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Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Apr 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 10 of 10
  • Traffic equivalence and substitution in a multiplexer with applications to dynamic available capacity estimation

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 217 - 231
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a multiplexer fed by a large number of sources, we derive conditions under which a given subset of the sources can be substituted for a single source while preserving the buffer overflow probability and the dominant timescales of buffer overflows. This notion of traffic equivalence is stronger than simple effective bandwidth equality and depends on the multiplexing context. We propose several applications of the above traffic substitution conditions. First, we show that fractional Brownian motion as a single source substitute can effectively model a large number of multiplexed sources using information obtained purely from traffic traces; this has direct application to simple but accurate traffic generation. Second, we focus on dynamic (i.e., on-line) estimation of available capacity and buffer overflow probability. This requires the solution of a double optimization problem expressed in terms of functions whose values are obtained from time averages of the traffic traces over a large range of timescales. We show how to solve this problem on-line by reducing it to the calculation of a fixed-point equation that can be solved iteratively by combining traffic substitution using fractional Brownian motion with dynamic measurements of the actual traffic. We have validated this approach by extensive experimentation with large numbers of real traffic sources that are fed to a high bandwidth link, and comparing our on-line estimation of available capacity and the resulting dynamic call admission control with other existing approaches. The superior accuracy of our approach also suggests that taking the buffer size into account, as does our on-line algorithm, may be vital for achieving approximations of practical interest View full abstract»

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  • A multicast routing algorithm for LEO satellite IP networks

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 183 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Satellite networks provide global coverage and support a wide range of services. Since low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites provide short round-trip delays, they are becoming increasingly important for real-time applications such as voice and video traffic. Many applications require a mechanism to deliver information to multiple recipients. A multicast routing algorithm for datagram traffic is introduced for LEO satellite IP networks. The new scheme creates multicast trees by using the datagram routing algorithm. The bandwidth utilization and delay characteristics are assessed through simulations View full abstract»

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  • Flexible bandwidth allocation in high-capacity packet switches

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 287 - 293
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a protocol for scheduling of packets in high-capacity switches, termed weighted sequential greedy scheduling (WSGS). WSGS is a simple, greedy algorithm that uses credits to reserve bandwidth for input-output pairs. By using a pipeline technique, WSGS implemented by the current technology readily supports a switching capacity exceeding 1 Tb/s. Admission control is straightforward, allowing bandwidth reservations on a submillisecond time scale. Namely, the central controller readily determines if the newly requested bandwidth can be assigned to the given input-output pair. We have shown that a newly requested bandwidth should be assigned if both the input and output have enough capacity, which requires checking of only two inequalities. Therefore, WSGS is well suited for switching in data networks where sessions might require high bit rates and last for a short time. The WSGS allows bandwidth reservations with fine granularity, e.g., bandwidth can be reserved for individual web sessions, video streams, etc View full abstract»

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  • Internet pricing with a game theoretical approach: concepts and examples

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 208 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    The basic concepts of three branches of game theory, leader-follower, cooperative, and two-person nonzero sum games, are reviewed and applied to the study of the Internet pricing issue. In particular, we emphasize that the cooperative game (also called the bargaining problem) provides an overall picture for the issue. With a simple model for Internet quality of service (QoS), we demonstrate that the leader-follower game may lead to a solution that is not Pareto optimal and in some cases may be "unfair," and that the cooperative game may provide a better solution for both the Internet service provider (ISP) and the user. The practical implication of the results is that government regulation or arbitration may be helpful. The QoS model is also applied to study the competition between two ISPs, and we find a Nash equilibrium point from which the two ISPs would not move out without cooperation. The proposed approaches can be applied to other Internet pricing problems such as the Paris Metro pricing scheme View full abstract»

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  • Utility-based rate control in the Internet for elastic traffic

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 272 - 286
    Cited by:  Papers (72)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a communication network, a good rate allocation algorithm should reflect the utilities of the users while being fair. We investigate this fundamental problem of achieving the system optimal rates in the sense of maximizing aggregate utility, in a distributed manner, using only the information available at the end hosts of the network. This is done by decomposing the overall system problem into subproblems for the network and for the individual users by introducing a pricing scheme. The users are to solve the problem of maximizing individual net utility, which is the utility less the amount they pay. We provide algorithms for the network to adjust its prices and the users to adjust their window sizes such that at an equilibrium the system optimum is achieved. Further, the equilibrium prices are such that the system optimum achieves weighted proportional fairness. It is notable that the update algorithms of the users do not require any explicit feedback from the network, rendering them easily deployable over the Internet. Our scheme is incentive compatible in that there is no benefit to the users to lie about their utilities View full abstract»

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  • Heuristic algorithms for multiconstrained quality-of-service routing

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 244 - 256
    Cited by:  Papers (66)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiconstrained quality-of-service (QoS) routing deals with finding routes that satisfy multiple independent QoS constraints. This problem is NP-hard. Two heuristics, the limited granularity heuristic and the limited path heuristic, are investigated. Both heuristics extend the Bellman-Ford shortest path algorithm and solve general k-constrained QoS routing problems. Analytical and simulation studies are conducted to compare the time/space requirements of the heuristics and the effectiveness of the heuristics in finding paths that satisfy the QoS constraints. The major results of this paper are the following. For an N-nodes and E-edges network with k (a small constant) independent QoS constraints, the limited granularity heuristic must maintain a table of size O(|N|k-1) in each node to be effective, which results in a time complexity of O(|N|k|E|), while the limited path heuristic can achieve very high performance by maintaining O(|N|2 lg(|N|)) entries in each node. These results indicate that the limited path heuristic is relatively insensitive to the number of constraints and is superior to the limited granularity heuristic in solving k-constrained QoS routing problems when k>3 View full abstract»

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  • The impact of multicast layering on network fairness

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 169 - 182
    Cited by:  Papers (47)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many definitions of fairness for multicast networks assume that sessions are single rate, requiring that each multicast session transmits data to all of its receivers at the same rate. These definitions do not account for multirate approaches, such as layering, that permit receiving rates within a session to be chosen independently. We identify four desirable fairness properties for multicast networks, derived from properties that hold within the max-min fair allocations of unicast networks. We extend the definition of multicast max-min fairness to networks that contain multirate sessions, and show that all four fairness properties hold in a multirate max-min fair allocation, but need not hold in a single-rate max-min fair allocation. We then show that multirate max-min fair rate allocations can be achieved via intra-session coordinated joins and leaves of multicast groups. However, in the absence of coordination, the resulting max-min fair rate allocation uses link bandwidth inefficiently, and does not exhibit some of the desirable fairness properties. We evaluate this inefficiency for several layered multirate congestion control schemes, and find that, in a protocol where the sender coordinates joins, this inefficiency has minimal impact on desirable fairness properties. Our results indicate that sender-coordinated layered protocols show promise for achieving desirable fairness properties for allocations in large-scale multicast networks View full abstract»

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  • Formal specification and verification of safety and performance of TCP selective acknowledgment

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 193 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a formal specification of the selective acknowledgment (SACK) mechanism that is being proposed as a new standard option for TCP. The formal specification allows one to reason about the SACK protocol; thus, we are able to formally prove that the SACK mechanism does not violate the safety properties (reliable, at most once, and in order message delivery) of the acknowledgment (ACK) mechanism that is currently used with TCP. The new mechanism is being proposed to improve the performance of TCP when multiple packets are lost from one window of data. The proposed mechanism for implementing the SACK option for TCP is sufficiently complicated that it is not obvious that it is indeed safe, so we think it is important to formally verify its safety properties. In addition to safety, we are also able to show that SACK can improve the time it takes for the sender to recover from multiple packet losses. With the additional information available at a SACK sender, the round-trip time that a cumulative ACK sender waits before retransmitting each subsequent packet lost after the very first loss can be saved. We also show that SACK can improve performance even with window sizes as small as four packets and in situations where acknowledgment packets are lost View full abstract»

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  • A dynamic call admission policy with precision QoS guarantee using stochastic control for mobile wireless networks

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 257 - 271
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (427 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Call admission control is one of the key elements in ensuring the quality of service in mobile wireless networks. The traditional trunk reservation policy and its numerous variants give preferential treatment to the handoff calls over new arrivals by reserving a number of radio channels exclusively for handoffs. Such schemes, however, cannot adapt to changes in traffic pattern due to the static nature. This paper introduces a novel stable dynamic call admission control mechanism (SDCA), which can maximize the radio channel utilization subject to a predetermined bound on the call dropping probability. The novelties of the proposed mechanism are: (1) it is adaptive to wide range of system parameters and traffic conditions due to its dynamic nature; (2) the control is stable under overloading traffic conditions, thus can effectively deal with sudden traffic surges; (3) the admission policy is stochastic, thus spreading new arrivals evenly over a control period, and resulting in more effective and accurate control; and (4) the model takes into account the effects of limited channel capacity and time dependence on the call dropping probability, and the influences from nearest and next-nearest neighboring cells, which greatly improve the control precision. In addition, we introduce local control algorithms based on strictly local estimations of the needed traffic parameters, without requiring the status information exchange among different cells, which makes it very appealing in actual implementation. Most of the computational complexities lie in off-line precalculations, except for the nonlinear equation of the acceptance ratio, in which a coarse-grain numerical integration is shown to be sufficient for stochastic control. Extensive simulation results show that our scheme steadily satisfies the hard constraint on call dropping probability while maintaining a high channel throughput View full abstract»

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  • The stable paths problem and interdomain routing

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 232 - 243
    Cited by:  Papers (133)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)  

    Dynamic routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF essentially implement distributed algorithms for solving the shortest paths problem. The border gateway protocol (BGP) is currently the only interdomain routing protocol deployed in the Internet. BGP does not solve a shortest paths problem since any interdomain protocol is required to allow policy-based metrics to override distance-based metrics and enable autonomous systems to independently define their routing policies with little or no global coordination. It is then natural to ask if BGP can be viewed as a distributed algorithm for solving some fundamental problem. We introduce the stable paths problem and show that BGP can be viewed as a distributed algorithm for solving this problem. Unlike a shortest path tree, such a solution does not represent a global optimum, but rather an equilibrium point in which each node is assigned its local optimum. We study the stable paths problem using a derived structure called a dispute wheel, representing conflicting routing policies at various nodes. We show that if no dispute wheel can be constructed, then there exists a unique solution for the stable paths problem. We define the simple path vector protocol (SPVP), a distributed algorithm for solving the stable paths problem. SPVP is intended to capture the dynamic behavior of BGP at an abstract level. If SPVP converges, then the resulting state corresponds to a stable paths solution. If there is no solution, then SPVP always diverges. In fact, SPVP can even diverge when a solution exists. We show that SPVP will converge to the unique solution of an instance of the stable paths problem if no dispute wheel exists View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking’s high-level objective is to publish high-quality, original research results derived from theoretical or experimental exploration of the area of communication/computer networking.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Srikant
Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign