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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 57
  • Ims2001 - the microwave odyssey accomplished

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2180 - 2183
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  • The 2001 IMS technical program

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2184 - 2187
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2001 MTT-S awards

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2188 - 2196
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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2580 - 2613
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject index

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2613 - 2693
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • X-band MMIC power amplifier with an on-chip temperature-compensation circuit

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2501 - 2506
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (174 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An X-band monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) power amplifier with a simplified on-chip temperature-compensation circuit composed of a few diodes and a resistor are presented in this paper. At first, the operation principle and design method of the temperature-compensation circuit have been investigated. The fabricated four-stage X-band MMIC power amplifier with the on-chip temperature-compensation circuit has demonstrated the improvement of gain variation from 5.5 to 1.3 dB in the temperature range from -10°C to +80°C View full abstract»

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  • A highly linear single balanced mixer based on heterojunction interband tunneling diode

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2437 - 2445
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a compact and highly linear monolithic-microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) single balanced mixer based on heterojunction interband tunnel diode (HITD) technology working at 1.8 GHz is described. The prototype consists of a pair of HITDs biased at 0 V and a lumped-element directional coupler with arbitrary impedance terminations. The HITDs are in the InGaAs/InAlAs material system lattice matched to InP. The relevant feature of the mixer is the linearity due to the quasi-square-law dc current-voltage (IV) characteristics exhibited by the device around zero voltage. A qualitative treatment of the third-order intermodulation product and the conversion loss as a function of the HITDs IV characteristic and the embedding impedance is provided. The design techniques along with a detailed experimental validation are also provided. The prototype working in down-conversion mode, exhibited an third-order intercept point power level of +17.5 dBm, a conversion loss of 11 dB and a 1-dB compression point of +7 dBm at the operative frequency of 1.8 GHz with a +5-dBm local-oscillator drive level View full abstract»

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  • Efficient sensitivity analysis of lossy multiconductor transmission lines with nonlinear terminations

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2292 - 2299
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient approach for sensitivity analysis of lossy multiconductor transmission lines in the presence of nonlinear terminations is described. Sensitivity information is extracted using the recently developed closed-form matrix-rational approximation of the distributed transmission-line model. The method enables sensitivity analysis of interconnect structures with respect to both electrical and physical parameters. An important advantage of the proposed approach is that the derivatives of the modified nodal admittance matrices with respect to per-unit-length parameters are obtained analytically View full abstract»

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  • Current-mode class-D power amplifiers for high-efficiency RF applications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2480 - 2485
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (147 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We show that current-mode class-D (CMCD) power amplifiers can achieve high efficiency at RF frequencies. In contrast with conventional voltage-mode class-D amplifiers, the CMCD features "zero voltage switching," which eliminates the output capacitance discharge loss. Experimental CMCD amplifiers with 76.3% power-added efficiency (PAE) at 290-mW output and 71.3% PAE at 870-mW output are demonstrated using GaAs FETs at 900 MHz View full abstract»

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  • Automated filter tuning using generalized low-pass prototype networks and gradient-based parameter extraction

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2532 - 2538
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel technique for automated filter tuning is introduced. The filter to be tuned is represented by a generalized filter low-pass prototype model rather than a specialized equivalent network. The prototype model is based on the minimum number of characteristic filter parameters to represent the filter transfer function correctly. The parameter values are found from a gradient-based parameter-extraction process using measured S-parameters. Automated filter tuning is performed as a two-step procedure. First, the parameter sensitivities with respect to the tuning elements are determined by a series of S-parameter measurements. Second, the parameter values of the filter are compared to the values of the ideal filter prototype found from a filter synthesis, thus yielding the optimal screw positions. This novel tuning technique has been tested successfully with direct coupled three-resonator and cross-coupled four- and six-resonator filters View full abstract»

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  • An ultra-broad-band reflection-type phase-shifter MMIC with series and parallel LC circuits

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2446 - 2452
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (157 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ultra-broad-band reflection-type phase shifter is proposed. Theoretically, the proposed phase shifter has frequency-independent characteristics in the case of 180° phase shift. The phase shifter is composed of a 3-dB hybrid coupler and a pair of novel reflective terminating circuits. The reflective terminating circuit switches two states of series and parallel LC circuits. Using an ideal circuit model without parasitic circuit elements, we have derived the determining condition of frequency independence of circuit elements. Extending the concept, we can also obtain a broad-band phase shifter for other phase difference as well. In this case, for a given phase difference and an operating frequency, we also derive a condition to obtain minimum variation of phase difference around the operating frequency. This enables the broad-band characteristics for arbitrary phase difference. The fabricated 180° reflective terminating circuit monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) has achieved a phase difference of 183° ± 3 over 0.5-30 GHz. The 180° phase-shifter MMIC has demonstrated a phase shift of 187° ± 7° over 0.5-20 GHz. The 90° reflective terminating circuit MMIC has performed a phase difference of 93° ± 7° over 4-12 GHz View full abstract»

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  • An extrinsic-inductance independent approach for direct extraction of HBT intrinsic circuit parameters

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2300 - 2305
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (154 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel analytical procedure has been proposed for direct extraction of the intrinsic elements in a hybrid-π equivalent circuit of heterojunction bipolar transistors. This method differs from previous ones by formulating impedance-parameter based expressions that are exclusive of the extrinsic inductances associated with the base, emitter, and collector. It is therefore not susceptible to variation of the extrinsic reactances from DC to high frequencies and can lead to very accurate extraction of the intrinsic elements under different bias conditions. The distributed phenomena in the base region can be also characterized rigorously by exploiting the bias-independent features of the extrinsic elements that are extracted subsequently from knowledge of the intrinsic elements View full abstract»

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  • Gain/phase imbalance-minimization techniques for LINC transmitters

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2507 - 2516
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (49)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two simple calibration schemes for the correction of the path imbalance in a linear amplification with nonlinear components (LINC) transmitter have been demonstrated. In the foreground algorithm, a baseband digital signal processor (DSP) evaluates the gain and phase imbalance with a set of calibration signals, while in the background algorithm, the imbalance is characterized by exchanging the two LINC vector components. In both cases, the compensation of the path imbalance is accomplished within the DSP by introducing a predistortion term. A prototype LINC system has been tested for CDMA IS-95 baseband input, and -38 and -35-dBc adjacent channel interference were achieved for the foreground and background schemes, respectively. The quadrature errors of the in-phase/quadrature modulators set a limit on the overall performance of both algorithms View full abstract»

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  • A new direct millimeter-wave six-port receiver

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2517 - 2522
    Cited by:  Papers (80)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new direct-conversion wide-band (23-31 GHz) six-port receiver is proposed suitable for millimeter-wave integrated system design. This new hardware receiver is found to be robust, rugged, low cost, and suitable for use in broad-band wireless mass-market QPSK communications. The prototype circuits are fabricated to validate this new concept with our miniaturized hybrid microwave integrated-circuit technology and the proposed receiver topology is also suitable for monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit fabrication. This application-specific integrated receiver is designed on the basis of a wide-band six-port junction and other analogical circuits in the form of a simple multichip module. Bit-error-rate measurements and simulation results are shown and discussed in the presence of noise, adjacent signal interference, local-oscillator (LO) phase shift, and LO phase noise. The maximum bit rate is fundamentally limited by the speed of the video and decoder circuits. Nevertheless, several hundred megabits per second can be achieved at low cost View full abstract»

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  • Design of CT and CQ filters using approximation and optimization

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2350 - 2356
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new design technique for cascaded triplet (CT) filters has been derived commencing from the well-known Chebyshev all-pole prototype filter. One or more finite frequency poles may be introduced by cross coupling across sets of three nodes, and the filter rematched by a reasonably accurate approximate compensation of the element values. Any general optimizer may then be used to obtain a nearly perfect result without undue concern over convergence failures. A previous similar theory for cascaded quadruplet sections is generalized and may be combined with the CT theory to form filters having both types of sections. The theory is applied to both singly and doubly terminated filters and may include poles on the real axis of the s-plane for delay equalization View full abstract»

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  • New phase shifters and phased antenna array designs based on ferroelectric materials and CTS technologies

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2547 - 2553
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (166 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the search continues for low-cost and high-performance components for the front-end devices for wireless communications systems, some focus has been placed on exploring new and innovative designs based on ferroelectric technology. In this paper, we present new phase-shifter designs and an integrated phased-array antenna system based on the use of multilayer ferroelectric materials and the continuous transverse stub (CTS) technologies. Simulation results show that with the appropriate selection of the materials properties and the dimensions of the multilayer dielectric system, insertion losses may be reduced by as much as a factor of 100. These results also show that while only a slight reduction (15%) in the maximum achievable tunability was observed, it was possible to achieve significant improvement in impedance-matching characteristics. A procedure to enhance the radiation efficiency from an integrated ferroelectric/CTS phased antenna array design is described and specific array designs are discussed View full abstract»

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  • New design method of uniform and nonuniform distributed power amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2494 - 2500
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (223 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new design methodology of uniform and nonuniform distributed power amplifiers is reported in this paper. This method is based on analytical expressions of the optimum input and output artificial lines making up the uniform and nonuniform distributed architectures. These relationships are derived from the load-line requirement of each transistor size for optimum power operation. Furthermore, specific design criteria are presented to enable an efficient choice between uniform and nonuniform distributed architectures. To validate this new design methodology, a nonuniform distributed power amplifier has been manufactured at the TriQuint Semiconductor Foundry, Richardson, TX, using a 0.25-μm power pseudomorphic high electron-mobility process. This single-stage monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit amplifier is made of six nonuniform cells and demonstrates 1-W output power with 7-dB associated gain and 20% power-added efficiency over a multioctave bandwidth View full abstract»

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  • High-power broad-band AlGaN/GaN HEMT MMICs on SiC substrates

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2486 - 2493
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Broad-band high-power cascode AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistor monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers with high gain and power-added efficiency (PAE) have been fabricated on high-thermal conductivity SiC substrates. A cascode gain cell exhibiting 5 W of power at 8 GHz with a small-signal gain of 19 dB was realized. A nonuniform distributed amplifier (NDA) based on this process was designed, fabricated, and tested, yielding a saturated output power of 3-6 W over a dc-8-GHz bandwidth with an associated PAE of 13%-31%. A broad-band amplifier MMIC using cascode cells in conjunction with a lossy-match input matching network showed a useful operating range of dc-8 GHz with an output power of 5-7.5 W and a PAE of 20%-33.% over this range. The third-order intermodulation products of the amplifiers under two-tone excitation were studied and third-order-intercept values of 42 and 43 dBm (computed using two-tone carrier power) for the lossy match and NDA amplifiers were obtained View full abstract»

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  • Power absorption and temperature elevations induced in the human head by a dual-band monopole-helix antenna phone

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2539 - 2546
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (275 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A numerically efficient way to evaluate specific absorption rate (SAR) deposition and temperature elevation inside the head of a user of a cellular phone equipped with a dual-band monopole-helix antenna is proposed. The considered antenna operates at both frequencies (900 and 1800 MHz) employed in global system for mobile communication. The results obtained show that, for a given radiated power, although the maximum SAR value as averaged over 1 g in the brain is higher at 900 MHz than at 1800 MHz, the maximum temperature increase in the brain is higher at 1800 MHz. However, taking into account that the average power levels radiated at the two operating frequencies are different (250 mW at 900 MHz and 125 mW at 1800 MHz), higher temperature elevations are obtained at 900 MHz. In this last case, the temperature increases are of the order of 0.2°C in the ear, and less than 0.1°C in the external brain region close to the phone. When the heating effect due to the contact of the ear and cheek with the phone is also taken into account, it is found that the predominant heating effect in the ear, able to cause temperature increases as high as 1.5°C, is the one due to the phone contact, while SAR deposition plays a significant role only in the heating of the external brain region View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain optical response of an electrooptic modulator using FDTD

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2276 - 2281
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (131 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A time-domain analysis of an LiNbO3 electrooptic modulator using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique is performed. This allows for the calculation of optical modulation and the time-domain optical response of an electrooptic modulator. The electromagnetic fields computed by FDTD are coupled to standard electrooptic relations that characterize electrooptic interactions inside the embedded Ti diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguides. The electric field-dependent change in the index of refraction inside these optical waveguides and resulting minute phase shifts imparted to optical signals propagating along the device are determined in time, allowing for the simulation of optical intensity modulation. This novel approach to LiNbO3 electrooptic modulators using a coupled FDTD technique allows for previously unattainable investigations into device operating bandwidth and data transmission speed View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic and semiconductor device simulation using interpolating wavelets

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2258 - 2265
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A MESFET and a two-dimensional cavity enclosing a cylinder are simulated using a nonuniform mesh generated by an interpolating wavelet scheme. A self-adaptive mesh is implemented and controlled by the wavelet coefficient threshold. A fine mesh can therefore be used in domains where the unknown quantities are varying rapidly and a coarse mesh can be used where the unknowns are varying slowly. It is shown that good accuracy can be achieved while compressing the number of unknowns by 50% to 80% during the whole simulation. In the case of the MESFET, the I-V characteristics are obtained and the accuracy is compared with the basic finite difference scheme. A reduction of 83% in the number of discretization points at steady state is obtained with 3% error on the drain current. The performance of the scheme is investigated using different values of threshold and two types of interpolating wavelet, namely, the second-order and fourth-order wavelets. Due to the specific problem analyzed, a tradeoff appears between good compression, accuracy, and order of the wavelet. This represents the ongoing effort toward a numerical technique that uses wavelets to solve both Maxwell's equations and the semiconductor equations. Such a method is of great interest to deal with the multiscale problem that is the full-wave simulation of active microwave circuits View full abstract»

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  • Full-wave analysis of coupling between combline resonators and its application to combline filters with canonical configurations

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2384 - 2393
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)  

    Resonant frequencies and coupling coefficient between two combline cavities, in the presence of other cavities, are obtained accurately using the mode-matching technique. The effect of iris dimensions and position on the electric and magnetic coupling is rigorously investigated. The corresponding data for two isolated cavities are included for comparison. The adjacent and nonadjacent couplings are rigorously investigated for different configurations of three coupled cavities. A four-pole slot-coupled elliptic combline filter is designed View full abstract»

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  • Spurious radiation from a practical source on a covered microstrip line

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2216 - 2226
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (686 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The TM0 parallel-plate mode field that is radiated from the currents induced on a covered microstrip transmission line by a finite-gap voltage source is studied. The behavior of the total radiation field (the field radiated by the total strip current) is investigated, along with the field radiated by the constituent current components that make up the total current, namely the bound-mode (BM) and continuous-spectrum currents. The continuous-spectrum current is further resolved into the sum of a physical leaky-mode current and a residual-wave current, and the fields radiated by each of these separate components are examined. It is determined that leaky-mode fields can contribute to crosstalk and other interference effects near the source and within an angular leakage region, while the radiation field from the BM current is the predominant mechanism for these effects further away from the gap source, outside the leakage region. The field radiated from the residual-wave current can be quite strong in the "spectral-gap region," which is the frequency region where the leaky mode is nonphysical, and therefore the leaky mode does not contribute directly to the spectrum of current on the strip in the decomposition used here View full abstract»

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  • Low-loss analog and digital micromachined impedance tuners at the Ka-band

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2394 - 2400
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (418 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presents new types of analog and digital micromachined impedance tuners. Analog impedance tuners using resonant unit cells realized by tunable micromachined capacitors showed a wide tuning range equivalent to almost two quadrants of the Smith chart with a maximum voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) of 21.2 at the Ka-band. Frequency variability is also provided through the use of J-inverters with tunable capacitors. Also presented is a digital micromachined tuner, where the short-circuited shunt stubs are loaded with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) capacitive switches. The electrical length of the stub and the overall impedance of the tuner are thus controlled according to the switching states of the MEMS capacitors. The digital tuner presented impedance ranges suitable for load impedances of the RF power transistors and showed a high maximum VSWR of 32.3. Compared with the state-of-the art tuners using field-effect transistors, micromachined tuners of this paper show superior VSWR ranges as well as wide impedance ranges. Micromachined tuners are very promising for low-loss tuning of the monolithic circuits as well as for accurate noise and power characterization View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous measurements of electric and thermal fields utilizing an electrooptic semiconductor probe

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2523 - 2531
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (161 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method to simultaneously measure electric and thermal fields with a single probe is presented in this paper. The Pockels effect is employed within a gallium-arsenide probe to measure electric fields, and the effect of photon absorption due to bandtail states in the semiconductor is used to determine temperature. The measured optical power is found to be inversely related to temperature, in agreement with theory, and experimental results demonstrate a temperature sensitivity of 0.31 μW/°C at 25°C and an accuracy of ±0.5°C between 20°C-60°C. The minimum detectable electric field is 1.24±0.06 V/m using a 300-ms electrical bandwidth. Temporal phase stability of ±3°/h is achieved through the implementation of a system phase reference channel. The invasiveness of the probe is quantified by examining the change in the characteristic impedance and capacitance per unit length of a planar transmission line. Measured and simulated data show that the effect is equivalent to a lumped shunt capacitance on the order of a few femtofarads. The examination of a monolithic microwave integrated circuit in an X-band quasi-optical power-combining array and the calibration of electric-field data that was corrupted by temperature-dependent effects inherent to the electrooptic probe demonstrate the capability of this combined electrothermal measurement technique View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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