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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 56
  • Post-processing technique based on POCS for visual enhancement in HDTV images

    Page(s): 652 - 659
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a post-processing technique based on the theory of projection on convex sets (POCS) to reduce the blocking artifacts in HDTV decoded images. In the block discrete cosine transform (BDCT) of HDTV, the image is divided into a grid of non-overlapped 8×8 blocks, and then each block is coded separately. A block which is located one pixel apart from the grid of BDCT will include the boundary of the original 8×8 block. If the blocking artifact is introduced along the block boundary, this block will have different frequency characteristics from that of the original block. Thus, a comparison of the frequency characteristics of these two overlapping blocks can detect the undesired high-frequency components mainly caused by the blocking artifact. By eliminating these undesired high-frequency components adaptively, a robust smoothing projection operator can be obtained. Simulation results with real image sequences indicate that the proposed method performs better than conventional algorithms View full abstract»

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  • An efficient memory arbitration algorithm for a single chip MPEG2 AV decoder

    Page(s): 660 - 665
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an efficient memory arbitration algorithm for a system on a chip. We have implemented the algorithm into a single chip MPEG2 AV decoder. According to simulations, the memory access efficiency of the arbiter based on the new algorithm is around 95% with a 32-bit 133 MHz SDRAM, while those of conventional arbiters are less than 80% View full abstract»

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  • New concepts on denoising and sharpening of video signals

    Page(s): 666 - 671
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (723 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new concept for improving video signals. Separating noise from the images while simultaneously sharpening these images is one key idea. The other key idea involves the serial combination of luminance transition improvement (LTI) and peaking in order to achieve the most pleasant impact on the human visual system. The different frequency channels of the video signal are thereby processed in different ways. New algorithms are presented, including LTI, contrast adaptive peaking in the case of the luminance, and chrominance transition improvement (CTI) in the case of the color components. In the case of the luminance, the LTI is used as preprocessing step for the subsequent contrast adaptive peaking. The whole image improvement concept, including all its components is to be produced as the display processor part of a new chip for double scan TV applications View full abstract»

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  • An efficient error concealment implementation for MPEG-4 video streams

    Page(s): 568 - 578
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1075 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an efficient error concealment implementation for damaged MPEG-4 video bitstreams. The chosen spatial and temporal concealment algorithms are designed to fit in real-time decoders and are advantageously combined in a hybrid spatial/temporal approach to provide visually more plausible pictures than basic concealment techniques. In addition, the encoder impact on the visual quality of the reconstruction in presence of channel errors is highlighted View full abstract»

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  • Signal processing for a rear-projection TV using a digital micro-mirror array

    Page(s): 579 - 584
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (495 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A rear-projection TV using a digital micro-mirror array has been developed. This paper describes an overview of its digital signal processing design, and introduces the signal processing techniques applied to the TV system. The digital micro-mirror array is designed for HDTV and has a resolution of 1280×720 pixels. It is required to convert various input signals such as NTSC, HDTV and PC signals to a resolution of 1280×720 pixels. This paper specifically describes the techniques of converting NTSC (480i) signals and presents an outline of the auto-picture-level (APL) control and black-level-expansion (BLE) control using image histogram data. The APL control and BLE control have been adopted for effective use of the limited dynamic range of the brightness. These new techniques have realized high quality conversion of 1280×720 pixels from various input formats, and effective picture enhancement that is most suitable for a digital device View full abstract»

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  • Applications of MPEG-4: digital multimedia broadcasting

    Page(s): 474 - 484
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (890 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The new MPEG-4 based digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) system offers multimedia information with an excellent audio- and video quality to the mobile society. The combination of MPEG-4 encoding and decoding with the DAB-standard (digital audio broadcasting) enables for the first time distortion free TV-reception in fast moving vehicles. New concepts and algorithms which are required for real-time MPEG-4 audio and video encoding were developed, implemented and verified by their integration into the DMB-system. To cope with the demanding real-time requirements of MPEG-4, the corresponding hardware architecture also has been completely re-designed View full abstract»

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  • Timing phase estimator overcoming Rayleigh fading for OFDM systems

    Page(s): 370 - 377
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A timing offset estimator robust to a Rayleigh fading channel and a fast Fourier transform (FFT) window selection algorithm that can remove inter symbol interference (ISI) are proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. Conventional algorithms using the scattered pilots for timing offset estimation only use phase information, whereas the proposed algorithm utilizes both phase and amplitude information. The use of amplitude information in the proposed algorithm means that the influence of distorted pilots due to fading becomes insignificant when estimating a timing offset. As a result, the proposed algorithm is robust to multipath fading channels and produces a superior performance with less computational complexity compared to conventional algorithms. The proposed FFT window selection algorithm based on the cyclic extension property of the OFDM structure can remove the ISI problems caused by multipath fading channels, thereby significantly improving the receiver performance without any additional computational requirements. The paper uses the DVB-T standard to evaluate the algorithms View full abstract»

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  • Remote execution of HAVi applications on Internet-enabled devices

    Page(s): 485 - 495
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (842 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    HAVi is a home networking standard that links consumer electronics and computing devices in the home. The HAVi network is restricted to the IEEE 1394 physical layer, and this paper describes an approach for executing HAVi applications outside the IEEE 1394 layer from any Internet-enabled device such as a laptop or a Web pad. The feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated with a prototype implementation in which the entire HAVi Java API can be executed remotely. This approach enables applications such as remote monitoring with a home security camera or remote control of a VCR View full abstract»

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  • Fast VLSI arithmetic algorithms for high-security elliptic curve cryptographic applications

    Page(s): 700 - 708
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose new methods for calculating fast VLSI arithmetic algorithms for secure data encryption and decryption in the elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC), and also verify the proof-of-concepts by numerical expressions and through the use of HDL (hardware description language). We have developed a fast finite field multiplier that utilizes a new concept, and a finite field divider with an improved internal structure, as well as a novel fast algorithm for calculating kP, which is the most time-consuming operation in the ECC data encryption scheme. The proposed multiplier features a higher throughput per cost ratio than any other existing Galois field (GF) multiplier that can be used in the large prime finite field. Furthermore, our improved divider shows better extensibility. The developed algorithm for point multiplication decreases the steps required for iteration by half compared to that of the traditional double-and-add algorithm. It also reduces the number of field multiplications by about 19% and that of field divisions by about 9% View full abstract»

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  • A scalable MPEG-2 bit-rate transcoder with graceful degradation

    Page(s): 378 - 384
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a scalable MPEG-2 bit-rate transcoder that scales from low complexity, resulting in moderate picture quality, to high complexity with much better quality. The algorithm presents a very fine grain scalability in terms of complexity, making this solution especially suitable for software implementations, in order to benefit from the available resources to increase picture quality. Picture quality degrades gracefully when the complexity of the algorithm is decreased View full abstract»

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  • An overview of flaws in emerging television displays and remedial video processing

    Page(s): 326 - 334
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New display principles aim at supreme image quality. The temporal aspects of these devices sometimes remain underexposed in the literature, and the paper presents an overview of new artifacts and possible remedies with signal processing. We discuss typical artifacts due to the unfavourable properties of emerging television displays. We introduce a processing model that eliminates or at least reduces the various artifacts that result from temporal imperfections of CRTs with alternative scanning, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), tiled displays, plasma display panels (PDPs), and colour sequential displays. We conclude that knowledge of the motion in the scene, i.e. motion estimation, is essential to at least partially repair the often unfavourable temporal behaviour of these displays. Such repair is realistic, as these displays have appeared on the market at the moment motion vector estimation has come to maturity for consumer applications View full abstract»

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  • Wireless gateway for wireless home AV network and its implementation

    Page(s): 496 - 501
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (461 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a wireless gateway for a wireless home AV network. We show the requirements the wireless gateway must satisfy in order to make practice the realization of wireless AV equipment and interconnectivity between wired (IEEE 1394) and wireless networks and compare possible architectures. Then, we propose a “gateway” approach, which realizes both simple implementation and legacy device support. We show our implementation of the wireless gateway, which transmits AV control commands and high-quality AV data, and supports auto-configuration capability. It also has a real-time transcoding function which transcodes DV data on IEEE 1394 into MPEG-2 video on a wireless network View full abstract»

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  • An advanced multimedia processing LSI suitable for HDTV applications

    Page(s): 420 - 425
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (538 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have newly developed a multimedia processing LSI, targeting HDTV applications such as a digital broadcasting receiver based on ATSC or ARIB standards. It integrates many essential features such as multiple HDTV/SDTV input and output ports, an MPEG2-I/JPEG decoder, programmable video scaling engines, alpha-blending and a 2-D graphic engine. The chip can also achieve a multi-image display function by combining the elementary functions discussed. This LSI will be very useful in a broad range of multimedia applications such as DTV/ATV receivers, set top boxes, interactive TVs, cables and satellites View full abstract»

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  • One-dimensional conversion of color temperature in perceived illumination

    Page(s): 340 - 346
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes one-dimensional conversion of color temperature in perceived illumination. It also presents the design and implementation of the method. The method is demonstrated experimentally for color temperatures in the range of 3000°K to 25000°K. The proposed method is realized by using the Xilinx Virtex FPGA XCV 2000E-6BG560 View full abstract»

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  • A single VSB/QAM/QPSK IC for ATSC and OpenCableTM digital terminals

    Page(s): 443 - 449
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a single IC designed for the ATSC-VSB terrestrial receiver and the OpenCableTM digital set-top terminal. The IC integrates a VSB/QAM demodulator for in-band broadcasting with a QPSK modem for bi-directional out-of-band cable signaling. It features all-digital synchronization scheme and robust channel equalization technique applied to the common VSB/QAM demodulation. Performance evaluation of the IC has shown that it can handle effectively the severe fading effect encountered in terrestrial broadcasting and the phase noise of cable transmission channels. It is designed with 0.18 μm CMOS technology View full abstract»

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  • Recursive metric for NTSC interference rejection in the ATSC-HDTV trellis decoder

    Page(s): 300 - 306
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the United States Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standard for high definition television (HDTV), NTSC co-channel interference rejection may be performed by the comb filter, a filter with spectral nulls at or near the NTSC carriers, and only applied when NTSC interference is detected. In this paper, we discuss the influence of the comb filter on the trellis decoder performance. We then derive the closed form expression for the optimum trellis decoder metric when NTSC co-channel interference is detected and propose a recursive formula for its implementation View full abstract»

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  • Printed inductors in RF consumer applications

    Page(s): 426 - 435
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on multilayer planar inductors (printed inductors). A multilayer inductor design is described resulting in a high value of inductance at small dimensions. Consideration of manufacturing and reproduction tolerances is made. Finally measurement results on typical parameters describing a printed inductor are given. These results may be directly used for RF circuit simulation or for the design of PCB layouts View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic range compression based on illumination compensation

    Page(s): 548 - 558
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1486 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach for effectively compressing the dynamic range of a visual scene while preserving the local contrast in order to reproduce a high quality image on devices with limited dynamic range. In this method, dynamic range compression is performed through a reduction of the illumination effect, by taking into account the characteristics of the human visual system. To precisely extract the illumination component within a reasonable complexity, a multi-scale nonlinear filtering scheme, referred to here as nonlinear multi-scale retinex (NMR), was developed View full abstract»

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  • Optimal television scanning format for CRT-displays

    Page(s): 347 - 353
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    At the time of introduction of the television, the video format was optimized given both economical and technological constraints. The resulting video format is not necessarily optimal for the current display technology. Moreover, current consumer-level priced and state-of-the-art scan-rate converters enable a spatio-temporal decoupling of the received video and the displayed video. This paper presents the results of a subjective assessment indicating the preferred CRT-display format View full abstract»

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  • Wireless transfer of images from a digital camera to the Internet via a standard GSM mobile phone

    Page(s): 542 - 547
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe an infrastructure based on an existing, commercially available, GSM mobile phone for achieving connectivity between digital cameras and an Internet Website. Pictures are loaded from a standard digital camera, or compact flash card, by an embedded appliance, which establishes the Internet connection and controls the transfer of pictures from the camera to a remote Website. Detailed descriptions are given of this picture transfer appliance and of a typical Website infrastructure to store and manage the pictures and provide end-user services View full abstract»

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  • A single-chip MPEG2 MP@HL decoder for DTV recording/playback systems

    Page(s): 405 - 411
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an MPEG2 MP@HL decoder LSI for use in digital TV (DTV) recording/playback systems such as a home server. It integrates the functions required in home servers on a single chip. The chip incorporates not only basic functions for image processing but also effective functions for stream recording/playback. It enables smooth execution of trick plays without complex operations in an external CPU, and makes it easy to build recording/playback systems View full abstract»

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  • Automated video chain optimization

    Page(s): 593 - 603
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (921 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video processing algorithms found in complex video appliances such as television sets and set top boxes exhibit an interdependency that makes it is difficult to predict the picture quality of an end product before it is actually built. This quality is likely to improve when algorithm interaction is explicitly considered. Moreover, video algorithms tend to have many programmable parameters, which are traditionally tuned in manual fashion. Tuning these parameters automatically rather than manually is likely to speed up product development. We present a methodology that addresses these issues by means of a genetic algorithm that, driven by a novel objective image quality metric, finds high-quality configurations of the video processing chain of complex video products. View full abstract»

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  • Consumer electronics application and coverage constraints using Bluetooth and proposed Bluetooth evolution technologies

    Page(s): 283 - 293
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1183 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers issues such as residential coverage and achievable bit rate using the Bluetooth personal area network (PAN) standard. Link budget analysis is performed by combining detailed link level physical layer simulations with site specific power predictions from a state-of-the-art indoor propagation model. Assuming a 1 mW transmit unit, coverage plots are generated at 2.4 GHz for an example single and multi-storey residential environment. The investigation considers Bluetooth data medium (DM) and data high (DH) packet types. Results for the transmission of symmetric asynchronous data link (ACL) packets are used to discuss the bit rate capabilities of various time-bounded and non-time bounded Bluetooth enabled consumer electronic devices. To meet the bit rate needs of future consumer electronic devices, QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM are proposed as possible enhancements to the current GFSK mode. Using physical layer simulations, the coverage and data rate performance of these new modes are analysed and compared with those of standard Bluetooth. The use of linear receive architectures and coherent modulation, although adding significantly to the unit cost, is shown to significantly improve radio sensitivity. Results indicate that high bit rate QAM operation is now possible over an extended coverage area View full abstract»

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  • Automated video chain optimization

    Page(s): 593 - 603
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1086 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video processing algorithms found in complex video appliances such as television sets and set top boxes exhibit an interdependency that makes it is difficult to predict the picture quality of an end product before it is actually built. This quality is likely to improve when algorithm interaction is explicitly considered. Moreover, video algorithms tend to have many programmable parameters, which are traditionally tuned in manual fashion. Tuning these parameters automatically rather than manually is likely to speed up product development. We present a methodology that addresses these issues by means of a genetic algorithm that, driven by a novel objective image quality metric, finds high-quality configurations of the video processing chain of complex video products View full abstract»

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  • A novel IQ imbalance compensation scheme for the reception of OFDM signals

    Page(s): 313 - 318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (389 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital receivers still employ analog components in the demodulation process causing amplitude and phase imbalances between the I and Q branches. This article describes a novel digital compensation scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) receivers based on adaptive frequency domain filtering to remove the IQ imbalance effects View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583