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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • Author index

    Page(s): 1641 - 1646
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  • Subject index

    Page(s): 1646 - 1664
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Advanced blind adaptive multi-user detector for communications in nonstationary multipath fading channel

    Page(s): 1497 - 1506
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (211 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with an adaptive multi-user detector for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS/CDMA) wireless communication systems, named advanced blind adaptive multi-user detector (ABA-MUD), whose main features are low complexity and joint utilization of time diversity and adaptive blind processing techniques. Differently from known blind adaptive detectors, the proposed scheme achieves remarkable performance even in critical time-varying environments by means of a suitable window reprocessing technique. The ABA-MUD avoids the use of training sequences and only needs knowledge of timing and signature waveform of the desired user, number of active users and a rough evaluation of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) for a proper setting of the detection algorithm. Numerical results, shown here in terms of bit error rate (BER), highlight good behavior and remarkable near-far resistance of the proposed ABA-MUD receiver with respect to different alternatives, in particular, in the case of worst fading environments View full abstract»

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  • On ARQ scheme with adaptive error control

    Page(s): 1426 - 1436
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (218 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Adaptive automatic repeat request (ARQ) schemes are quite effective for throughput enhancement in time-varying mobile channel environments. An ARQ scheme with adaptive error-correcting codes is considered. A robust channel sensing algorithm by making use of XOR-ing is proposed for link adaptation. With the proposed channel estimation algorithm, an adaptive scheme that adapts its error-correcting codes according to channel conditions is presented. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive ARQ scheme is evaluated in terms of throughput performance by computer simulation for a time-varying mobile channel characterized by Rayleigh fading and log-normal shadowing. As an enhancement in counteracting long deep fades, the incorporation of frequency diversity into an adaptive ARQ scheme is also investigated and the simulation results show that this scheme is quite efficient in counteracting long deep fades View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of synchronous MC-CDMA in mobile Rayleigh channel with both delay and Doppler spreads

    Page(s): 1375 - 1387
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rapid time variations of the mobile communication channel have a dramatic effect on the performance of multicarrier modulation. This paper models the Doppler spread and computes its effect on the bit error rate (BER) for multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) transmission and compares it to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Also, we evaluate the transmission capacity per subcarrier to quantify the potential of MC-CDMA and (coded-) OFDM. We focus on linear receivers, in particular those using the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) criterion. Our channel and system models allow the computation of analytical performance results. Simulations verify some commonly used, yet critical assumptions View full abstract»

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  • Sum of gamma variates and performance of wireless communication systems over Nakagami-fading channels

    Page(s): 1471 - 1480
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    Capitalizing on the Moschopoulos (1985) single gamma series representation of the probability density function (PDF) of the sum of gamma variates, we provide a PDF-based approach for the performance analysis of maximal-ratio combining and postdetection equal-gain combining diversity techniques as well as cochannel interference of cellular mobile radio systems over Nakagami (1960)-fading channels with arbitrary parameters. Aside from putting under the same umbrella many of the past results obtained via characteristic function (CF) or moment generating function (MGF)-based approaches, the proposed approach also allows the derivation of additional performance measures, which are harder to analyze via CF or MGF-based approaches View full abstract»

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  • Traffic monitoring using digital sound field mapping

    Page(s): 1582 - 1589
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new traffic sensing technique is described that utilizes a microphone array to detect the sound waves generated by the road vehicles. The detected signals are then digitized and processed by an on-site computer using a correlation based algorithm, which extracts key data reflecting the road traffic conditions, e.g., the speed and density of vehicles on the road, automatically on site. In comparison with existing traffic sensors, the proposed system offers lower installation and maintenance costs and is less intrusive to the surrounding built environment. The results of theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and preliminary experimental results are presented View full abstract»

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  • An OFDM-based wireless ATM transmission system assisted by a cyclically extended PN sequence for future broad-band mobile multimedia communications

    Page(s): 1366 - 1374
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based wireless asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) transmission system is described that is suitable for the future broad-band mobile multimedia communications. In the proposed system, guard symbols, which are cyclically extended by repeating the information symbols, are inserted before and after serial-to-parallel converted wireless ATM data symbols for OFDM transmission. These symbols are used for both wireless ATM frame synchronization and deciding the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) start point at the receiver. A cyclically extended pseudorandom noise (PN) sequence is inserted into some of the OFDM transmission subchannels at fixed intervals and used to estimate the phase rotation, frequency offset, and delay characteristics. The proposed system does not use "symbol-by-symbol" guard-interval insertion or removal circuits, as do conventional OFDM systems. With this system, it is easy to estimate the phase rotation, frequency offset, and delay characteristics and to synchronize wireless ATM cells. Computer simulation showed that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is better than that of a conventional "symbol-by-symbol" OFDM system View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of methods for determining the mobile traffic distribution in cellular radio networks

    Page(s): 1629 - 1635
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Locating the mobile traffic distribution is performed by comparing measured field strength samples with predicted field strength values from a radio network planning tool. The convergence of three approaches has been investigated: standard deviation method, least mean squares method, and Gauss probability method. Improvements like call-by-call evaluation have been introduced to reduce the calculation time and to improve the accuracy of the statistical evaluation of the mobile traffic distribution. The methods were verified using field-strength samples and corresponding position data of field measurements made with a vehicle within a mobile network. It has been shown that the accuracy of determining the mobile traffic distribution in this way strongly depends on the reliability of field strength predictions made by a radio network planning tool. With the methods presented, the creation of traffic databases with a high resolution and the detection of mobile network areas with high traffic load-so-called hot spots-becomes possible View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of soft handoff in CDMA cellular networks

    Page(s): 1507 - 1517
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A unique feature of code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is the use of soft handoff between cells. Soft handoff, in general, increases the system capacity because while the link between a mobile and one base station is poor, it might be better between the same mobile and some other base station. Hence, the user may transmit at a lower power in a soft handoff situation. Teletraffic analysis of soft handoff is complex because one cannot separate transmission issues from traffic issues. Many papers in the literature have independently analyzed the effect of soft capacity and soft handoff on network performance. Some papers have analyzed the effect of soft handoff on soft capacity but there has been no proper teletraffic analysis that includes both soft capacity and soft handoff. This paper proposes a traffic model for a DS-CDMA cellular network that includes both soft capacity and soft handoff. Network performance is then computed in terms of call blocking View full abstract»

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  • On call admission control in DS/CDMA cellular networks

    Page(s): 1328 - 1343
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Analytical models are proposed for various direct sequence code-division multiple-access (DS/CDMA) call admission control schemes. Many mathematical call admission models for DS/CDMA cellular networks have been proposed. However, they have shortcomings. First, by ignoring the stochastic traffic load variation or call blocking effect, they failed to sufficiently characterize the second moment of other-cell interference. This leads to inaccurate analysis of a real network. Second, the optimal control parameters were often obtained through an exhaustive search which was very time consuming. Finally, the estimation of system capacity in previous models was obtained by using a simple one-slope path-loss propagation model. However, it is well known that a two-slope path loss propagation model is needed in a line-of-sight (LOS) microcell propagation environment. We propose an analytical model for call admission to overcome these drawbacks. In addition, we combine a modified linear programming technique with the built analytical model to find better call admission control schemes for a DS/CDMA cellular network View full abstract»

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  • An efficient heuristic algorithm for channel assignment problem in cellular radio networks

    Page(s): 1528 - 1539
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an efficient heuristic algorithm for the channel assignment problem in cellular radio networks. The task is to find channel assignment with minimum frequency bandwidth necessary to satisfy given demands from different nodes in a cellular network. At the same time the interference among calls within the same cell and from different neighboring cells are to be avoided, where interference is specified as the minimum frequency distance to be maintained between channels assigned to a pair of nodes. The simplest version of this problem, where only cochannel interferences are considered, is NP-complete. The proposed algorithm could generate a population of random valid solutions of the problem very fast. The best among them is the optimum or very near to optimum solution. For all problems with known optimal solutions, the algorithm could find them. A statistical estimation of the performance of the proposed algorithm is done. Comparison with other methods show that our algorithm works better than the algorithms that we have investigated View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive ISMA-DS/CDMA MAC protocol for third-generation mobile communications systems

    Page(s): 1354 - 1365
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An inhibit sense multiple access-direct sequence/code division multiple access (ISMA-DS/CDMA) medium access control protocol for a packet transmission mobile radio network is presented. The main feature of this protocol is its ability to retain the inherent flexibility of random access protocols while at the same time reducing to some extent the randomness in the access in order to increase the system capacity. In this framework, the protocol is presented together with some adaptive mechanisms that improve the protocol performance by means of regulating the access and varying the transmission bit rate according to the channel load that is broadcast by the base station. As a result, an adaptive bit rate algorithm is presented that reaches a throughput value close to the theoretical maximum View full abstract»

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  • On joint power-delay double packet capture in an SSMA network with Rayleigh fading, shadowing, and propagation path loss

    Page(s): 1388 - 1402
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    In this paper, joint power-delay double-capture probabilities of a spread-spectrum packet network are derived. What we mean in terms of "double-capture" is that a receiver can simultaneously capture the first two incoming packets (from different transmitters) encoded by the same spreading code. The power capture model concerned takes into account multiuser interference, multipath Rayleigh fading, shadowing, and propagation path loss. To derive delay capture probability with an arbitrary arrival delay, a discrete-time approximation is applied. The method of deriving double-capture probability can also be extended to calculating multiple-packet (more than two) capture probabilities. Performance of a common-code slotted ALOHA system is evaluated with the double-capture effect and the results are compared with those of a traditional ALOHA system. It is shown that the channel impairing factors can be greatly mitigated by exploiting joint power-delay double-capture effect View full abstract»

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  • Low-complexity iterative demodulation for noncoherent coded transmission over Ricean-fading channels

    Page(s): 1481 - 1496
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power and bandwidth efficient noncoherent transmission over frequency nonselective Ricean-fading channels is studied. We propose a low-complexity receiver structure, which is very well suited to mobile communication scenarios with time-variant and nonstationary transmission channels. Applying bit-interleaved coded modulation with standard convolutional codes, substantial gains of several decibels in power efficiency compared to conventional differential detection are achieved. To obtain the novel noncoherent reception scheme, ideas of iterative decoding with hard-decision feedback and prediction-based branch metric calculation are combined and extended. Furthermore, the incorporation of combined phase and amplitude modulation for high bandwidth efficiency is focused on. The theoretical analysis of both the convergence and the achievable performance of iterative decoding are given by evaluating the corresponding prediction-error variance and the associated cutoff rate, respectively. The results from information theory are well confirmed by simulation results presented for different channel scenarios View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of path losses between a mobile terminal and multiple base stations in a cellular environment

    Page(s): 1590 - 1603
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate the dynamics of the path losses between a mobile terminal and a small group of base stations, when the mobile traverses an area containing zones where different base stations have the least path loss to the mobile. While moving through the area, the mobile measures signals transmitted by each base station. The measurements involve calculating a running average of the measured signal power over a fixed time period. It is presumed that based on these measurements and typically other inputs, the wireless network supporting the mobile makes handoff decisions. In this paper, we do not attempt to analyze the performance of a practical handoff algorithm. Instead, we focus on the average number of times per meter traveled that a moving mobile must switch base stations in order to be always served by the base station with the least path loss. The switching rate is a function of the mobiles location with respect to the base stations and the velocity of the mobile. For low velocities, the multipath fading is not averaged out completely and, therefore, affects the measured results, while at high velocities the multipath fading is averaged out, but the resolution of the measurement is compromised, and any possible handoff will be delayed (in terms of location) View full abstract»

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  • High-performance MC-CDMA via carrier interferometry codes

    Page(s): 1344 - 1353
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (185 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces the principles of interferometry to multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA). Specifically, we propose the use of MC-CDMA with novel carrier interferometry (CI) complex spreading codes. The CI/MC-CDMA method, applied to mobile wireless communication systems, offers enhanced performance and flexibility relative to MC-CDMA with conventional spreading codes. Specifically, assuming a frequency selective Rayleigh-fading channel, CI/MC-CDMAs performance matches that of orthogonal MC-CDMA using Hadamard-Walsh codes up to the MC-CDMA N user limit; and, CI/MC-CDMA provides the added flexibility of going beyond N users, adding up to N-1 additional users with pseudo orthogonal positioning. When compared to MC-CDMA schemes capable of supporting greater than N users, CI/MC-CDMAs performance exceeds that of MC-CDMA. Additionally, this new system is analyzed in the presence of phase jitters and frequency offsets and is shown to be robust to both cases View full abstract»

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  • Computationally efficient smart antennas for CDMA wireless communications

    Page(s): 1613 - 1628
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The analysis in this paper concerns the performance of smart antenna algorithms when used in code-division multiple access (CDMA) wireless communication systems. Complex pseudonoise (PN) spreading, despreading, and pilot-aided channel estimates in the cdma2000 reverse link are some of major characteristics that are different from those in the IS-95 CDMA systems. These different features are included in our analysis. Four computationally efficient smart antenna algorithms are introduced: 1) smart antenna based on maximum output power criteria without Lagrange multiplier; 2) smart antenna based on maximum signal-to-interference-plus-noise output power ratio (SINR) criteria with eigenvector solution; 3) smart antenna based on maximum SINR output criteria without eigenvector solution; 4) more simplified smart antenna based on maximum SINR output criteria without eigenvector solution. Algorithms (1) and (4) require only 4M computational instruction cycles per snapshot where M is the number of antenna array elements. Algorithms (2) and (3) require M2 and (4M+2M2) operations per snapshot, respectively. These computational loads are significantly smaller than those of typical eigenvalue decomposition blind detection approaches. Bit error rates (BERs) resulting from these algorithms are evaluated through simulation. A double spike power delay profile with equal or unequal power is used. Also, a cluster of interfering users and scattered interference users are considered. For BER comparisons, antenna diversity using equal gain combining is also analyzed. The four smart antenna algorithms show significant capacity improvement compared to the antenna array diversity using equal gain combining under the double spike power delay profile with equal power and scattered interference environments View full abstract»

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  • Strategies and spacing requirements for lane changing and merging in automated highway systems

    Page(s): 1568 - 1581
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In automated highway systems (AHS) vehicles are expected to operate using their own sensing and control systems by interacting with other vehicles and the infrastructure in a way that guarantees safety, stability, and high capacity. We examine various alternative scenaria for merging and lane changing and we present an algorithm for calculating the minimum safety spacing for lane changing (MSSLC); that is, we calculate the intervehicle spacing that the vehicles should maintain during a merging or lane changing maneuver so that in the case where one of the vehicles executes an emergency braking manuever, the rest of the vehicles have enough time and space to stop without any collision taking place. The calculation of the MSSLCs for merging or lane changing maneuvers is more complicated than the calculation of the minimum safety spacing for a longitudinal vehicle following since, in the former case we have to take into account the particular lane-changing policy of the merging vehicle as well as the effect of combined lateral/longitudinal motion during the lane changing maneuver. The braking profiles of the vehicles involved in an emergency scenario during a lane changing maneuver depends on the particular AHS operational concept, i.e., on the degree of communication between the vehicles and between the vehicles and the infrastructure. We consider six different AHS operational concepts; for each concept we consider possible emergency braking profiles and we investigate the effect of the particular operational concept on the MSSLC View full abstract»

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  • Automatic calibration method using transmitting signals of an adaptive array for TDD systems

    Page(s): 1636 - 1640
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (162 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Adaptive arrays are especially effective in reducing cochannel interference and increasing channel capacity in time-division duplex (TDD) mobile communication systems because, ideally, the optimum pattern formed in the receiving mode can be applied to the transmitting pattern. However, since the radiation pattern of the adaptive array is generally formed on a baseband, the amplitude and phase errors must be calibrated between the branches of the array due to individual differences in the radio frequency (RF) devices of the receivers and transmitters. Moreover, since these errors change over time due to temperature variations, real-time calibration is required. This correspondence proposes an automatic calibration method using transmitting signals (ACT) for adaptive base station antennas that is suitable for TDD communication systems, i.e., it enables real-time calibration. The effectiveness of the proposed calibration method is demonstrated using an experimental adaptive array testbed View full abstract»

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  • Second-order statistics for diversity-combining techniques in Nakagami-fading channels

    Page(s): 1464 - 1470
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    Exact and closed-form expressions for the level crossing rate and average fade duration are presented for the M branch pure selection combining (PSC), equal gain combining (EGC), and maximal ratio combining (MRC), techniques, assuming independent branches in a Nakagami (1960) environment. The analytical results are thoroughly validated by reducing the general case to some special cases, for which the solutions are known, and by means of simulation for the more general case. The model developed here is general and can be easily applied to other fading statistics (e.g., Rice) View full abstract»

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  • Spectral efficiency for a hybrid DS/FH code-division multiple-access system in cellular mobile radio

    Page(s): 1321 - 1327
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The spectral efficiency of a hybrid cellular direct-sequence/frequency hopping code-division muItiple-access (DS/FH-CDMA) system operating in a Rayleigh-fading environment is examined. In this work, spectral efficiency is evaluated in terms of the theoretically achievable channel capacity (in the Shannon sense) per user, on the condition that this is estimated in an average sense. The analysis covers the downlink assuming a static model of operation and a direct-sequence/slow-frequency hopping (DS/SFH) as well as a direct-sequence/fast-frequency hopping (DS/FFH) scheme. As it is shown, the spectral efficiency of cellular DS/FFH-CDMA operating in a Rayleigh-fading environment is greater than that of broad-band DS- and DS/SFH-CDMA systems operating under normalized conditions. This is justified by the combination of path-diversity reception as achieved by conventional coherent RAKE receivers and the frequency diversity that is inherently present in FFH transmission View full abstract»

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  • Traffic performance analysis of handover in GMPCS systems

    Page(s): 1518 - 1527
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an analysis of handover process and its effect on the traffic performance in global mobile personal communications by satellite (GMPCS) systems. With the nongeostationary satellite used for the system, the handover scheme needs to be applied to make calls completed without any interruption. An analytical model is developed for the analysis of the handover process. We derive the mean number of handovers and handover delay with various satellite antenna patterns and different settings of handover parameter. A suitable traffic model of the whole system is also derived after due considerations of the handover process. The system performance measures include new call blocking probability, call dropping probability, and mean number of handovers per call. A computer simulation is developed and used. We also analyze the system performance with a number of handover priority schemes applied. Based on the study results, the handover parameters are selected to maximize the traffic performance. It is shown that we can improve the overall traffic performance of GMPCS system by setting handover parameters properly and using the handover priority scheme View full abstract»

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  • A new strategy for traction control in turning via engine modeling

    Page(s): 1540 - 1548
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The driving stability is affected by driven wheel slip, which can be controlled by the driven wheel torque. In a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, the torque can be controlled by an engine management system. The sliding mode algorithm is the mechanism behind the design of the traction control system (TCS). The longitudinal slip is controlled by the position of the throttle valve. The vehicle model used has seven degrees of freedom and a two-state engine model, i.e., the mass of air in the intake manifold and the engine speed. Time-delay transport is considered in the engine model used. A nonlinear tire model for combined slip is used for tire force computation. Due to the nonlinear dynamic of the tire, vehicle, and engine, the control method of sliding mode is used for its robustness. A controller is designed based on the dynamic surface control, for which two first-order surfaces are defined. The effectiveness of the controller is demonstrated with simulation results for different maneuvers. Results show that for different road conditions, the acceleration performance, directional stability, and steerability of a vehicle equipped with TCS is improved. The reason is that the slip is controlled by keeping it in a desired range View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of coherent equal gain combining over Nakagami-m fading channels

    Page(s): 1449 - 1463
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    We study the exact average output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and symbol error rate (SER) of M-ary phaseshift-keying (PSK) signals with coherent equal gain combining reception. The analysis assumes independent Nakagami-m (1960) fading paths, which are not necessarily identically distributed. On one hand, we use geometric summations to obtain closed-form expressions for the average output SNR over diversity paths with an exponentially decaying power delay profile. On the other hand, capitalizing on an alternative integral representation of the conditional SER along with Gauss-Hermite quadrature integration, we derive an average SER expression in the form of a single finite-range integral and an integrand composed of tabulated functions. We also present a simpler but approximate approach for the closed-form evaluation of the SER of these signals over independent identically distributed Nakagami-m fading paths View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida