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Potentials, IEEE

Issue 5 • Date Dec 2001/Jan 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 7 of 7
  • Power system deregulation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 8 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)  

    Given the difficulties encountered by the state of California in deregulating their electric power industry, many people are questioning the wisdom of such a move. To better understand the motivation behind deregulation, the author looks at the cost of energy nationwide in the United States. For example, she considers some of the regional energy costs from August 2001 View full abstract»

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  • Power systems and harmonic factors

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 10 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (97 KB)  

    Harmonic currents and distortions in power systems are a natural progression in society's use of electrical equipment. A proliferation of harmonics can cause problems-some severe. However, the benefits we receive from electrification far outweighs the downside to this problem. There is an increased awareness among equipment designers, manufacturers, and users for the need to reduce power system harmonics. However, much work still needs to be done. This paper describes how harmonics arise from nonlinear loads and their effects on the power system. The problems that arise from harmonic current flow are straightforward and simple. The two main problems are abnormal heating of components and disruption of operation. The paper also describe mitigation of harmonic effects which take on two strategies: one is to reduce the harmonic effect; the other is to reduce or control the harmonic content View full abstract»

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  • High-speed DRAM interface

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 33 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (173 KB)  

    The data rate of the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) interface has been greatly increased to reduce the performance gap between the DRAM and the central processing unit (CPU). The data rate of double-data rate (DDR) synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) is now exceeding 266 Mb/s/pin while the packet-based RAMBUS DRAM is offering up to 1066 Mb/s/pin data rate. The difference in the data rate is mainly due to their different channel structures. These DRAM interface channels are basically multi-drop bus where a driver should drive multiple loads. The maximum data rate is determined by how the multiple loads are configured. The data rate of the DRAM interface channel has been greatly increased and is expected to exceed 2 Gb/s/pin in the near future. To achieve this goal, the physical interface such as the bus structure should be optimized to minimize the timing uncertainty. The I/O timing circuitry plays an important role in determining the maximum data rate. Thus, the, circuit design should also be focused on minimizing timing uncertainty View full abstract»

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  • An AI tool for supervising substations

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 13 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric substations are facilities in charge of transform the voltage into safe and effective energy for the final consumers. This operation has to be carried out with enough quality assurance and without damaging the equipment. The associated cost to ensure this quality and security is high. Automatic mechanisms are used, however, they mostly operate under an individual's control and use the protection logic related with the equipment itself. They do not consider the state of the whole substation at a given moment. It is possible to control the state of circuit breakers (CB) in a substation using a knowledge base even when all the magnitudes to be controlled cannot be included in the analysis. It will be shown that it is possible to control the desired state while supervising some important magnitudes such as the voltage, power factor and harmonic distortion as well as the present state. At the same time, the programming tool developed for this purpose is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Hardware-software codesign

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 31 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (56 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Designing hardware and software in isolation no longer provides good solutions for complex embedded systems. Hardware-software codesign (HSC) promises an integrated approach in which hardware and software are designed in parallel. CAD environments, employing the tenets of HSC, are being developed to provide a cost and time effective solution. As a result, system engineers must become knowledgeable in both hardware and software to successfully assimilate this new approach to systems design View full abstract»

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  • The complex binary number system

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 39 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conversion algorithms and arithmetic procedures for a (-1 + j)-base binary number allow a given complex number to be represented as one unit. This should simplify the operations involving complex numbers in today's microprocessors. With the division process secure, we can implement the usual algorithms for calculating functions and processes such as logarithms, exponentials and trigonometric functions Currently, work is underway to write Java applets for the algorithms. We are planning to design an arithmetic unit based on the new binary system which will then be implemented using field programmable gate arrays View full abstract»

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  • GaAs FETs [microwave devices]

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 35 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (89 KB)  

    The field effect transistor (FET) at microwave frequencies using GaAs has been a cornerstone of research in solid state microwave devices for the past 30 years. It is an established item in the microwave systems of today in such applications as low noise amplifiers, mixers, oscillators, power amplifiers, switches and multipliers. Indeed, many microwave systems would not be possible at their present day performance levels if it were not for the GaAs FET View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Potentials is the magazine dedicated to undergraduate and graduate students and young professionals.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
David Tian
Carnegie Mellon University
david.tian@ieee.org