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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • Foreword: special issue on "recent advances in EMC of printed circuit boards"

    Page(s): 414 - 415
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Wideband frequency-domain characterization of FR-4 and time-domain causality

    Page(s): 662 - 667
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (175 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    FR-4 is one of the most widely used dielectric substrates in the fabrication of printed circuits for fast digital devices. This material exhibits substantial losses and the loss tangent is practically constant over a wide band of frequencies. This paper presents measured data for the complex permittivity of this material from power frequencies up to the microwave region. In addition it gives simple closed-form expressions that approximate the measured data and provide a causal response in the time domain. View full abstract»

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  • Reviewers for 2001 issues

    Page(s): 697 - 698
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Page(s): 699 - 701
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject index

    Page(s): 702 - 710
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Design expressions for the trace-to-edge common-mode inductance of a printed circuit board

    Page(s): 667 - 671
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    The parasitic ground-plane inductance is responsible for common-mode radiation, as one of the major unwanted radiation mechanisms of printed circuit boards. For the computation of the common-mode inductance simple relations are known for the case that the trace is centered above the ground plane. In this paper the increase of the ground-plane inductance for arbitrary trace-to-edge distances is studied. From the exact analytical result obtained by complex analysis a much simpler real-valued relation is derived which allows one to set up dimensioning equations for the minimum distance of the trace to the board edge. The inductance increase correlates quite well with published measurement data for the common-mode current increase. A parameter study for different dimensions of the board provides a quantification of the potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) level View full abstract»

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  • Operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers with wave diffractors at relatively low frequencies

    Page(s): 637 - 653
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    The dependence of the modal density on chamber geometry is analyzed, for general unstirred reverberation chambers at relatively low frequencies of operation. An expression for the lowest usable frequency is derived based on the chamber mode density. The use of curved wave diffractors is investigated as a method for increasing the average mode density. The specific effect of corner, edge, surface and volume diffractors on the mode density and quality factor of a nominally rectangular shielded room is analyzed as a function of diffractor size, density, and operating frequency. This paper complements earlier studies on field statistics of undermoded reverberation chambers and the performance of acoustic-type diffusers in electromagnetic reverberation chambers View full abstract»

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  • Transmission-line parameter approximation for digital simulation

    Page(s): 466 - 470
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    This paper compares closed-form approximations for coplanar waveguide and microstrip transmission-line parameters to accurate measurements and full-wave calculations. We suggest improved approximations and demonstrate the limitations of our proposed and current approximations for the efficient simulation of digital interconnects View full abstract»

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  • Electrical behavior of decoupling capacitors embedded in multilayered PCBs

    Page(s): 549 - 556
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    We describe the modeling of prototype capacitors embedded in multilayered printed circuit boards. We present the design of these devices. We also report measurement and characterization results. The emphasis is on the modeling of via hole connections to the embedded capacitor, not on the technology of buried capacitors. Several designs have been compared with respect to their electrical behavior. In particular, several via hole configurations have been studied, because they are the main cause of parasitic behavior. With these buried capacitors, we obtained a reduction of the parasitic inductance of 80% compared to an equivalent discrete capacitor. This work has been carried out under a European Brite-EuRAM funded project COMPRISE (BE 96-3371). The objective of this project was to develop new materials and manufacturing processes to embed passive components (R, L, and C) within printed wiring structures fabricated from laminate materials. This technology enables the manufacture of space efficient and radio frequency (RF) optimal performing types of modules or board assemblies particularly suited to the market domain of portable and handheld communication and information technology products View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of integrated circuit conducted emissions by using a transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) cell

    Page(s): 622 - 628
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    This paper presents a new technique for the measurement of integrated circuit (IC) conducted emissions. In particular, the spectrum of interfering current flowing through an IC port is detected by using a transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) cell. A structure composed of a microstrip line inserted in a matched TEM cell is considered. The structure is excited by an interfering source connected to one end of the transmission line. The relationship between the current spectrum of the source and the spectrum of the RF power delivered to the TEM mode of the cell is derived. This relationship is evaluated for one specific structure and the experimental validation is shown. Results of conducted emission measurement performed by using such a technique are shown as well and compared with those derived by using the magnetic probe method View full abstract»

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  • A SPICE model for incident field coupling to lossy multiconductor transmission lines

    Page(s): 485 - 494
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    An efficient time-domain macromodel for incident field coupling to lossy multiconductor transmission lines is presented. The model takes the form of ordinary differential equations and can be easily included in SPICE like simulators for transient analysis. The model is based on the closed-form matrix-rational approximation of the exponential matrix describing telegrapher's equations and semi-analytic rational approximation of forcing functions View full abstract»

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  • An equivalent transmission-line model containing dispersion for high-speed digital lines-with an FDTD implementation

    Page(s): 504 - 514
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    The increase in processor speeds in the last few years has created a growing need for the accurate characterization of waveform propagation on lossy printed-circuit-board (PCB) transmission lines. Due to the dispersive nature of pulse propagation on lossy transmission lines, approximations of the classic transmission-line model can fail in this application (i.e., lossless or DC losses approximations). This paper shows how an equivalent transmission-line model can be used to analyze dispersive transmission lines for high-speed digital applications. The equivalent-circuit elements of this transmission-line model incorporate the frequency dependence of the per unit length impedance and admittance caused by the finite conductivity of the conductors as well as the dielectric losses. We show that these equivalent circuit elements can be readily implemented into finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) transmission-line codes, and we present such a FDTD implementation. S-parameters and pulsed waveforms for a circular wire, coplanar waveguides (CPW) and microstrip lines are shown. Finally, we present approximate expressions for analytically obtaining the resistance and inductance per length of a microstrip line View full abstract»

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  • Power-supply decoupling on fully populated high-speed digital PCBs

    Page(s): 671 - 676
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    The effectiveness of buried capacitance technology, used with discrete surface mounted decoupling capacitors, in reducing circuit malfunctions due to the noise voltage between power/ground planes in a multilayer printed circuit board is investigated. The analysis is carried out on a fully populated multilayer board, where an integrated circuit with very large package provides a lot of digital signals with measured rise/fall times equal to 400 ps. The role of the integrated circuit's package in damping out the resonance peaks at resonance frequencies on the power plane is highlighted. The relations between the power-bus transfer impedance and noise spectrum are also studied, in order to better evaluate the effects of the buried capacitance technology and decoupling capacitors on the power-bus noise filtering View full abstract»

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  • Far-end crosstalk reduction in double-layered dielectric interconnects

    Page(s): 566 - 572
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    The problem of far-end crosstalk reduction is considered. Various cases of far-end crosstalk reduction in single and cascaded sections of two coupled interconnects in a double-layered dielectric environment are investigated by computer modeling of capacitive and inductive couplings and by simulation of far-end crosstalk waveforms View full abstract»

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  • Parasitic modes on printed circuit boards and their effects on EMC and signal integrity

    Page(s): 416 - 425
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    In this paper, parasitic modes, such as slotline, parallel plane, and surface wave (SW) modes, commonly found on printed circuit boards (PCBs) are analyzed and their effects on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and signal integrity are discussed. The analysis is based on numerical simulations using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method which is shown to be very well suited for rigorous modeling of parasitic mode effects. The EMC and signal integrity problems discussed include power loss, crosstalk, ground bounce, and free space radiation. Design guidelines for improved EMC and signal integrity are derived from the results obtained. Comprehensive simulation and characterization of SWs using FDTD is presented for the first time View full abstract»

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  • The use of MUSIC algorithm to characterize emissive sources

    Page(s): 688 - 693
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    This paper applies the MUSIC algorithm to finite-distance sources without omnidirectional radiation patterns to identify their positions and radiation characteristics. This technique can be used to obtain the image of a radiating source and therefore can be successfully utilized in many disciplines such as EMC, biomagnetic data evaluation, geophysical studies. The canonical cases herein discussed may be generalized to define a methodology to localize and characterize emissive sources in the same manner as the radar imaging technique is used for passive reflecting targets View full abstract»

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  • Quantifying SMT decoupling capacitor placement in dc power-bus design for multilayer PCBs

    Page(s): 588 - 599
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    Noise on a dc power-bus that results from device switching, as well as other potential mechanisms, is a primary source of many signal integrity (SI) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems. Surface mount technology (SMT) decoupling capacitors are commonly used to mitigate this power-bus noise. A critical design issue associated with this common practice in high-speed digital designs is placement of the capacitors with respect to the integrated circuits (ICs). Local decoupling, namely, placing SMT capacitors in proximity to ICs, is investigated in this study. Multilayer PCB designs that employ entire layers or area fills for power and ground in a parallel plate structure are considered. The results demonstrate that local decoupling can provide high-frequency benefits for certain PCB geometries through mutual inductive coupling between closely spaced vias. The associated magnetic flux linkage is between the power and ground layers. Numerical modeling using an integral equation formulation with circuit extraction is used to quantify the local decoupling phenomenon. Local decoupling can effectively reduce high-frequency power-bus noise, though placing capacitors adjacent to ICs may limit routing flexibility, and tradeoffs need to be made based on design requirements. Design curves are generated as a function of power-bus layer thickness and SMT capacitor/IC spacing using the modeling approach to quantify the power-bus noise reduction for decoupling capacitors located adjacent to devices. Measurement data is provided to corroborate the modeling approach View full abstract»

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  • Off-axis gain and field in the finite range of an open-ended rectangular waveguide

    Page(s): 685 - 688
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    Expressions are presented for the approximate evaluation of the off-axis gain and field in the finite-range of an open-ended rectangular waveguide (OEG). These formulas in turn present a method for predicting the off-axis error when an OEG is used as the source antenna. For an OEG operating at 250 MHz, the off-axis error estimated by using this method favorably compares with that experimentally estimated for the 1 m off-axis position View full abstract»

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  • EMI mitigation with multilayer power-bus stacks and via stitching of reference planes

    Page(s): 538 - 548
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    General methods for reducing printed circuit board (PCB) emissions over a broad band of high frequencies are necessary to meet EMI requirements, as processors become faster and more powerful. One mechanism by which EMI can be coupled off a PCB or multichip module (MCM) structure is from high-frequency fringing electric fields on the DC power and reference planes at the substrate periphery. An approach for EMI mitigation by stitching multiple ground planes together along the periphery of multilayer PCB power-bus stacks with closely spaced vias is reported and quantified in this paper. Power-bus noise induced EMI and coupling from the board edges is the major concern herein. The EMI at 3 m for different via stitch spacing and layer thickness is modeled with the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. Design curves and an empirical equation are extracted from a parametric study to summarize the variation of the radiated EMI as a function of layer thickness and stitch spacing View full abstract»

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  • A study on the radiation loss from a bent transmission line

    Page(s): 618 - 621
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    This paper deals with the radiation loss of bent transmission lines in order to determine the most optimal design for a bent line from the standpoint of radiation loss. We have used the method of moments (MoM) for a numerical analysis on the radiation for different structures of bent lines and we have found that the simplest right-angle bend is the best with the least radiation loss. This theoretical expectation was confirmed experimentally View full abstract»

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  • Transient response of a tall object to lightning

    Page(s): 654 - 661
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    Experimental data showing the transient behavior of tall objects struck by lightning are reviewed. The influence of this transient behavior, illustrated by simple calculations, on measured lightning current and measured remote electromagnetic fields is discussed. The estimated equivalent impedance of the lightning channel at the time of the initial current peak is appreciably higher than the characteristic impedance of an ordinary tall object (a factor of 3 or so for both the Ostankino and Peissenberg towers and about a factor of 2 for the CN tower). The grounding impedance of a tower is typically lower than its characteristic impedance. Thus, the current reflection coefficient is negative at the top and positive at the bottom of the tower. The similarity of the statistical distributions of subsequent-return-stroke peak currents in: 1) natural downward lightning; 2) natural upward (object-initiated) lightning; and 3) rocket-triggered lightning measured at objects with heights ranging from 4.5 to 540 m suggests that current peaks are not significantly influenced by the presence of a tall object, provided that measurements are taken at the top of the object. This inference is consistent with modeling results of Melander (1984) who showed that the current peaks measured in Switzerland and Italy at the top of 70-m and 40-m towers, respectively, are essentially unaffected by the presence of the towers. If lightning current could be represented by an ideal current source, current at the top of the object would be equal to the source current at all times. The peak current measured at the bottom of a tall object is usually more strongly influenced by the transient process in the object than the peak current at the top. For example, peak currents measured in the lower part of the 540-m Ostankino tower are about a factor of two higher than the peak currents measured near the tower top because the current reflection coefficient at the bottom of the tower is near +1. Observations and modeling suggest that a tall metallic strike object replacing the lower part of lightning channel serves to enhance the lightning-radiated electromagnetic fields relative to the fields due to similar lightning discharges attached directly to ground, this effect being more pronounced for the sharper lightning current pulses View full abstract»

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  • Real-time measurement of noise statistics

    Page(s): 629 - 636
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    There has been much interest in the statistics of electromagnetic noise such as amplitude probability distribution (APD), average crossing rate (ACR), pulse duration distribution (PDD), and pulse spacing distribution (PSD). Traditionally, noise statistics have been measured using a digitizer and personal computer. In such measurements, the total number of samples for calculating these statistics is limited by the amount of RAM in the digitizer. To remove this limitation, we have developed new statistics measuring equipment that digitizes the detected noise at a sampling rate of 20 MHz and classifies the sampled data into 256 levels with an accuracy of 30 bits. The frequency distribution of the classified data is calculated in histogram measuring circuits. Therefore, the frequency distribution is measured in real time based on a total of up to 109 samples. This paper describes the statistical measurement method and reports the statistics of noise leaked by a microwave oven in the 2.4-GHz band measured by the developed equipment. It was confirmed that the noise statistics with an occurrence probability of less than 10-9 can be measured View full abstract»

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  • Frequency-dependent losses on high-performance interconnections

    Page(s): 446 - 465
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    This paper compares the major classes of chip-to-chip and on-chips interconnections used in high-performance computers and communication systems and reviews their electrical characteristics. Measurement results of dielectric loss are shown and the attenuation is compared for printed-circuit-board, glass-ceramic, thin-film, and on-chip wiring. Simulation results are shown with representative driver and receiver circuits, guidelines are given for when losses are significant, and predictions are made for the sustainable bandwidths on useful wiring lengths View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of digital integrated circuit electromagnetic emission based on radiated power evaluation

    Page(s): 531 - 537
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    This paper deals with the assessment of digital integrated circuit (IC) electromagnetic emission (EME), and concentrates on the specific aspect of EME of long external wiring, driven by IC input-output pins. In particular, the contribution of single IC pins is investigated by analyzing the structure composed of an IC output driver connected via a microstrip line to a receiver. A transmission-line model is used, and an approach based on the concept of radiated power is applied to the characterization of single-pin IC EME in terms of external-wiring radiation effects. By the analysis of typical driver-wiring configurations, it is shown that the spectrum of the driver output current is the quantity of interest, and that the use of wiring with smaller characteristic impedance leads to larger radiated power. The use of a specific test setup (IEC 61967-4-150-Ω direct coupling method) for the experimental assessment of single pin IC emissions is also considered. Frequency-dependent setup effects are experimentally ascertained via a scattering parameter characterization, and definition of suitable circuit functions. An estimate of the degree of correlation between voltage measurements foreseen by the test procedure and the total power radiated by the loading network of an IC driver is derived View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of power/ground-plane EMI decoupling performance using the partial-element equivalent circuit technique

    Page(s): 437 - 445
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design of printed circuit (PC) boards with decoupling capacitors has been the subject of debate and different opinions for many years. The design and electrical impact of the capacitors has been difficult to separate from all other electrical interactions occurring on a conventional PC board populated with integrated circuits. This work demonstrates how the partial-element equivalent circuit (PEEC) modeling technique can be used to accurately predict the performance of various decoupling design strategies. Computer modeling using the PEEC approach is very flexible due to the ease of mixing physical geometries with a large number of circuit elements. Also, the compute time for such practical mixed EM and circuit problems are relatively short. Using this technique, the usual iteration between a number of different designs of test boards can be avoided. We show that the change of the voltage across the PC board, or the voltage gradient, can be used as an effective tool for the improvement of the decoupling efficiency View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch