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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 10 • Date Oct 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • Distributed architectures and logical-task decomposition in multimedia surveillance systems

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1419 - 1440
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the past few years, the development of complex surveillance systems has captured the interest of both the research and industrial worlds. Strong and challenging requirements of modern society are involved in this problem, which aims to increase safety and security in several application domains such as transport, tourism, home and bank security, military applications, etc. At the same time, fast improvements in microelectronics, telecommunications, and computer science make it necessary to consider new perspectives in this field. The main objective of this paper is to investigate, discuss, and evaluate the impact of distributed processing and new communication techniques on multimedia surveillance systems, which represent the so-called third-generation surveillance systems (3 GSSs). In particular, aspects related to the distribution of intelligence among multiple-processing and wide-bandwidth resources are discussed in detail. It is shown how distribution of intelligence can be obtained by a hierarchical architecture that partitions, in a dynamic way, the main logical processing tasks (i.e., representation, recognition, and communication) performed in a 3 GSS physical architecture made up of intelligent cameras, hubs, and central control rooms. The advantages of this solution are pointed out in terms of 1) increased flexibility and reconfigurability and 2) optimal allocation of available processing and bandwidth resources. Finally, a case study is analyzed that allows one to gain a deeper insight into a distributed surveillance system View full abstract»

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  • Image authentication techniques for surveillance applications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1403 - 1418
    Cited by:  Papers (52)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In automatic video surveillance (VS) systems, the issue of authenticating the video content is of primary importance. Given the ease with which digital images and videos can be manipulated, practically they do not have any value as legal proof, if the possibility of authenticating their content is not provided. In this paper, the problem of authenticating video surveillance image sequences is considered. After an introduction motivating the need for a watermarking-based authentication of VS sequences, a brief survey of the main watermarking-based authentication techniques is presented and the requirements that an authentication algorithm should satisfy for VS applications, are discussed. A novel algorithm which is suitable for VS visual data authentication is also presented and the results obtained by applying it to test data are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Into the woods: visual surveillance of noncooperative and camouflaged targets in complex outdoor settings

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1382 - 1402
    Cited by:  Papers (53)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Autonomous video surveillance and monitoring of human subjects in video has a rich history. Many deployed systems are able to reliably track human motion in indoor and controlled outdoor environments, e.g., parking lots and university campuses. A challenging domain of vital military importance is the surveillance of noncooperative and camouflaged targets within cluttered outdoor settings. These situations require both sensitivity and a very wide field of view and, therefore, are a natural application of omnidirectional video. Fundamentally, target finding is a change detection problem. Detection of camouflaged and adversarial targets implies the need for extreme sensitivity. Unfortunately, blind change detection in woods and fields may lead to a high fraction of false alarms, since natural scene motion and lighting changes produce highly dynamic scenes. Naturally, this desire for high sensitivity leads to a direct tradeoff between miss detections and false alarms. This paper discusses the current state of the art in video-based target detection, including an analysis of background adaptation techniques. The primary focus of the paper is the Lehigh Omnidirectional Tracking System (LOTS) and its components. This includes adaptive multibackground modeling, quasi-connected components (a novel approach to spatio-temporal grouping), background subtraction analyses, and an overall system evaluation View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on video communications, processing, and understanding for third generation surveillance systems

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1355 - 1539
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This Special Issue focuses on the problems of last generation surveillance systems and highlights solutions to these problems that are based on a stronger integration of techniques for multisensor data acquisition, communications and processing. This integration is possible by the common "full digital" perspective on which the techniques used by new systems are based. Next generation surveillance systems can be considered as an emerging application field requiring multidisciplinary expertise going from signal and image processing, to communications and computer vision View full abstract»

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  • Multiple camera tracking of interacting and occluded human motion

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1441 - 1455
    Cited by:  Papers (72)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a distributed, real-time computing platform for tracking multiple interacting persons in motion. To combat the negative effects of occlusion and articulated motion we use a multiview implementation, where each view is first independently processed on a dedicated processor. This monocular processing uses a predictor-corrector filter to weigh reprojections of three-dimensional (3-D) position estimates, obtained by the central processor, against observations of measurable image motion. The corrected state vectors from each view provide input observations to a Bayesian belief network, in the central processor, with a dynamic, multidimensional topology that varies as a function of scene content and feature confidence. The Bayesian net fuses independent observations from multiple cameras by iteratively resolving independency relationships and confidence levels within the graph, thereby producing the most likely vector of 3-D state estimates given the available data. To maintain temporal continuity, we follow the network with a layer of Kalman filtering that updates the 3-D state estimates. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed system using a multiview sequence of several people in motion. Our experiments suggest that, when compared with data fusion based on averaging, the proposed technique yields a noticeable improvement in tracking accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Fault-free digital radio communication and Hendrik C. A. van Duuren

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1540 - 1542
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (69 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The author looks at the life and work of Hendrik van Duuren who was born on November 24, 1903, in The Hague, the Netherlands and studied electrical engineering at the Technical University of Delft. He had a very fruitful professional life. Among his many inventions, several were vital for the transmission of digital information without errors. Virtually all data transmission today uses the basic principle of automatic repetition. His discovery of the excellent properties of the constant ratio (CR) code for error detection on particularly high frequency (HF) circuits and his contributions to methods of distorted-signal detection made efficient fault-free long-distance digital (HF) communication feasible. In the late 1920s and 1930s, the use of high-power low-frequency transmission was gradually replaced by lower power high-frequency (HF) transmission. HF provided more bandwidth for more channels but also introduced a new source of transmission errors - fading by the multipath effect. Error prevention and error handling became two important focal points and van Duuren played an important role in both fields, resulting in more than 120 patents worldwide. The author goes on to detail van Duuren's contributions to Forward Error Control (FEC) systems, Automatic Repetition Request (ARQ) systems, teleprinting and telegraphy View full abstract»

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  • Change detection and background extraction by linear algebra

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1368 - 1381
    Cited by:  Papers (50)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)  

    Change detection plays a very important role in real-time image analysis, e.g., detection of intruders. One key issue is robustness to varying illumination conditions. We propose two techniques for change detection that have been developed to deal with variations in illumination and background, with real-time capabilities. The foundations of these techniques are based on a vector model of images and on the exploitation of the concepts of linear dependence and linear independence. Furthermore, the techniques are compatible with physical photometry. A detailed description of the proposed detector and three state-of-the art change detectors is also provided. For the purposes of comparison, an evaluation procedure is presented consisting of both objective and subjective parts. This evaluation procedure results in a final performance value for each detector analyzed View full abstract»

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  • Design, analysis, and engineering of video monitoring systems: an approach and a case study

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1498 - 1517
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rapid improvement in computing power, cheap sensing, and more flexible algorithms are facilitating increased development of real-time video surveillance and monitoring systems. The deployment of video understanding systems in certain critical applications in the real world can be done only if performance guarantees can be provided for these systems. This paper reviews past work on a systematic engineering methodology for vision systems performance characterization and illustrates how it can be adapted in practice to develop a real-time people detection and zooming system to meet given application requirements. A case study involving dual-camera real-time video surveillance is used to illustrate that by judiciously choosing the system modules and by performing a careful analysis of the influence of various tuning parameters on the system it is possible to perform proper statistical inference, to automatically set control parameters and to quantify performance limits View full abstract»

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  • Aerial video surveillance and exploitation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1518 - 1539
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is growing interest in performing aerial surveillance using video cameras. Compared to traditional framing cameras, video cameras provide the capability to observe ongoing activity within a scene and to automatically control the camera to track the activity. However, the high data rates and relatively small field of view of video cameras present new technical challenges that must be overcome before such cameras can be widely used. In this paper, we present a framework and details of the key components for real-time, automatic exploitation of aerial video for surveillance applications. The framework involves separating an aerial video into the natural components corresponding to the scene. Three major components of the scene are the static background geometry, moving objects, and appearance of the static and dynamic components of the scene. In order to delineate videos into these scene components, we have developed real time, image-processing techniques for 2-D/3-D frame-to-frame alignment, change detection, camera control, and tracking of independently moving objects in cluttered scenes. The geo-location of video and tracked objects is estimated by registration of the video to controlled reference imagery, elevation maps, and site models. Finally static, dynamic and reprojected mosaics may be constructed for compression, enhanced visualization, and mapping applications View full abstract»

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  • Urban surveillance systems: from the laboratory to the commercial world

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1478 - 1497
    Cited by:  Papers (63)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Research in the surveillance domain was confined for years in the military domain. Recently, as military spending for this kind of research was reduced and the technology matured, the attention of the research and development community turned to commercial applications of surveillance. In this paper we describe a state-of-the-art monitoring system developed by a corporate R&D lab in cooperation with the corresponding security business units. It represents a sizable effort to transfer some of the best results produced by computer vision research into a viable commercial product. Our description spans both practical and technical issues. From the practical point of view we analyze the state of the commercial security market, typical cultural differences between the research team and the business team and the perspective of the potential users of the technology. These are important issues that have to be dealt with or the surveillance technology will remain in the lab for a long time. From the technical point of view we analyze our algorithmic and implementation choices. We describe the improvements we introduced to the original algorithms reported in the literature in response to some problems that arose during field testing. We also provide extensive experimental results that highlight the strong points and some weaknesses of the prototype system View full abstract»

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  • Algorithms for cooperative multisensor surveillance

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1456 - 1477
    Cited by:  Papers (209)  |  Patents (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Video Surveillance and Monitoring (VSAM) team at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has developed an end-to-end, multicamera surveillance system that allows a single human operator to monitor activities in a cluttered environment using a distributed network of active video sensors. Video understanding algorithms have been developed to automatically detect people and vehicles, seamlessly track them using a network of cooperating active sensors, determine their three-dimensional locations with respect to a geospatial site model, and present this information to a human operator who controls the system through a graphical user interface. The goal is to automatically collect and disseminate real-time information to improve the situational awareness of security providers and decision makers. The feasibility of real-time video surveillance has been demonstrated within a multicamera testbed system developed on the campus of CMU. This paper presents an overview of the issues and algorithms involved in creating this semiautonomous, multicamera surveillance system View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University