the complex nature is due to leakage rather than dielectric or metal losses, as is customary. With the new approach, the reactive-mode region is found to be consistent with the conventional concept, and our results are similar to those in the literature. The present technique, however, helps in a better understanding of the results in a much easier way. Furthermore, we find for the first time that the attenuation constant in the deep reactive-mode region can be divided into two separate parts, one is due to the cutoff effect, while the other is caused by the leakage effect. Simple closed-form expressions are derived to determine the two kinds of effects. One can, therefore, gain some insight into the leakage effect in the reactive-mode region. A nonradiative-guide leaky-wave antenna is then investigated as a showcase and low radiation efficiency is observed in the reactive-mode region View full abstract»

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  • Improvement to the PML boundary condition in the FEM using mesh compression

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1297 - 1302
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Numerical errors encountered when using the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition with the finite-element method are investigated to discover more efficient implementation schemes. Closed-form expressions for the numerical reflection at an interface between two general biaxial materials are applied to the special case of a PML boundary. Expressions for an anisotropically compressed mesh are then derived, revealing that reflections can be greatly reduced through increasing mesh density only where it is required. Significant improvements over previously reported PML boundaries are demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • High-power squeeze-type phase shifter at W-band

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1437 - 1441
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe the design, fabrication, and bench study of a millimeter-wave phase shifter employed as a high-power recirculator for a traveling-wave resonator circuit. The oxygen-free electronic-grade copper phase shifter was prepared by electrodischarge machining. Measured phase-shifter characteristics are presented and compared with theory. The phase shifter was employed in a traveling-wave circuit at 91.4 GHz with a circulating power of 0.2 MW and subjected to fields greater than 10 MV/m without evidence of breakdown View full abstract»

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  • New wide-band DC-block cymbal bandpass filter

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1431 - 1432
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (207 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new low-loss dc-blocking parallel-cascaded bandpass filter is presented. The filter is much easier to use and fabricate, more compact, and simpler to design than the conventional end- or parallel-coupled line filters. The filter has a wide passband with a 2:1 voltage standing-wave ratio bandwidth of around 10% and an insertion loss of 0.5 dB at 10 GHz. Simulated results agree very well with experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Numerical analysis of dielectric-rod waveguides with deep corrugation

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1256 - 1263
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (350 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dielectric-rod waveguides with deep surface corrugation is analyzed by using the finite-difference time-domain method. In order to mitigate the load in numerical calculation and to analyze a wide region, the method is formulated in two-dimensional form. It is shown that disks located in a line function as a waveguide of low loss in a frequency region. The procedure of deciding the propagation constant from the analyzed field is presented. The complex propagation constant is obtained and the dependence of the amount of radiation on the corrugation amplitude is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Coplanar stripline resonators modeling and applications to filters

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1289 - 1296
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents coplanar stripline (CPS) resonators and their practical implementations to filters. Five types of CPS resonator are built using open and short-ended strips. Lumped-element equivalent circuits are presented for each resonator. Their performances are investigated and compared in terms of Q factor or bandwidth. Two types of bandpass filter are developed with the resonators. The bandpass filters have low-passband insertion losses and wide-stopband suppression bandwidths. Lumped-element equivalent circuits are presented for the bandpass filters. A wide-band CPS-to-microstrip transition is developed for the measurements. The back-to-back transition has an insertion loss of less than 3 dB and a return loss of better than 10 dB for the frequency range from 1.3 to 13.3 GHz (1:10.2) View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of mode coupling due to ohmic wall losses in overmoded uniform and varying-radius circular waveguides by the method of cross sections

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1361 - 1369
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (318 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of ohmic wall losses on mode coupling in overmoded varying-radius circular waveguides is investigated. Mode coupling and multimode propagation in uniform lossy-wall circular waveguides is also discussed. The expressions for the coupling coefficients are given by line integrals of the power-normalized fields of the normal modes along the boundary of the waveguide cross section. Numerical results are presented for the case of propagation of an HE11-like mode excitation in a uniform smooth lossy-wall circular waveguide View full abstract»

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  • Analytical evaluation of the MoM matrix elements for the capacitance of a charged plate

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1435 - 1436
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Closed-form expression is derived for the fourfold integral involved in the evaluation of the capacitance of a charged plate using the Galerkin's procedure in the method of moments. The dimensions of each rectangular subsection for discretizing the conducting plate can be arbitrary. The calculated solutions converge faster than the point-matching results, as expected View full abstract»

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  • Narrow-band matching networks for quasi-TEM coupled microstrip lines

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1392 - 1399
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For coupled-line systems, "matching" involves entire impedance matrix networks and necessarily involves multiple propagating modes. This paper presents the synthesis of several matching strategies for symmetric coupled-line microstrip structures mismatched with several types of simple passive terminations. Detailed multiconductor transmission-line analysis provides the basis for procedures to optimize the parameters of several matching networks (stubs, reactances, transformers) that yield significant line and mode reflection reduction resulting from the mismatches. Measurement of synthesized structures verifies the reflection reduction and power savings View full abstract»

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  • Dual-mode quasi-elliptic-function bandpass filters using ring resonators with enhanced-coupling tuning stubs

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1340 - 1345
    Cited by:  Papers (74)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel microwave dual-mode quasi-elliptic-function bandpass filter structure has been designed and fabricated. The filter uses L-shaped coupling arms for enhanced coupling and dual-mode excitation. The effects of varying the length of tuning stubs and gap size between tuning stubs and ring resonator have been studied. Filters using multiple cascaded ring resonators with high rejection band are presented. The new filters have been verified by simulation and measurement with good agreement View full abstract»

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  • Trefftz finite elements for electromagnetics

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 1328 - 1339
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (391 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is shown that the method of minimum autonomous blocks (MAB) of Nikol'skii and Nikol'skaia can be reformulated as the Trefftz finite-element method. Solutions of Maxwell's equations in form of plane waves are used to represent fields inside a finite element. Their projections on a set of basis functions on the surface of the element are used to obtain a descriptor of the element in form of an admittance matrix. It is shown that a point-matching projection procedure gives the frequency-domain transmission-line-matrix formulation and Galerkin-type projection leads to the MAB formulation. Admittance matrix representation of the descriptors of the elements makes it possible to use a finite-element-type global matrix assembling procedure and a sparse matrix solver View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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