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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • Guest editorial

    Page(s): 2
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  • Robust motion control based on projection plane in redundant manipulator

    Page(s): 248 - 255
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (566 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a novel approach of robust motion control of a redundant manipulator by projection planes. In the proposed approach, a robust controller based on a workspace observer is employed in the selectable projection plane. Then, an adequate selection of the projection planes makes it possible to simplify the controller without deteriorating the tip motion response and to obtain the desired motion in the null space of the manipulator. This is one of the remarkable features of the proposed approach. The validity of the proposed controller is confirmed by several numerical simulations View full abstract»

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  • Elimination of position sensors in switched reluctance motor drives: state of the art and future trends

    Page(s): 40 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (153 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper covers the range of topics related to sensorless control of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives from their fundamentals to their limitations and state of the art and future trends. This should help the reader to develop a systematic understanding of the sensorless techniques that have been developed over the past two decades. The inherent vulnerability to mechanical failures, extra cost, and size associated with external position sensors such as optical encoders, resolvers, and custom-designed Hall-effect sensors has motivated many researchers to develop sensorless control techniques for SRM drives. Ideally, it is desirable to have a sensorless scheme, which uses only terminal measurements and does not require additional hardware or memory while maintaining a reliable operation over the entire speed and torque range with high resolution and accuracy. Advances in the development of low-cost digital-signal-processor-based microcontrollers have paved the way for the fulfillment of this objective. It is, furthermore, our view that the existing trends in the development of more powerful processors will ultimately replace the concept of sensorless controls with the concept of eliminating the need for position sensing, a concept that will further revolutionize the motor drive technology View full abstract»

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  • Control of switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications

    Page(s): 48 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dynamic controllers of switched reluctance drives adjust at least three variables, i.e., current amplitude, turn-on, and turn-off angles. In electric vehicle (EV) applications high efficiency of the drive over a wide speed range, wide torque bandwidth, and low torque ripple under varying DC-bus voltage conditions are important design goals. Hence, controllers of switched reluctance drives for EVs usually have a complex structure. In this paper, the demands on control accuracy of switched reluctance machine traction drives and the traction controller sampling frequency, which are necessary to take advantage of the switched reluctance machine dynamic capabilities, are discussed. To integrate the traction drive, the control commands need to be actualized with a sampling frequency of at least 100 Hz to meet the high-dynamic requirements of modern vehicle control systems, e.g., active cruise control, antislip control, and active damping of mechanical drivetrain oscillations. It is found that the switching angles have to be adjusted within one-tenth of a mechanical degree. This study shows that switched reluctance drives can fulfill all requirements needed for electric propulsion using standard microcontrollers or digital signal processors View full abstract»

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  • UPS inverter design using discrete-time sliding-mode control scheme

    Page(s): 67 - 75
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    This paper presents a novel discrete-time sliding-mode control algorithm for an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) inverter design. The approach offers a dual-loop design, in which a current predictor utilizes the tracking error of output voltage to estimate the desired inductor current, while a current controller is adopted to regulate the inductor current and, thus, produces a control command to the pulsewidth modulation inverter. An explicit condition for stable controller design is derived. The efficacy of this scheme is validated via a successful implementation on a digital-signal-processor-based UPS inverter. The proposed scheme has shown its robustness on low output voltage distortion, excellent voltage regulation, and it is insensitive to load variation, even under nonlinear loads. Experimental studies were performed to further validate the effectiveness of this scheme View full abstract»

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  • Neural-network-based adaptive control for induction servomotor drive system

    Page(s): 115 - 123
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    A neural-network-based adaptive control (NNAC) design method is proposed to control an induction servomotor. In this NNAC design, a neural network (NN) controller is investigated to mimic a feedback linearization control law; and a compensation controller is designed to compensate for the approximation error between the feedback linearization control law and the NN controller. The interconnection weights of the NN can be online tuned in the sense of the Lyapunov stability theorem; thus, the stability of the control system can be guaranteed. Additionally, in this NNAC system design, an error estimation mechanism is investigated to estimate the bound of approximation error so that the chattering phenomenon of the control effort can be reduced. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed NNAC servomotor control systems can achieve favorable tracking and robust performance with regard to parameter variations and external load disturbances View full abstract»

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  • Power-factor correction for switched reluctance drives

    Page(s): 54 - 57
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    This paper evaluates the need for power-factor correction (PFC) in switched reluctance drive systems supplied from single-phase mains. The aim is to achieve interference values lower than the prescribed norms at minimal system costs and volume. It is shown that for certain applications, a PFC circuit has to be implemented, but simpler technical solutions are often possible. Finally, a suggestion is presented as to how a low-cost power-factor-corrected system should be built for high-volume production View full abstract»

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  • Optimal design of switched reluctance motors

    Page(s): 15 - 27
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    The fundamental theory of the switched reluctance motor is presented with a number of new equations. It is used to show how the practical development of a design calculation should proceed, and this leads to a discussion of physical characteristics required to achieve satisfactory performance and to reduce acoustic noise. The paper makes a few generic observations on the characteristics of successful products that use switched reluctance motors. It is written at a basic engineering level and makes no attempt to apply sophisticated optimization theory View full abstract»

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  • Short-current pulse-based maximum-power-point tracking method for multiple photovoltaic-and-converter module system

    Page(s): 217 - 223
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) method with a simple algorithm for photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems. The method is based on use of a short-current pulse of the PV to determine an optimum operating current where the maximum output power can be obtained and completely differs from conventional hill-climbing-based methods. In the proposed system, the optimum operating current is instantaneously determined simply by taking a product of the short-current pulse amplitude and a parameter k because the optimum operating current is exactly proportional to the short current under various conditions of illuminance and temperature. Also, the system offers an identification capability of k by means of fast power-versus-current curve scanning, which makes the short-current pulse-based MPPT method adaptive to disturbances such as shades partially covering the PV panels and surface contamination. The above adaptive MPPT algorithm has been introduced into a current-controlled boost chopper and a multiple power converter system composed of PV-and-chopper modules. Various operating characteristics have experimentally been examined on this multiple PV-and-chopper module system from a practical viewpoint and excellent MPPT performance has been confirmed through the tests View full abstract»

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  • Force control of redundant robots in unstructured environment

    Page(s): 233 - 240
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (154 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a method for force control of redundant robots in an unstructured environment is proposed. We assume that the obstacles are not known in advance. Hence, the robot arm has to be compliant with the environment while tracking the desired position and force at the end-effector. First, the dynamic properties of the internal motion of redundant manipulators are considered. The motion is decoupled into the end-effector motion and the internal motion. Next, the dynamic model of a redundant manipulator is derived. Special attention is given to the inertial properties of the system in the space where internal motion is taking place; the authors define a null-space effective inertia and its inverse. Finally, a control method is proposed which completely decouples the motion of the manipulator into the task-space motion and the internal motion and enables the selection of dynamic characteristics in both subspaces separately. The proposed method is verified with simulation and with experimental results of a four-degrees-of-freedom planar redundant robot View full abstract»

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  • Speed estimation of an induction motor drive using an optimized extended Kalman filter

    Page(s): 124 - 133
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel method to achieve good performance of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for speed estimation of an induction motor drive. A real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the noise covariance and weight matrices of the EKF, thereby ensuring filter stability and accuracy in speed estimation. Simulation studies on a constant V/Hz controller and a field-oriented controller (FOC) under various operating conditions demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. The experimental system consists of a prototype digital-signal-processor-based FOC induction motor drive with hardware facilities for acquiring the speed, voltage, and current signals to a PC. Experiments comprising offline GA training and verification phases are presented to validate the performance of the optimized EKF View full abstract»

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  • Minimization of torque ripple in SRM drives

    Page(s): 28 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (251 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The torque pulsations in switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are relatively higher compared to sinusoidal machines due to the doubly salient structure of the motor. The magnetization pattern of the individual phases together with the T-i-θ characteristics of the motor dictate the amount of torque ripple during operation. Both machine design and electronic control approaches have been used to minimize the torque ripple in SRMs. This paper presents an extensive review of the origin of torque ripple and the approaches adopted over the past decade to minimize the torque ripple. A hybrid torque-ripple-minimizing controller that incorporates the attractive features of some of the techniques developed in the past decade is presented along with simulation and experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Field-oriented controlled induction generator with loss minimization

    Page(s): 147 - 156
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    In this paper, a strategy to control an induction generator (IG) working with variable speed and load is presented and discussed. An inverter and a field-oriented controller are used in order to excite the induction machine (IM) efficiently, minimizing copper and iron losses, and to regulate the generated voltage. The proposed IG system is a stand-alone (not grid connected) system. It is used to produce electrical DC energy, to charge a battery bank, and/or to supply DC loads with maximum efficiency. A laboratory setup, based on a conventional 4 kW squirrel-cage IM, has been implemented. Experimental results are presented in order to validate the proposed strategy View full abstract»

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  • Relationship between space-vector modulation and three-phase carrier-based PWM: a comprehensive analysis [three-phase inverters]

    Page(s): 186 - 196
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper comprehensively analyzes the relationship between space-vector modulation and three-phase carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM). The relationships involved, such as the relationship between modulation signals (including zero-sequence component and fundamental components) and space vectors, the relationship between the modulation signals and the space-vector sectors, the relationship between the switching pattern of space-vector modulation and the type of carrier, and the relationship between the distribution of zero vectors and different zero-sequence signal are systematically established. All the relationships provide a bidirectional bridge for the transformation between carrier-based PWM modulators and space-vector modulation modulators. It is shown that all the drawn conclusions are independent of the load type. Furthermore, the implementations of both space-vector modulation and carrier-based PWM in a closed-loop feedback converter are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Configuration and readhesion control for a mobile robot with external sensors

    Page(s): 241 - 247
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (171 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since a wheeled mobile robot is subject to nonholonomic constraints, the position and the configuration of the robot cannot be derived directly from only the rotation angle of its wheels. In other words, the position and the configuration of a mobile robot cannot be calculated correctly if its wheels skid. For the purpose of the position estimation of a mobile robot, some external sensors are used, in general. This paper uses position information from a position-sensitive detector camera that is a high-speed visual sensor to correct the errors that are due to skid and so on. Also, we estimate a skid of wheels by using its visual information. In this paper, the authors propose a control system that enables control of both the configuration of the robot and the skid of wheels simultaneously by including these estimated values in the control loop of a mobile manipulator View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy logic transformer build estimation

    Page(s): 264 - 267
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    Mechanical fitting of transformer windings tightly into the core ensures an efficient use of window space. Fuzzy logic transformer build estimation is intended to implement approximate solutions suggested in imprecise terms for the better mechanical fit of windings into the core. For imperfect fit, it readjusts the buildup parameters in iterations to optimize mechanical fit. The results have demonstrated the potentiality of usage of fuzzy logic in the mechanical-fit process of a transformer View full abstract»

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  • JOE: a mobile, inverted pendulum

    Page(s): 107 - 114
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (185 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Industrial Electronics Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland, has built a prototype of a revolutionary two-wheeled vehicle. Due to its configuration with two coaxial wheels, each of which is coupled to a DC motor, the vehicle is able to do stationary U-turns. A control system, made up of two decoupled state-space controllers, pilots the motors so as to keep the system in equilibrium View full abstract»

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  • A new control technique for active power filters using a combined genetic algorithm/conventional analysis

    Page(s): 58 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (159 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the computational problems associated with the optimization techniques used to evaluate the switching patterns for controlling variable-characteristics active power filters are presented and critically analyzed. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are introduced in this paper to generate a fast and accurate initial starting point in the highly nonlinear optimization space of mathematical optimization techniques. GAs tend to speed up the initialization process by a factor of 13. A combined GA/conventional technique is also proposed and implemented to reduce the associated computational burden associated with the control and, consequently, increasing the speed of response of this class of active filters. Comparisons of these techniques are discussed and presented in conjunction with simulation and practical results for the filter operation View full abstract»

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  • On the trajectory tracking control of industrial SCARA robot manipulators

    Page(s): 224 - 232
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the authors discuss, from an experimental point of view, the use of different control strategies for the trajectory tracking control of an industrial selective compliance assembly robot arm robot, which is one of the most employed manipulators in industrial environments, especially for assembly tasks. Specifically, they consider decentralized controllers such as proportional-integral-derivative-based and sliding-mode ones and model-based controllers such as the classical computed-torque one and a neural-network-based controller. A simple procedure for the estimation of the dynamic model of the manipulator is given. Experimental results provide a detailed framework about the cost/benefit ratio regarding the use of the different controllers, showing that the performance obtained with decentralized controllers may suffice in a large number of industrial applications, but in order to achieve low tracking errors also for high-speed trajectories, it might be convenient to adopt a neural-network-based control scheme, whose implementation is not particularly demanding View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive backstepping control using recurrent neural network for linear induction motor drive

    Page(s): 134 - 146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (334 KB)  

    An adaptive backstepping control system using a recurrent neural network (RNN) is proposed to control the mover position of a linear induction motor (LIM) drive to compensate the uncertainties including the friction force in this paper. First, the dynamic model of an indirect field-oriented LIM drive is derived. Then, a backstepping approach is proposed to compensate the uncertainties including the friction force occurred in the motion control system. With the proposed backstepping control system, the mover position of the LIM drive possesses the advantages of good transient control performance and robustness to uncertainties for the tracking of periodic reference trajectories. Moreover, to further increase the robustness of the LIM drive, an RNN uncertainty observer is proposed to estimate the required lumped uncertainty in the backstepping control system. In addition, an online parameter training methodology, which is derived using the gradient-descent method, is proposed to increase the learning capability of the RNN. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by both the simulated and experimental results View full abstract»

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  • ZVZCS single-stage PFC AC-to-DC half-bridge converter

    Page(s): 206 - 216
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A zero-voltage- and zero-current-switched single-stage AC-to-DC half-bridge converter with high power factor is presented to reduce the switching losses and to achieve sinusoidal, unity power factor input currents. The single-stage approach, which combines a boost converter used as power-factor correction with a half-bridge converter used as DC-to-DC conversion into one power stage, has a simple structure and low cost. At the same time, the switching losses could be considerably reduced, because the switches of the proposed converter are designed to be turned on at zero voltage and off at zero current. Detailed analysis and experimental results are presented on the proposed converter, which is operated at constant switching frequency and in discontinuous conduction mode View full abstract»

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  • Speed-sensorless sliding-mode torque control of an induction motor

    Page(s): 87 - 95
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (205 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel induction motor control optimizing both torque response and efficiency is proposed in the paper. The main contribution of the paper is a new structure of rotor flux observer aimed at the speed-sensorless operation of an induction machine servo drive at both low and high speed, where rapid speed changes can occur. The control differs from the conventional field-oriented control. Stator and rotor flux in stator fixed coordinates are controlled instead of the stator current components in rotor field coordinates isd and isq. In principle, the proposed method is based on driving the stator flux toward the reference stator flux vector defined by the input command, which are the reference torque and the reference rotor flux. The magnitude and orientation angle of the rotor flux of the induction motor are determined by the output of the closed-loop rotor flux observer based on sliding-mode control and Lyapunov theory. Simulations and experimental tests are provided to evaluate the consistency and performance of the proposed control technique View full abstract»

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  • Single-phase integrated power quality compensator based on capacitor-clamped configuration

    Page(s): 173 - 185
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A control scheme of an integrated power quality compensator, which employs an active rectifier to work simultaneously as an active power filter (APF) to decrease current harmonics, is proposed. The employed rectifier is based on a capacitor-clamped configuration to produce multilevel pulsewidth modulation waveforms which result in low voltage stress and low conduction loss on the power switches. The proposed active rectifier is controlled to track the supply current to be a sinusoidal wave with low current harmonics. The advantages of the proposed control scheme are high power factor, low current harmonics, no complicated calculations for current harmonics elimination, and no dedicated APF needed for harmonic elimination. The experimental results are used to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme View full abstract»

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  • Design and operation of burn-in test system for three-phase uninterruptible power supplies

    Page(s): 256 - 263
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (165 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new approach for the burn-in test of three-phase uninterruptible power supplies is proposed. This method can perform the energy recovery for reducing the test cost, while the current supplied from the utility can be steered to be more sinusoidal. When a large number of burn-in test systems are activated such that harmonic problems may become more serious, the proposed method is also suggested based on its immunity to possible harmonies infiltration coming from the tested product to the utility power supplies. This method has been tested through simulation study and hardware experiments. Test results help consolidate the feasibility of the approach for the applications considered View full abstract»

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  • Parametric fault diagnosis for electrohydraulic cylinder drive units

    Page(s): 96 - 106
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel model-based methodology for fault diagnosis (FD) of nonlinear hydraulic drive systems is presented in this paper. Due to its linear dependence upon parameters, a second-truncated Volterra nonlinear model is first used to characterize such systems. The versatile order-recursive estimation scheme is employed to determine the values of parameters in the Volterra model. The scheme also avoids separate determination of the model order; thus, the complexity of the search process is reduced. Next, it is shown that the estimated parameters, representing different states of the system, normal as well as faulty conditions, can be used to detect and isolate system faults in a geometric domain. Very promising results are exhibited via simulations as well as laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the developed parametric FD technique has potential to provide efficient condition monitoring and/or preventive maintenance in hydraulic actuator circuits View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411