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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Author index

    Page(s): 946 - 951
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject index

    Page(s): 951 - 968
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Novel image enhancement technique using shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks

    Page(s): 934 - 940
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (623 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a method for improving image quality in a color CMOS image sensor. The technique simultaneously acts to compress the dynamic range, reorganize the signal to improve visibility, suppress noise, identify local features, achieve color constancy, and lightness rendition. An efficient hardware architecture and a rigorous analysis of the different modules are presented to achieve high quality CMOS digital cameras View full abstract»

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  • Virtual editing of MPEG-2 streams

    Page(s): 797 - 803
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The introduction of disc based video recorders for consumers brings the possibility to support virtual editing, that is editing without making a copy of the underlying A/V data. To support frame accurate virtual editing, we propose a solution that involves generating a new segment of MPEG-2 multiplex called a bridge sequence. Within the bridge sequence, some video is re-encoded and remultiplexed to ensure that the edited sequence can be played back seamlessly. The bridge sequence is stored on disc separately from the original sequences, which remain unchanged View full abstract»

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  • Motion adaptive 3D Y/C separation algorithm using motion estimation and motion compensation

    Page(s): 770 - 778
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1007 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an advanced motion adaptive three-dimensional (3-D) Y/C separation algorithm for NTSC signals. The basic principle of Y/C separation processing uses the fact that the phase information in a composite signal inverses every horizontal pixel, vertical line, and temporal field/frame. As such, this phase inversion characteristic is used to separate the Y and C components from a composite signal through an addition and subtraction operation. However, inaccurate separation introduces deterioration in quality, such as cross color and cross luminance, due to lack of regard for motion information. Accordingly, to acquire accurate movement information, the proposed algorithm uses a 2-D separated Y signal for detecting moving regions and estimates a motion vector using BMA-based motion estimation. Thereafter, the Y and C components are separated using the phase inversion characteristic and motion compensation (MC). Experimental results demonstrated a significant reduction in cross color and cross luminance in moving pattern regions View full abstract»

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  • Secure communication using a chaos based signal encryption scheme

    Page(s): 709 - 714
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The large-scale proliferation of wireless communications both inside and outside the home-office environment has led to an increased demand for effective and cheap encryption schemes. Now a new chaos based signal encryption scheme is proposed to transmit digital information signals by using the conventional synchronization of chaos and digital encryption approaches. In this scheme, either a chaotic or hyperchaotic system is used to generate a digital key after thresholding a chaotic signal. This signal along with the information digital signal is used to generate the encrypted signal. Then the encrypted signal is masked by one of the chaotic signals of the transmitter and is transmitted through the channel to the receiver as well as used to drive the transmitter chaotic system using the concept of self-modulation. At the receiver end, a suitable feedback loop is constructed for unmasking and then the decryption rule is used to recover the information signal. By suitable combinations of the chaotic signals, the effect of additional nonlinear-keys has also been considered. The effect of typical perturbing factors, like channel noise and parameter mismatch, are included and their corresponding performance analysis is discussed. By considering an appropriate circuit configuration, simulation results are presented View full abstract»

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  • A novel driving system for high performance true color FED

    Page(s): 802 - 808
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel driving system of a 5 inch true color FED using a voltage controlled PWM method with a current control effect. The proposed method has the advantage of both the voltage controlled pulse width modulation method and current control method. We propose an effective circuit model of a FED subpixel for circuit simulation of FED driving circuits. The output stage of the data driving circuit is optimized using the proposed circuit model. In video data processing, the FED controller uses the parallel processing of RGB input data, so the duty ratio increases. With these results, no noise and high quality performance is achieved in a 5 inch true color FED View full abstract»

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  • Real-time error concealment in digital video streams using digital signal processors

    Page(s): 904 - 909
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When compressed video is transmitted through a data network, such as an ATM or a wireless network, data can be lost due to channel errors and/or congestion. Techniques that post-process the received video and conceal the errors in real-time are needed. We describe the implementation of an error concealment technique on a fixed-point digital signal processor View full abstract»

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  • A new algorithm and its implementation for frame recompression

    Page(s): 849 - 854
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An algorithm and its implementation to recompress video frame data, which is to be stored into external memory, are proposed, thereby enabling reduction of memory requirements and bandwidth. To support random access capability, frames are organized as 1×8-pixel arrays, which are then compressed into 32-bit segments. The compression ratio is fixed at 50%. For both compression efficiency and low complexity, the modified Hadamard transform (MHT) and Golomb-Rice (GR) coding are utilized. Objective and subjective video quality assessments are performed. Efficient hardware designs including Golomb-Rice encoding/decoding and packing/unpacking are also proposed to reduce the total compression/decompression latency cycles. The proposed hardware designs are suitable for the integration with MPEG-2 decoders thanks to fast operation and simple interface logic View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of an enhanced personal video recorder for DTV

    Page(s): 915 - 920
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (690 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a PVR (personal video recorder) that is capable of simultaneous playback and recording of HD quality MPEG-2 streams for digital TV. It provides viewers with some advanced features as well as pause, instant replay, skip forward and fast forward/rewind found in conventional PVRs for analog TV. This paper describes the enhanced and innovative features that are implemented on our PVR View full abstract»

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  • Home information wiring system using UTP cable for IEEE1394 and Ethernet systems

    Page(s): 921 - 927
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (530 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    IEEE1394 and Ethernet systems are being extensively adopted for data communications equipment, including audiovisual equipment and personal computers. This paper proposes a wiring system that enables the simultaneous transmission of IEEE1394 signals and Ethernet signals along a single UTP-CAT5 cable consisting of four twisted pairs. The requirements of this wiring system were determined by taking into account the specifications of both IEEE1394 and Ethernet systems and the actual domestic environment. Home network adapters were developed to connect IEEE1394 and Ethernet cable to UTP cable. Insertion loss, crosstalk, and eye-diagrams were measured to evaluate the system's performance. The results show that our proposed wiring system is capable of transmitting both the IEEE1394 signal and the Ethernet signal simultaneously at 100 Mbps up to a distance of 100 m along a UTP-CAT5 cable View full abstract»

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  • Software implementation and performance evaluation of WCDMA physical layer

    Page(s): 880 - 884
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we implemented the WCDMA physical layer in terms of full software in a commercial computer that has a 1.4 GHz-clocked PentiumTM CPU. The communication operation is done with downlink modulation and demodulation including the transport channel. The established system requires about 12 seconds for processing the data of 40 ms in the first prototype version. After continuous optimization the fourth system requires 250 ms for the same data. Consequently, when the clock speed of the CPU becomes faster than 8 GHz, alternatively, when partial hardware modules dedicated to several critical blocks in terms of processing time are employed, the real time software WCDMA physical layer system can be operated in a general-purpose computer View full abstract»

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  • Direct converting DV into MPEG-2 intra coding

    Page(s): 941 - 945
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Converting the digital video (DV) format for digital video cassette recorders into the MPEG-2 intra coding is performed in the DCT domain to reduce conversion steps. To convert the 4:1:1 to the 4:2:2 chroma. formats and the 2-4-8 DCT mode to the 8-8 DCT mode, a matrix is multiplied by transformed data. Such multiplication enables parallel processing, and the m_quant of the MPEG-2 TM5 rate control is computed in the DCT domain View full abstract»

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  • Virtual bass for home entertainment, multimedia PC, game station and portable audio systems

    Page(s): 787 - 796
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (562 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In digital audio playback systems for home entertainment, multimedia PC, game station and portable audio devices, there is a strong demand to produce deep bass using small multimedia speakers and earphones, without the need for additional subwoofer or expensive speakers/earphones. This paper describes a technique in synthesizing psycho-acoustic bass over a pair of stereo speakers using the pitch perception theory. This new method of creating a bass effect for the musical signal has been found to be very effective and simple in implementation, without increasing significant cost in many modern digital audio systems. A subjective evaluation is also being performed to validate the virtual bass implementation View full abstract»

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  • Dual-axis driving and interference forces analysis for high sensitivity objective lens actuator

    Page(s): 809 - 816
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the mechanical and electrical device adjusting the objective lens, driven by dual-axis forces, the lens actuator must provide a precise means of accurately following the disk displacement in the focusing and tracking directions in a digital DVD pickup head. To study the driving and interference forces and improve the driving sensitivity of the lens actuator, we put forward a new calculation method in this paper. Compared with the traditional finite element method, the new method can be conveniently used to obtain the most exact result on the dual-axis driving and interference forces, which cannot be easily dealt with using the finite element method. Important conclusions are given and a typical experiment verifies the validity of the-new method View full abstract»

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  • IQCM: a robust and efficient multimedia data recovery mechanism

    Page(s): 831 - 837
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Despite the increasing popularity of the Internet as a communications medium, the bulk of its traffic is still made up of non-multimedia data. The best effort nature of the current Internet Protocol (IPv4) does not provide any quality of service (QoS) guarantees for high bandwidth applications such as real-time multimedia transmission, which have severe constraints on bandwidth, packet loss and delay. We describe current QoS control mechanisms and propose an integrated QoS control mechanism (IQCM). IQCM is a 5-stage mechanism that performs network congestion control, forward error correction (FEC) and error-resilient coding. To support generic data, our focus is primarily on the transport layer rather than compression semantics. IQCM may be used to support multimedia data delivery over the Internet, such as Web-based video-on-demand systems. Experimental results have validated IQCM's ability to control packet loss rates and enhance the quality of multimedia play-out View full abstract»

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  • Design optimization of MPEG-2 AAC decoder

    Page(s): 895 - 903
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (702 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new design for the 2-channel main-profile MPEG-2 AAC decoder is presented. To support an architectural modularity of the design, the AAC decoding algorithm has been implemented using three hardware modules: Huffman decoder, predictor, and a 20-bit programmable DSP core. The Huffman decoder module was designed to complete its job within a single clock cycle time. Also, the predictor module is executed in parallel with other modules, so that the system resource is maximally utilized. The Huffman decoder and predictor modules have been coded using VHDL, and other MPEG-2 AAC decoding routines were programmed using assembly of the DSP core. Functional simulations verified that the designed system was able to decode standard MPEG-2 AAC main-profile bitstreams using only 16.9 MIPS while it was able to maintain a high accuracy of the output PCM View full abstract»

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  • A novel fast algorithm of channel estimate

    Page(s): 838 - 846
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a digital terrestrial broadcasting environment, since the channel characteristic may be severely distorted due to multipath interference, there is a need for an equalizer to counteract the interference. The equalizer algorithm has to meet two performance requirements: fast convergence capability and low noise enhancement. This paper proposes a simple, fast and efficient channel estimate algorithm used for the equalizer. Simulation results prove that an equalizer with the proposed algorithm can combat multipath of 0 dB magnitude and low noise enhancement. The proposed algorithm has low hardware complexity, and has a prospective application in VSB receivers in digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) View full abstract»

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  • A real-time IMT-2000 audio transmission system

    Page(s): 860 - 866
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For real-time audio streaming services over next-generation mobile phone systems, such as live concert broadcasting and radio relaying, we have developed a realtime IMT-2000 audio transmission system. This system consists of a real-time encoder and a portable real-time decoder, which are both based on fixed-point DSP chips. TWINVQ technology is used for audio compression, and a scheme to protect audio data against bit-errors was designed based on error sensitivity observations. Self-synchronization and adaptive error concealment are carried out at the decoder. We confirmed that the system can transmit high-quality stereo audio samples at 32 kHz with a total bit rate of 64 kbit/s over a simulated IMT-2000 channel. We also checked that this system can connect to a real IMT-2000 experimental network, and found that it is easily applicable to various audio streaming services View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of privacy and non-repudiation on pay-TV systems

    Page(s): 729 - 733
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Lee-Chang-Lin-Hwang (see IEEE Trans. On Consumer Electronics, vol.46, no.1, p.20-26, 2000) in 2000 proposed a set of protocols for pay-TV systems in order to secure subscriber's privacy and build a fair pay-TV system. However, we have found that an attacker can easily get other subscriber's privacy in watching TV-programs. We analyze the reason and discuss the possible amendments. Moreover, we expose a weakness on non-repudiation and suggest an improvement to support non-repudiation View full abstract»

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  • Extremely efficient DC-free RLL codes for optical recording

    Page(s): 910 - 914
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on new DC-free runlength-limited codes (DCRLL) intended for the next generation of DVD. The efficiency of the newly developed DCRLL schemes is extremely close to the theoretical maximum, and as a result, significant density gains can be obtained with respect to prior art coding schemes View full abstract»

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  • MPEG-2 encoding of low-quality TV signals

    Page(s): 853 - 857
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    MPEG-2 encoding of low-quality (noisy) TV signals is analyzed with respect to the encoder output bit rate. Target rate for the MPEG-2 transport stream is 4.0 Mbit/s with D1 resolution (720×576 pixels). Standard MPEG-2 encoding parameters show problems with critical signals because they exceed the target output bit rate. We first describe the violation of the target rate and then show an optimization procedure which enables MPEG-2 hardware encoders to process both high-quality and noisy TV signals without bit rate violations View full abstract»

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  • Reducing the required transmitted power for personal communication devices in indoor-video spread-spectrum transmission

    Page(s): 734 - 742
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (561 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the use of a coded multicode spread-spectrum technique to reduce the radio power for personal communication devices in indoor video transmission. The performance of indoor video transmission is measured by the outage probability, which is the probability that the instantaneous bit error rate (BER) exceeds an acceptable level. We first derive the outage probability. The result is used to characterize the power reduction. It is found that the amount of power reduction depends on the required BER level. For indoor video transmission, which typically requires a BER of 10-5, a substantial power reduction exceeding 3 dB can be obtained. If outer coding is used in order that the BER requirement can be relaxed, results show that it is preferred to maintain the required BER to be less than 10-4 for more-effective utilization of the power-reduction capability View full abstract»

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  • Content-based video sequence interpretation

    Page(s): 873 - 879
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (702 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video sequence interpretation attempts to make sense of events that occur when they have been captured on video. When such scenario understanding can be employed in real-time or near-instantaneously, it can be applied to situations where constant watch would otherwise be needed. The potential for consumer applications is wide-ranging. Examples include safety monitoring of unattended elderly persons, children, pets and security surveillance. In this paper, we present a content-based video sequence interpretation algorithm for confined or semi-confined spaces. The algorithm comprises spatio-temporal video object (VO) segmentation, feature extraction, and scene analysis. Application of the proposed algorithm is illustrated in the context of security monitoring. Our system activates an alarm to alert the user of a suspicious event virtually instantaneously View full abstract»

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  • A fixed-point MPEG audio processor operating at low frequency

    Page(s): 779 - 786
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (754 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fixed-point pipelined processor optimized for decoding MPEG-1 audio layer III (MP3) is presented. Various examination and experiments on the decoding algorithm are exploited to lower the operating frequency by providing efficient instructions and addressing modes, because low frequency is directly related to low power consumption. Accordingly, the dynamic scaling method is used to preserve the precision while computing in fixed-point arithmetic. Also, a novel instruction set tuned for MP3 decoding is presented. The resulting cycle count required to decode a frame is so small that the proposed processor can operate with 12.8 MHz while decoding in real-time View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583