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Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Automatic selection of fixturing surfaces and fixturing points for polyhedral workpieces

    Page(s): 833 - 841
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB)  

    Fixtures play an important role in many manufacturing operations such as inspection, machining, and part fabrication. In the development of a fixture, it is desired that the feasible fixturing surfaces and optimal fixturing points on the workpiece be selected automatically. An algorithm is presented to automate the generation of optimal fixturing points, which totally restrains the workpiece in the fixture, i.e., satisfies the form-closure condition, as well as minimizes the workpiece positional errors. First, a heuristics is proposed for searching a set of fixturing surfaces capable of providing form-closure. Then, we formulate the problem of determining optimal fixturing points on the eligible set of fixturing surfaces as a quadratic programming problem with the workpiece positioning accuracy as the performance index and the robust form-closure requirement as the linear constraints. Finally, the implementation for three numerical examples demonstrates the usefulness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Randomized path planning for linkages with closed kinematic chains

    Page(s): 951 - 958
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We extend randomized path planning algorithms to the case of articulated robots that have closed kinematic chains. This is an important class of problems, which includes applications such as manipulation planning using multiple open-chain manipulators that cooperatively grasp an object and planning for reconfigurable robots in which links might be arranged in a loop to ease manipulation or locomotion. Applications also exist in areas beyond robotics, including computer graphics, computational chemistry, and virtual prototyping. Such applications typically involve high degrees of freedom and a parameterization of the configurations that satisfy closure constraints is usually not available. We show how to implement key primitive operations of randomized path planners for general closed kinematics chains. These primitives include the generation of random free configurations and the generation of local paths. To demonstrate the feasibility of our primitives for general chains, we show their application to recently developed randomized planners and present computed results for high-dimensional problems. View full abstract»

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  • List of reviewers

    Page(s): 979 - 981
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Page(s): 982 - 985
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject index

    Page(s): 985 - 994
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Multisensor fusion for simultaneous localization and map building

    Page(s): 908 - 914
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB)  

    This paper describes how multisensor fusion increases both reliability and precision of the environmental observations used for the simultaneous localization and map-building problem for mobile robots. Multisensor fusion is performed at the level of landmarks, which represent sets of related and possibly correlated sensor observations. The work emphasizes the idea of partial redundancy due to the different nature of the information provided by different sensors. Experimentation with a mobile robot equipped with a multisensor system composed of a 2D laser rangefinder and a charge coupled device camera is reported View full abstract»

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  • Low-order-complexity vision-based docking

    Page(s): 922 - 930
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on a reactive docking behavior which uses a vision algorithm that grows linearly with the number of image pixels. The docking robot imprints (initializes) on a two-colored docking fiducial upon departing from the dock, then uses region statistics to adapt the color segmentation in changing lighting conditions. The docking behavior was implemented on a marsupial team of robots, where a daughter micro-rover had to reenter the mother robot from an approach zone with a 2 m radius and 140° angular width with a tolerance of ±5 and ±2 cm. Testing during outdoor conditions (noon, dusk) and challenging indoor scenarios (flashing lights) showed that using adaptation and imprinting was more robust than using imprinting atone View full abstract»

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  • Design and analysis of a sun sensor for planetary rover absolute heading detection

    Page(s): 939 - 947
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes a new sun sensor for absolute heading detection developed for the Field Integrated, Design and Operations (FIDO) rover. The FIDO rover is an advanced technology rover that is a terrestrial prototype of the rovers NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) plans to send to Mars in 2003. Our goal was to develop a sun sensor that fills the current cost/performance gap, uses the power of subpixel interpolation, makes use of current hardware on the rover, and demands very little computational overhead. The need for a sun sensor on planetary rovers lies in the fact that current means of estimating the heading of planetary rovers involves integration of noisy rotational-speed measurements. This noise causes error to accumulate and grow rapidly. Moreover, the heading error affects the estimate of the x and y position of the rover. More importantly, incremental odometry heading estimation is only reliable over relatively short distances. There is an urgent need to develop a new heading-detection sensor for long traverses [for example, 100 m per Sol (Martian Day)], as requested for future Mars mission. Results of a recent FIDO field trial at Black Rock Summit in Central Nevada and several operations readiness tests at the JPL MarsYard using the sun sensor have demonstrated threefold to fourfold improvement in the heading estimation of the rover compared to incremental odometry View full abstract»

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  • Formation constrained multi-agent control

    Page(s): 947 - 951
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (142 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a model independent coordination strategy for multi-agent formation control. The main theorem states that under a bounded tracking error assumption, our method stabilizes the formation error. We illustrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to rigid body constrained motions View full abstract»

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  • Impedance control for biped robot locomotion

    Page(s): 870 - 882
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a control method for biped robot locomotion based on impedance control and impedance modulation. Both legs are controlled by the impedance control, where the desired impedance at the hip and the swing foot are specified. The impedance parameters are changed depending on the gait phase of the biped robot. To reduce the magnitude of impact and to guarantee a stable footing at foot landings on the ground, the damping coefficient of the impedance of the landing foot is increased drastically and the reference trajectory of the landing foot is reset at its initial contact with the ground. A series of computer simulations of a 12-degree-of-freedom (DOF) biped robot with a 6-DOF environment model which consists of nonlinear and linear compliant spring-and-dampers, shows that the proposed control method works well and is superior to position-oriented control methods such as the computed-torque control method in impact regulation during foot landings and adaptation to some ground irregularity View full abstract»

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  • Tool requirements planning in a flexible manufacturing system with an automatic tool transporter

    Page(s): 795 - 804
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (210 KB)  

    We consider a tool requirements planning problem in a flexible manufacturing system with an automatic tool transporter. The problem considered here is that of determining the number of tool copies of each tool type with the objective of minimizing total tardiness of orders with distinct due dates for a given budget for tool purchase. For the problem, several heuristic algorithms are developed using greedy search methods and simulation. In the heuristic algorithms, the numbers of tool copies for certain tool types are increased until they cannot be increased any more because of the budget limit. Simulation results are used to determine search directions or to select tool types of which the numbers of copies are to be increased. Computational experiments are performed on randomly generated test problems and results show that a good tool requirements plan can be obtained with the heuristic algorithms in a reasonable amount of computation time View full abstract»

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  • A discrete event systems modeling formalism based on event occurrence rules and precedences

    Page(s): 785 - 794
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The analysis (verification, diagnosis, control, etc.) of discrete event systems requires a correct model of the system and of its specifications. In this paper, we present a new modeling formalism for generating valid models of complex systems. The class of systems this applies to is one which consists of signals that take binary values. The technique presented here makes the task of modeling considerably less cumbersome and less error-prone and is user-friendly. Another advantage of using this modeling formalism is that the size of the system model is polynomial in the number of signals, whereas the number of states in the automata models is exponential in the number of signals. We present automated techniques for deriving an automaton-based model from the model in the proposed formalism. We illustrate the modeling formalism using examples drawn from manufacturing systems and process control View full abstract»

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  • Machine vision system for the automatic identification of robot kinematic parameters

    Page(s): 972 - 978
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (207 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an efficient, noncontact measurement technique for the automatic identification of the real kinematic parameters of an industrial robot. The technique is based on least-squares analysis and on the Hayati and Mirmirani kinematic modeling convention for closed kinematic chains. The measurement system consists of a single camera mounted on the robot's wrist. The camera measures position and orientation of a passive target in six degrees of freedom. Target position is evaluated by applying least-squares analysis on an overdetermined system of equations based on the quaternion representation of the finite rotation formula. To enhance the accuracy of the measurement, a variety of image processing functions including subpixel interpolation are applied View full abstract»

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  • Data association in stochastic mapping using the joint compatibility test

    Page(s): 890 - 897
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (197 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we address the problem of robust data association for simultaneous vehicle localization and map building. We show that the classical gated nearest neighbor approach, which considers each matching between sensor observations and features independently, ignores the fact that measurement prediction errors are correlated. This leads to easily accepting incorrect matchings when clutter or vehicle errors increase. We propose a new measurement of the joint compatibility of a set of pairings that successfully rejects spurious matchings. We show experimentally that this restrictive criterion can be used to efficiently search for the best solution to data association. Unlike the nearest neighbor, this method provides a robust solution in complex situations, such as cluttered environments or when revisiting previously mapped regions View full abstract»

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  • A feedback control scheme for reversing a truck and trailer vehicle

    Page(s): 915 - 922
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A control scheme is proposed for stabilization of backward driving along simple paths for a miniaturized vehicle composed of a truck and a two-axle trailer. The paths chosen are straight lines and arcs of circles. When reversing, the truck and trailer under examination can be modeled as an unstable nonlinear system with state and input saturations. The simplified goal of stabilizing along a trajectory (instead of a point) allows us to consider a system with controllable linearization. Still, the combination of instability and saturations makes the task impossible with a single controller. In fact, the system cannot be driven backward from all initial states because of the jack-knife effects between the parts of the multibody vehicle; it is sometimes necessary to drive forward to enter into a specific region of attraction. This leads to the use of hybrid controllers. The scheme has been implemented and successfully used to reverse the radio-controlled vehicle View full abstract»

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  • Performance and H optimality of PID trajectory tracking controller for Lagrangian systems

    Page(s): 857 - 869
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB)  

    This paper suggests an inverse optimal PID control design method to track trajectories in Lagrangian systems. The inverse optimal PID controller exists if and only if the Lagrangian system is extended disturbance input-to-state stable. First, we find the Lyapunov function and the control law that satisfy the extended disturbance input-to-state stability by using the characteristics of the Lagrangian system. The control law has a MID control form and satisfies the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation. Hence, the H inverse optimality of the closed-loop system dynamics is acquired through the PID controller if the conditions for the control law are satisfied. Also, simple coarse/fine performance tuning laws are suggested based on a performance limitation analysis of the inverse optimal PID controller. Selection conditions for gains are proposed as functions of the tuning variable. Experimental results for a typical Lagrangian system show that our analysis provides performance and H optimality View full abstract»

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  • On the analysis of a new spatial three-degrees-of-freedom parallel manipulator

    Page(s): 959 - 968
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new spatial three-degrees-of-freedom (two degrees of translational freedom and one degree of rotational freedom) parallel manipulator is proposed. The parallel manipulator consists of a base plate, a movable platform, and three connecting legs. The inverse and forward kinematics problems are described in closed forms and the velocity equation of the new parallel manipulator is given. Three kinds of singularities are also presented. The workspace for the manipulator is analyzed systematically; in particular, indices to evaluate the mobility (in this paper, mobility means rotational capability) of the moving platform of the manipulator will be defined and discussed in detail. Finally, a topology architecture of the manipulator is introduced. The parallel manipulator has wide application in the fields of industrial robots, simulators, micromanipulators, and parallel machine tools View full abstract»

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  • External force control for underwater vehicle-manipulator systems

    Page(s): 931 - 938
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interaction of underwater vehicle-manipulator systems (UVMSs) with the environment is affected by several design constraints such as uncertainty in the model knowledge, presence of hydrodynamic effects, kinematic redundancy of the system, and poor performance of vehicle's actuating system. The paper presents an external force control scheme for UVMSs that does not require dynamic compensation; however, it can benefit from the knowledge of part of the dynamic model. The possible occurrence of loss of contact due to vehicle movement during the task, is also taken into account. A numerical case study shows the application of the proposed technique in a given task View full abstract»

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  • An integrated approach to disassembly planning and demanufacturing operation

    Page(s): 773 - 784
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Industrial demanufacturing is a practice of growing importance due to increasing environmental and economic pressures. However, very little research focuses on it from a system perspective. This paper presents a disassembly planning and demanufacturing scheduling method for an integrated flexible demanufacturing system. Workstation Petri net and Product Petri net are proposed for its hierarchical and modular modeling in order to derive the disassembly path with the maximal end-of-life value. Scheduling Petri net is introduced to schedule the demanufacturing resources. The proposed methodology and algorithms are demonstrated through the disassembly of personal computers in an integrated flexible demanufacturing system View full abstract»

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  • Note on the normal form of a spatial stiffness matrix

    Page(s): 968 - 972
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB)  

    There has been some recent interest in the problem of designing compliance mechanisms with a given spatial stiffness matrix. A key result that has proven useful in the design of such mechanisms is Loncaric's normal form. When a spatial stiffness matrix is described in an appropriate coordinate frame, it will have a particularly simple structure. In this form the 3×3 off-diagonal blocks of the stiffness matrix are diagonal. It has been shown that generically, a spatial stiffness matrix can be written in normal form. For example, it is fairly well known that this is possible for any positive definite spatial stiffness matrix. In this article, it is shown that any symmetric positive semi-definite matrix can be written in normal form. As an application this result is used to design a compact parallel compliance mechanism with a prescribed positive semi-definite spatial stiffness matrix View full abstract»

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  • Manipulator path planning by decomposition: algorithm and analysis

    Page(s): 842 - 856
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (281 KB)  

    Path planning is achieved by a special decomposition of the robot manipulator, an offline preprocessing stage, and a three phase online path planning scheme. The decomposition consists of separating the robot into several chains where a chain is a combination of several consecutive links and joints. Preprocessing is performed by defining a set of postures for each chain and setting up a collision table which re-integrates the chains into the full robot and stores the collision states of various discretized robot configurations with the obstacles. Path planning using a local search is performed independently in joint subspaces associated with robot chains. The paths found for the chains are synthesized to obtain a collision-free path for the robot. This decomposition reduces the exponential growth of computation with robot degrees of freedom (DOF) to that of the much lower chain DOF. As a result, it is possible to achieve short planning times for practical robots operating in three-dimensional work spaces. Analysis of computation time and space of the proposed method are presented. Results supporting the analysis are provided for a large number of path-planning trials with two practical robots operating in relatively cluttered environments View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and control of formations of nonholonomic mobile robots

    Page(s): 905 - 908
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (127 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the control of a team of nonholonomic mobile robots navigating in a terrain with obstacles while maintaining a desired formation and changing formations when required, using graph theory. We model the team as a triple, (g, r, H), consisting of a group element g that describes the gross position of the lead robot, a set of shape variables r that describe the relative positions of robots, and a control graph H that describes the behaviors of the robots in the formation. Our framework enables the representation and enumeration of possible control graphs and the coordination of transitions between any two formations View full abstract»

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  • Determining planar location via complement-free de Brujin sequences using discrete optical sensors

    Page(s): 883 - 889
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    We present a technique for determining the absolute x, y-location of a robot in a workspace. The floor of the workspace is tiled with black and white squares in a pattern based on a variant of a de Bruijn sequence. The black/white pattern on the floor is read by a modest number of inexpensive, discrete optical sensors, and a simple algorithm determines the position of the robot View full abstract»

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  • The chaotic mobile robot

    Page(s): 898 - 904
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (505 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we develop a method to impart the chaotic nature to a mobile robot. The chaotic mobile robot implies a mobile robot with a controller that ensures chaotic motions. Chaotic motion is characterized by the topological transitivity and the sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Due to the topological transitivity, the chaotic mobile robot is guaranteed to scan the whole connected workspace. For scanning motion, the chaotic robot neither requires the map of the workspace nor plans the global motion. It only requires the measurement of the local normal of the workspace boundary when it comes close to it. We design the controller such that the total dynamics of the mobile robot is represented by the Arnold equation, which is known to show the chaotic behavior of noncompressive perfect fluid. Experimental results and their analysis illustrate the usefulness of the proposed controller View full abstract»

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  • Geometric approach and taboo search for scheduling flexible manufacturing systems

    Page(s): 805 - 818
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the scheduling and deadlock avoidance of a class of automated manufacturing systems. In such systems, a set of jobs is to be performed on a set of resources and each job requires several operations. An operation may require several types of resources with several units of each type. Further, upon the completion of an operation, its related resources cannot be released until resources needed for the next operation become available. One important characteristic of such systems is the possibility of deadlock. The scheduling problem deals with the allocation of resources such that jobs are completed within a minimal makespan and deadlocks are avoided. We extend the classical geometric approach to solve the two-job case of our model. A greedy algorithm based on this result and the taboo search heuristic are then developed for the general case. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm is fast and provides good schedules View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 2004. The current retitled publications areIEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering and IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Full Aims & Scope