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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Guest editorial mobility and resource management in next generation wireless systems

    Page(s): 1825 - 1829
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A design of macro-micro CDMA cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas

    Page(s): 2094 - 2104
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    We focus on delivering radio engineers a practical design of macro-micro code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular overlays. First, we review our algorithmic approach to jointly deploy macrocells and microcells over today's big urban areas having spatially nonuniform traffic distributions. Next, we identify several further issues related to the optimal design of macro-micro cellular overlays and enhance the cell-deploying algorithm to reflect these issues. The numerical results by extensive event-driven simulations show that the resulting macro-micro cellular overlays successfully cope with the existing conditions of today's big urban areas, such as spatial and temporal traffic distributions and user mobility characteristics. Finally, we discuss the practical guidelines for designing macro-micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas View full abstract»

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  • Integrated cellular and ad hoc relaying systems: iCAR

    Page(s): 2105 - 2115
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    Integrated cellular and ad hoc relaying systems (iCAR) is a new wireless system architecture based on the integration of cellular and modern ad hoc relaying technologies. It addresses the congestion problem due to unbalanced traffic in a cellular system and provides interoperability for heterogeneous networks. The iCAR system can efficiently balance traffic loads between cells by using ad hoc relaying stations (ARS) to relay traffic from one cell to another dynamically. This not only increases the system's capacity cost effectively, but also reduces the transmission power for mobile hosts and extends system coverage. We compare the performance of the iCAR system with conventional cellular systems in terms of the call blocking/dropping probability, throughput, and signaling overhead via analysis and simulation. Our results show that with a limited number of ARSs and some increase in the signaling overhead (as well as hardware complexity), the call blocking/dropping probability in a congested cell and the overall system can be reduced View full abstract»

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  • An emulator framework for a new radio resource management for QoS guaranteed services in W-CDMA systems

    Page(s): 1893 - 1904
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    In the context of third-generation (3G) systems a mix of services with different requirements are expected. Consequently, packet scheduling mechanisms for quality of service (QoS) guarantees will play a key role. This paper proposes a new scheduling strategy that makes consistent the target quality in the radio link with the priority level assigned to each user. The performance of such a strategy is assessed by system level simulations and, in order to gain more insight into the difficulties of this optimization problem, it is compared to other alternatives. This work is part of the Wineglass project, within the Fifth Framework Program of the European Commission (IST), where a real time demonstrator including the radio resource management tasks is being developed. Thus, an implementation approach of the proposed scheduling is also described. The implementation is based on lookup tables and this approach is validated by simulation View full abstract»

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  • A new signaling protocol for intersystem roaming in next-generation wireless systems

    Page(s): 2040 - 2052
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    In next-generation wireless systems, one of the major features that is different from the current personal communication service systems is the seamless global roaming. The mobile subscribers will be allowed to move freely across different networks while maintaining their quality of service for a variety of applications. To meet this demand, the signaling protocol of mobility management must be designed, supporting location registration and call delivery for roaming users who move beyond their home network. A new signaling protocol is proposed, emphasizing the active location registration for ongoing services during the mobile subscribers' movement. Another important goal of this new protocol is to reduce the overhead caused by mobility management so that the signaling traffic load and consumption of network resources can be reduced. The new protocol efficiently reduces the latency of call delivery and call loss rate due to crossing wireless systems with different standards or signaling protocols. The numerical results reveal that the proposed protocol is effective in improving the overall system performance View full abstract»

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  • Predictive mobility support for QoS provisioning in mobile wireless environments

    Page(s): 1915 - 1930
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    With the proliferation of wireless network technologies, mobile users are expected to demand the same quality of service (QoS) available to fixed users. This paper presents a predictive and adaptive scheme to support timed-QoS guarantees in pico- and micro-cellular environments. The proposed scheme integrates the mobility model into the service model to achieve efficient network resource utilization and avoid severe network congestion. The mobility model uses a probabilistic approach to determine the most likely cluster to be visited by the mobile unit. The admission control is invoked when a new call arrives or an existing call performs a handoff to verify the feasibility of supporting the call. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared to the shadow cluster scheme. The performance of the proposed scheme under different traffic patterns is also presented View full abstract»

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  • Local predictive resource reservation for handoff in multimedia wireless IP networks

    Page(s): 1931 - 1941
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    This paper presents two new methods that use local information alone to predict the resource demands of and determine resource reservation levels for future handoff calls in multimedia wireless IP networks. The proposed methods model the instantaneous resource demand directly. This differs from most existing methods that derive the demands from modeling the factors that impact the demands. As a result, the proposed methods allow new and handoff calls to: (1) follow non-Poisson and/or nonstationary arrival processes; (2) have arbitrary per-call resource demands; and (3) have arbitrarily distributed call and channel holding times. The first method is based on the Wiener prediction theory and the second method is based on time series analysis. Our simulations show that they perform well even for non-Poisson and nonstationary handoff call arrivals, arbitrary per-call bandwidth demands, and nonexponentially distributed call and channel holding times. They generate closely comparable performance with an existing local method and an existing collaborative method that uses information about mobiles in neighboring cells, under assumptions for which these other methods are optimized. The proposed methods are much simpler to implement than most other existing methods with fewer capabilities View full abstract»

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  • Supporting service differentiation in wireless packet networks using distributed control

    Page(s): 2081 - 2093
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    This paper investigates differentiated services in wireless packet networks using a fully distributed approach that supports service differentiation, radio monitoring, and admission control. While our proposal is generally applicable to distributed wireless access schemes, we design, implement, and evaluate our framework within the context of existing wireless technology. Service differentiation is based on the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) originally designed to support best-effort data services. We analyze the delay experienced by a mobile host implementing the IEEE 802.11 DCF and derive a closed-form formula. We then extend the DCF to provide service differentiation for delay-sensitive and best-effort traffic based on the results from the analysis. Two distributed estimation algorithms are proposed. These algorithms are evaluated using simulation, analysis, and experimentation. A virtual MAC (VMAC) algorithm passively monitors the radio channel and estimates locally achievable service levels. The VMAC estimates key MAC level statistics related to service quality such as delay, delay variation, packet collision, and packet loss. We show the efficiency of the VMAC algorithm through simulation and consider significantly overlapping cells and highly bursty traffic mixes. In addition, we implement and evaluate the VMAC in an experimental differentiated services wireless testbed. A virtual source (VS) algorithm utilizes the VMAC to estimate application-level service quality. The VS allows application parameters to be tuned in response to dynamic channel conditions based on “virtual delay curves.” We demonstrate through simulation that when these distributed victual algorithms are applied to the admission control of the radio channel then a globally stable state can be maintained without the need for complex centralized radio resource management View full abstract»

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  • Resolving mobile database overflow with most idle replacement

    Page(s): 1953 - 1961
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a personal communications service (PCS) network, mobility databases called visitor location registers (VLRs) are utilized to temporarily store the subscription data and the location information for the roaming users. Because of user mobility, it is possible that the VLR is full when a mobile user arrives. Under such a circumstance, the incoming user has no VLR record and thus cannot receive PCS services. This issue is called VLR overflow. To resolve the VLR overflow problem, a VLR record can be selected for replacement when the VLR is full and then the reclaimed storage is used to hold the record of the requesting user. This paper considers the most idle replacement policy to provide services to mobile users without VLR records. In this policy, the record with the longest idle time is selected for replacement. We propose an analytic model to investigate the performance of this replacement policy. The analytic results are validated against simulation experiments. The results indicate that our approach effectively resolves the VLR overflow problem View full abstract»

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  • A bandwidth allocation/sharing/extension protocol for multimedia over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc wireless LANs

    Page(s): 2065 - 2080
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    We propose a novel bandwidth allocation/sharing/extension (DBASE) protocol to support both asynchronous traffic and multimedia traffic with the characteristics of variable bit rate (VBR) and constant bit rate (CBR) over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc wireless local area networks. The overall quality of service (QoS) will be guaranteed by DBASE. The designed DBASE protocol will reserve bandwidth for real-time stations based on a fair and efficient allocation. Besides, the proposed DBASE is still compliant with the IEEE 802.11 standard. The performance of DBASE is evaluated by analysis and simulations. Simulations show that the DBASE is able to provide almost 90% channel utilization and low packet loss due to delay expiry for real-time multimedia services View full abstract»

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  • Opportunistic transmission scheduling with resource-sharing constraints in wireless networks

    Page(s): 2053 - 2064
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    We present an “opportunistic” transmission scheduling policy that exploits time-varying channel conditions and maximizes the system performance stochastically under a certain resource allocation constraint. We establish the optimality of the scheduling scheme and also that every user experiences a performance improvement over any nonopportunistic scheduling policy when users have independent performance values. We demonstrate via simulation results that the scheme is robust to estimation errors and also works well for nonstationary scenarios, resulting in performance improvements of 20%-150% compared with a scheduling scheme that does not take into account channel conditions. Last, we discuss an extension of our opportunistic scheduling scheme to improve “short-term” performance View full abstract»

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  • A dynamic channel assignment algorithm for a hybrid TDMA/CDMA-TDD interface using the novel TS-opposing technique

    Page(s): 1831 - 1846
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    It has been demonstrated that code division multiple access (CDMA) provides great flexibility by enabling efficient multiuser access in a cellular environment. In addition, time division duplex (TDD) as compared to frequency division duplex (FDD) represents an appropriate method to cater for the asymmetric use of a duplex channel. However, the TDD technique is subject to additional interference mechanisms compared to an FDD system, in particular if neighboring cells require different rates of asymmetry. If TDD is combined with an interference limited multiple access technique such as CDMA, the additional interference mechanism represents an important issue. This issue poses the question of whether a CDMA/TDD air-interface can be used in a cellular environment. The problems are eased if a hybrid time division multiple access (TDMA)/CDMA interface (TD-CDMA) is used. The reason for this is that the TDMA component adds another degree of freedom which can be utilized to avoid interference. This, however, requires special channel assignment techniques. A notable example of a system which uses a TD-CDMA/TDD interface is the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). This paper presents a novel centralized dynamic channel assignment (DCA) algorithm for a TD-CDMA/TDD air-interface. The DCA algorithm exploits a new technique which is termed “TS-opposing technique.” The key result is that the new DCA algorithm enables neighboring cells to adopt different rates of asymmetry without a significant capacity loss View full abstract»

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  • Link adaptation and power control for streaming services in EGPRS wireless networks

    Page(s): 2029 - 2039
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    Using the MPEG-4 advanced audio coder (AAC) music as an example of streaming applications, we investigate the improvement of error performance for the streaming service by link adaptation and power control techniques in an enhanced general packet radio services (EGPRS) cellular network. A low packet error rate and variability are essential in providing a short error-burst length so that error concealment techniques can be effectively applied to music packets. We study the effects of a combined link adaptation and power control scheme (referred to as the error-based scheme) for achieving a target error rate and reducing error variability. By simulation, we compare the error performance of the error-based scheme at both the EGPRS block and AAC frame level with another adaptation algorithm (referred to as the throughput-based scheme) with a goal of maximizing overall network throughput. It is found that when offered with a similar traffic load, the former scheme can provide noticeable improvement of music quality over the throughput-based scheme. To achieve a similar AAC frame error rate, our results also show that the error-based scheme can increase the link throughput over the throughput-based scheme by 66.7% in one of our examples. These results reveal that by aiming at required error targets and thus reducing error variability, the error-based scheme for link adaptation and power control are helpful in improving quality and capacity for streaming applications View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic single frequency networks

    Page(s): 1905 - 1914
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    Wireless asymmetric Internet access with a downlink peak bit rate of 10 to 30 Mb/s can be achieved by using the terrestrial digital video broadcasting system (DVB-T) as a supplemental downlink together with today's cellular systems. This paper is a study of dynamic radio resource management on a packet-by-packet basis for this broadband downlink. The dynamic single frequency networks (DSFN) scheme is evaluated. It exploits the macrodiversity capability of the OFDM modulation scheme. The transmitters are dynamically divided into groups of transmitters that send the same information at the same channel frequency simultaneously. The fairly shared spectrum efficiency (FSSE), in bits per second per Hertz per site, which is a combined measurement of maximum throughput and fairness, is evaluated for best-effort traffic. DSFN improves the FSSE by 100% to 370%, for a certain set of test cases, in comparison to the dynamic packet assignment (DPA) scheme, which combines packet scheduling with dynamic channel assignment (DCA) View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive distance-based location update algorithm for next-generation PCS networks

    Page(s): 1942 - 1952
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    In this paper, we propose a stochastic model to compute the optimal update boundary for the distance-based location update algorithm. The proposed model is flexible and captures some of the real characteristics in the wireless cellular environment. The model can adapt to arbitrary cell topologies in which the number of neighboring base stations at different locations may vary. The cell residence time can follow general distributions which captures the fact that the mobile user may spend more time at certain locations than others. The model also incorporates the concept of a trip in which the mobile user may follow a particular path to a destination. For implementation, the decision of location update can be made by a simple table lookup. Numerical results indicate that the proposed model provides a more accurate update boundary in real environment than that derived from a hexagonal cell configuration with a random walk movement pattern. The proposed model allows the network to maintain a better balance between the processing incurred due to location update and the radio bandwidth utilized for paging between call arrivals View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic bandwidth management and adaptive applications for a variable bandwidth wireless environment

    Page(s): 1984 - 1997
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    This article describes an approach for providing dynamic quality of service (QoS) support in a variable bandwidth network, which may include wireless links and mobile nodes. The dynamic QoS approach centers on the notion of providing QoS support at some point within a range requested by applications. To utilize dynamic QoS, applications must be capable of adapting to the level of QoS provided by the network, which may vary during the course of a connection. To demonstrate and evaluate the dynamic QoS concept, we have implemented a new protocol called dynamic resource reservation protocol (dRSVP) and a new QoS application program interface (API). The paper describes this new protocol and API and also discusses our experience with adaptive streaming video and audio applications that work with the new protocol in a testbed network, including wireless local area network connectivity and wireless link connectivity emulated over the wired Ethernet. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of the dynamic RSVP protocol are provided View full abstract»

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  • Pricing and power control in a multicell wireless data network

    Page(s): 1883 - 1892
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    We consider distributed power control in a multicell wireless data system and study the effect of pricing transmit power. Drawing on the earlier work of Goodman and Mandayam (see IEEE Personal Commun. Mag., vol.7, p.48-54, 2000), we formulate the QoS of a data user via a utility function measured in bits per Joule. We consider distributed power control, modeled as a noncooperative game, where users maximize their utilities in a multicell system. Base station assignment based on received signal strength as well as received signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) are considered jointly with power control. Our results indicate that for both assignment schemes, such a procedure results in an inefficient operating point (Nash equilibrium) for the entire system. We introduce pricing of transmit power as a mechanism for influencing data user behavior and our results show that the distributed power control based on maximizing the net utility (utility minus the price) results in improving the Pareto efficiency of the resulting operating point. Variations of pricing based on global and local loading in cells are considered as a means of improving the efficiency of wireless data networks. Finally, we discuss the improvement in utilities through a centralized scheme where each base station (BS) calculates the best SIR to be targeted by the terminals it is assigned View full abstract»

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  • Admission control in time-slotted multihop mobile networks

    Page(s): 1974 - 1983
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    The emergence of nomadic applications have generated a lot of interest in next-generation wireless network infrastructures which provide differentiated service classes. So it is important to study how the quality of service (QoS), such as packet loss and bandwidth, should be guaranteed. To accomplish this, we develop am admission control scheme which can guarantee bandwidth for real-time applications in multihop mobile networks. In our scheme, a host need not discover and maintain any information of the network resources status on the routes to another host until a connection request is generated for the communication between the two hosts, unless the former host is offering its services as an intermediate forwarding station to maintain connectivity between two other hosts. This bandwidth guarantee feature is important for a mobile network to interconnect wired networks with QoS support. Our connection admission control scheme can also work in a stand-alone mobile ad hoc network for real-time applications. This control scheme contains end-to-end bandwidth calculation and bandwidth allocation. Under such a scheme, the source is informed of the bandwidth and QoS available to any destination in the mobile network. This knowledge enables the establishment of QoS connections within the mobile network and the efficient support of real time applications. In the case of ATM interconnection, the bandwidth information can be used to carry out an intelligent handoff between ATM gateways and/or to extend the ATM virtual circuit service to the mobile network with possible renegotiation of QoS parameters at the gateway. We examine via simulation the system performance in various QoS traffic flows and mobility environments View full abstract»

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  • Joint power control and intracell scheduling of DS-CDMA nonreal time data

    Page(s): 1860 - 1870
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    The performance of DS-CDMA systems depends on the success in managing interference arising from both intercell and intracell transmissions. Interference management in terms of power control for real time data services like voice has been widely studied and shown to be a crucial component for the functionality of such systems. In this work we consider the problem of supporting downlink nonreal time data services, where in addition to power control, there is also the possibility of controlling the interference by means of transmission scheduling. One such decentralized schedule is to use time division so that users transmit in a one-by-one fashion within each cell. We show that this has merits in terms of saving energy and increasing system capacity. We combine this form of intracell scheduling with a suggested distributed power control algorithm for the intercell interference management. We address its rate of convergence and show that the algorithm converges to a power allocation that supports the nonreal time data users, using the minimum required power while meeting requirements on average data rate. Numerical results indicate a big potential of increased capacity and that a significant amount of energy can be saved with the proposed transmission scheme View full abstract»

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  • Impact of radio resource allocation policies on the TD-CDMA system performance: evaluation of major critical parameters

    Page(s): 1847 - 1859
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    This paper investigates the impact of major critical parameters and the effect of some radio resource allocation policies on the TD-CDMA system performance. Critical parameters are related either to the user behavior (e.g., user mobility, activity factors) or to processing techniques and algorithms implemented to control network performance and individual radio link quality (e.g., joint detection imperfection, handover margin, timeout for maintaining alive bad radio links). Network topology (e.g., distance between neighboring base stations) also undoubtedly influences capacity results. Analysis is carried out through accurate modeling of user behavior, interference scenarios, and power budget limitations at both terminals and infrastructure, allowing for proper implementation of radio resource allocation algorithms. Among these algorithms, power management (both at the initial channel assignment and during communication), dynamic channel allocation (DCA), and ongoing calls management are explored. An event-driven simulation approach was considered to model realistic system behavior and address system stability under various events generating traffic/interference fluctuations (e.g., call arrivals and departures, handovers, steps of power control loops). Such an approach is expected to offer a good estimate of the real conditions provided the propagation models are close to real life. As a consequence, measures to be taken to avoid/control overloading in a TD-CDMA (CDMA in general) environment can be naturally derived and tested with this methodology View full abstract»

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  • Hierarchical SIR and rate control on the forward link for CDMA data users under delay and error constraints

    Page(s): 1871 - 1882
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    We study the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) and rate control for code division multiple access (CDMA) data users on the forward link under average or peak power constraints. The quality of service (QoS) for data users is specified by delay and error rate constraints as well as a family of utility functions representing the throughput and fairness among the data users. It is found that the optimal SIR and rate control algorithm has a hierarchical structure which can be easily implemented in a distributed manner. The SIR targets can be adjusted independently by the mobiles using information specific to the individual users. The data rates can be adjusted jointly by the base station based on limited feedback from the mobiles. We also propose a two-level iteration algorithm for both the mobile and the base station to efficiently compute the SIR and data rates. Our results show that a flexible tradeoff between total system throughput (sum of rates achieved) and fairness (similarity in data rates) can be achieved by choosing appropriate utility functions used in this scheme View full abstract»

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  • A prefetching protocol for continuous media streaming in wireless environments

    Page(s): 2015 - 2028
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    Streaming of continuous media over wireless links is a notoriously difficult problem. This is due to the stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements of continuous media and the unreliability of wireless links. We develop a streaming protocol for the real-time delivery of prerecorded continuous media from (to) a central base station to (from) multiple wireless clients within a wireless cell. Our protocol prefetches parts of the ongoing continuous media streams into prefetch buffers in the clients (base station). Our protocol prefetches according to a join-the-shortest-queue (JSQ) policy. By exploiting rate adaptation techniques of wireless data packet protocols, the JSQ policy dynamically allocates more transmission capacity to streams with small prefetched reserves. Our protocol uses channel probing to handle the location-dependent, time-varying, and bursty errors of wireless links. We evaluate our prefetching protocol through extensive simulations with VBR MPEG and H.263 encoded video traces. Our simulations indicate that for bursty VBR video with an average rate of 64 kb/s and typical wireless communication conditions our prefetching protocol achieves client starvation probabilities on the order of 10-4 and a bandwidth efficiency of 90% with prefetch buffers of 128 kbytes View full abstract»

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  • CTMS: a novel constrained tree migration scheme for multicast services in generic wireless systems

    Page(s): 1998 - 2014
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    This study considers the multicasting problem over mobile wireless systems in the context of generic wireless systems. Specifically, a novel constrained tree migration scheme (CTMS) is created to support multicast services in mobile wireless networks. The salient features of the novel CTMS include: (1) automatically recognizing the inefficiency of the multicast trees, then migrating them to better ones, while maintaining the QoS guarantees specified by mobile users; (2) conserving network resources by maintaining a low-cost multicast tree, thus accommodating more users; (3) operating efficiently in a truly distributed manner through event driven and diffusing computations, thus increasing the degree of scalability; (4) synchronizing data transmission flow for transparency during the tree migration, and thus providing seamless handoff control. Finally, the novel CTMS also handles the concurrent migration problem effectively within the wireless system, thus eliminating the oscillation paradox. Extensive simulation results show that CTMS can significantly reduce the resources used per multicast tree, thus achieving both low handoff-dropping/join-blocking rate and high resource utilization View full abstract»

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  • Restoration scheme of mobility databases by mobility learning and prediction in PCS networks

    Page(s): 1962 - 1973
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a restoration scheme based on mobility learning and prediction in the presence of the failure of mobility databases in personal communication systems (PCSs). In PCSs, mobility databases must maintain the current location information of users to provide a fast connection for them. However, the malfunction of mobility databases may cause some location information to be lost. As a result, without an explicit restoration procedure, incoming calls to users may be rejected. Therefore, an explicit restoration scheme against the malfunction of mobility databases is needed to guarantee continuous service availability to users. Introducing mobility learning and prediction into the restoration process allows systems to locate users after a failure of mobility databases. In failure-free operations, the movement patterns of users are learned by a neuro-fuzzy inference system (NFIS). After a failure, an inference process of the NFIS is initiated and the users' future location is predicted. This is used to locate lost users after a failure. This proposal differs from previous approaches using a checkpoint because it does not need a backup process nor additional storage space to store checkpoint information. In addition, simulations show that our proposal can reduce the cost needed to restore the location records of lost users after a failure when compared to the checkpointing scheme View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT