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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10  Part 1 • Date Oct. 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Guest editorial

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1669 - 1670
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  • Optimal simultaneous interpolation/extrapolation algorithm of electromagnetic responses in time and frequency domains

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1725 - 1732
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an optimal simultaneous interpolation and extrapolation algorithm in the time and frequency domains is carried out by adaptively choosing the order of the associate Hermite (AH) expansion. Due to the isomorphism of the AH function and its Fourier transform, the time-domain signal and its corresponding frequency-domain transform can be expanded as two isomorphic AH expansions, that can be used for simultaneous interpolation and extrapolation in the time and frequency domains from the partial sampled data of the two waveforms. By using an optimization algorithm, the origin of the expansion and the optimal scaling factor can be found. Hence, by using an adaptive procedure, the order of the expansion can be chosen that leads to accurate interpolation and extrapolation. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of this method for the complex signal both with and without random noise. The proposed algorithm is also applied to analyze the time- and frequency-domain responses of the ground bounce and lead frame problems in electronic packaging in which the proposed algorithm remains stable when a large order of Hermite expansion is required. View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "Frequencies of a truncated circular waveguide - method of internal matching"

    Publication Year: 2001
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (16 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For original paper see C.Y. Wang, ibid., vol.48, no.10, pp.1763-5 (Oct. 2000). In the above paper, Wang makes a useful addition to the literature on truncated circular waveguides, which have important practical applications in polarizers. Wang references several prior contributions to the theory of this particular kind of waveguide and commenting collectively on this body of literature, goes on to state "the results, however, differ considerably". This is, at best, only partly true, and results in a greater degree from the author's failure to find other available references. A reply by Wang to these comments is included. View full abstract»

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  • Author's reply

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1821
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (16 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

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  • Comments on "Carrier tracking in RAKE reception of wide-band DSSS in Ricean fading"

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1822 - 1823
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In an earlier paper by Ziemer et al. (see ibid., vol.47, no.6, pp.681-6, 1999), the effect of phase-tracking error in the fingers of a coherent RAKE receiver was characterized. This paper gives additional results for the case where the phase tracking error is due jointly to input noise to the receiver and phase noise internal to the phase tracking device. An optimum number of paths exists, giving a minimum bit-error probability. View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "Branch-line couplers using unequal line lengths

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1824
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  • Comments on "Branch-line couplers using unequal line lengths

    Publication Year: 2001
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    For original paper see Toker et al., ibid., vol.49. no.4, pp.718-21, 2001. In the above paper, Toker et al. maintain that the general solution of branch-line couplers is provided. In fact, the more general coupler was published previously by the author (see ibid., vol.40, pp.253-62, 1992). Simplifying the general structure in this paper by removing the lumped elements, one can get the branch-line coupler. A reply to these comments by Toker et al. is included. View full abstract»

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  • Design of compact multilevel folded-line bandpass filters

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1804 - 1809
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple design methodology for compact multilevel multiconductor folded-line bandpass filters is presented in this paper. Several new compact folded-line filter topologies in single, as well as multilevel environments are proposed. Simple closed-form design equations are presented for the extraction of an equivalent coupled transmission line representing the folded-line filter section. The folded-line filter designs are validated by full-wave electromagnetic simulation, as well as by measurement for a four-section maximally flat four-coupled-line bandpass filter. The new folded-line filters exhibit a significant reduction in footprint compared to conventional designs View full abstract»

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  • A finite ground coplanar line-to-silicon micromachined waveguide transition

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1671 - 1676
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Circuits operating in the terahertz frequency range have traditionally been developed using hollow metal waveguides, which, due to the small wavelength at these operating frequencies, must be correspondingly small in cross section. As a result of the high cost of conventional precision machining of such small waveguides, alternate fabrication methods continue to be explored. Silicon micromachining has been suggested as a potential means to produce waveguides in a more cost-effective manner for operation at these frequencies. This paper presents a transition structure that couples the popular finite ground coplanar transmission line to a W-band silicon micromachined waveguide, forming a fully micromachined module. The waveguide is formed via bulk micromachining using a wet etchant, resulting in a diamond cross section. The consequences of utilizing a diamond waveguide in place of the more common rectangular waveguide are considered and potential means of developing rectangular-walled waveguides in silicon are noted. A Ka-band microwave model of a similar transition to a conventional rectangular waveguide is also demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Numerical computation of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and nonlinear superconducting materials

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1810 - 1817
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a numerical solution to the computation of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and superconducting materials. A superconductor is identified as a material with a negative dielectric permittivity on the basis of the two-fluid model and an integral-equation formulation is developed. The approach takes into account the nonlinear behavior (i.e., the dependence of the material parameters on the internal magnetic field), experimentally observed in previous studies. An iterative process is then developed for the numerical solution; the process is based on the distorted-wave Born approximation. The mathematical formulation of the approach is described and some numerical results concerning the canonical case of a circular cylinder and the behavior of two superconducting transmission lines are reported View full abstract»

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  • A general class of passive macromodels for lossy multiconductor transmission lines

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1686 - 1696
    Cited by:  Papers (57)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a general class of passive macromodeling algorithm for multiport distributed interconnects. A new theorem is described that specifies sufficient conditions for matrix-rational approximation of exponential functions in order to generate a passive macromodel. A proof is given showing that the currently existing passive matrix-rational approximation of exponential functions is a subclass of the generic approach presented in this paper. In addition, a technique to obtain a compact passive macromodel with predetermined coefficients, based on near-optimal approximation, is presented. The proposed model can be easily incorporated with recently developed passive model-reduction techniques View full abstract»

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  • Integration of CPW quadrature couplers in multilayer thin-film MCM-D

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1770 - 1776
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the design, integration, and measurement of quadrature couplers integrated in a multilayer thin-film multichip-module technology are discussed. We have investigated four- and six-finger coplanar-waveguide (CPW) Lange couplers and a coupler based on reentrant sections. Three methods for the design of CPW Lange couplers are compared for the first time. The method of Paolino consistently results in the best performance. The four-finger Lange coupler results in a -3.2+/-0.2-dB coupling bandwidth from 10.8 to 14.9 GHz, with a return loss better than -18 dB and an isolation better than -20 dB. The six-finger Lange coupler results in a -3.2+/-0.5-dB coupling bandwidth from 9.5 to 17 GHz, with a return loss and isolation better than -16 dB. The coupler using reentrant sections results in a -3.4+/-1.1-dB coupling bandwidth from 6.9 to 18.8 GHz with a return loss and isolation better than -21 dB. It is shown that CPW Lange couplers are not sensitive to planarization effects, while for the design of couplers using reentrant sections, the effect should be taken into account. The Lange couplers have the additional advantage that they are easier to design, have a lower insertion loss, and can be very well predicted using method-of-moments simulations View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear dynamics of microwave synthesizers-stability and noise

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1792 - 1803
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The nonlinear dynamics of microwave synthesizers based on type-II third-order loops is analyzed in this paper. Instead of using standard simplified models, realistic models are considered for the loop filter, phase detector (PD), and voltage-controlled oscillator based on experimental characterization. The new models enable the simulation of incidental frequency modulation and the accurate prediction of the synthesizer operation ranges, including possible hysteresis phenomena. The stability of phase-locked solutions is analyzed, enabling the prediction of possible chaotic behavior. For an accurate determination of the output spectrum, a phase-noise simulation is also carried out, considering the noise contributions from the loop elements. The sidebands inherent to the synthesizer solution are taken into account for this analysis. The analysis strategy has been applied to a microwave synthesizer, operating in the 2-3 GHz band, with very good results. Two types of PDs are considered: the JK flip-flop PD and frequency mixer, comparing the resulting loop performance in terms of stability and phase noise View full abstract»

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  • High-Q LTCC-based passive library for wireless system-on-package (SOP) module development

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1715 - 1724
    Cited by:  Papers (93)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the development and full characterization and modeling of a multilayer ceramic-based system-on-package component library. Compact high-Q three-dimensional inductor and capacitor topologies have been chosen and incorporated. A measured inductor Q factor as high as 100 and self-resonant frequency as high as 8 GHz have been demonstrated. The new vertically interdigitated capacitor topology occupies nearly an order of magnitude less of real estate while demonstrating comparable performance to the conventional topology. The low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) library has been incorporated into a 1.9-GHz CMOS power-amplifier design exhibiting a measured 17-dB gain, 26-dBm output power, and 48% power added efficiency. This power-amplifier module with fully integrated LTCC passives demonstrates a superior performance to those with full and partial on-chip passive integration View full abstract»

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  • Physics-based CAD models for the analysis of vias in parallel-plate environments

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1697 - 1707
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, physics-based computer-aided-design (CAD) models for through and buried vias in parallel-plate environments are presented based on radial transmission-line theory. The crosstalk power transferred by the TEM parallel-plate mode between vias is characterized, and extended to the treatment of vias in finite substrates by means of image theory. The presented CAD models can be combined with lumped and distributed circuit elements, as well as linear and nonlinear devices, providing an accurate and fast procedure for the global modeling of high-speed electronic circuits. The corresponding simulation time for representative single or multiple via configurations has been drastically reduced compared to full-wave simulations while maintaining comparable accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band low-loss high-isolation microstrip periodic-stub diplexer for multiple-frequency applications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1818 - 1820
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (59 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a three-port microstrip multifrequency diplexer used in a phased-array transceiver system that employs band-stop filters with open-circuited stubs for band selection and separation. The diplexer is designed to take 10, 12, 19, and 21 GHz into port 1 and to separate 10 and 19 GHz to port 2 and 12 and 21 GHz to part 3 with minimal dispersion. The insertion loss for each frequency varies from 0.4 to 3.4 db and the return loss is better than 10 dB. The isolation between channels at the four frequencies is greater than 50 dB. Each passband created between adjacent stopbands has a bandwidth over 1 GHz. The microstrip diplexer is designed using periodic stubs that collectively have the advantages of low insertion loss, high isolation and rejection, wide-band performance on each channel, and easy fabrication. This type of diplexer has many applications in multifrequency transceivers for communication systems View full abstract»

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  • A new family of all-inductive dual-mode filters

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1764 - 1769
    Cited by:  Papers (55)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (112 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe a new family of dual-mode filters that is based on the use of simple inductive discontinuities in a rectangular waveguide environment. The proposed filter structure can be analyzed and optimized very efficiently using multimode equivalent network representations, thus leading to a simple and rapid development procedure. In addition to theory, the measured performance of a number of filter structures is also presented, thereby fully validating the proposed filter concept View full abstract»

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  • Pulse-coupling measurement of coupled microstrip lines using a micromachined picosecond optical near-field probe

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1740 - 1746
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    By measuring the transverse electric-field distributions using a newly developed micromachined optical near-field mapping probe, pulse-coupling phenomena on coupled microstrip lines are reported for the first time. The measured field distribution of the propagating coupled pulse provides useful information to aid understanding of the coupling phenomena; this cannot be obtained by conventional external-port access test instruments. The measurement is performed based on the picosecond photoconductivity of low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs). A system for the measurement of the internal electric field distribution using the optical near-field probe is described and characterized. It is capable of measuring independent orthogonal components of free-space electric fields with less than 2-ps temporal resolution and with minimal loading effects. The loading effects of the probe are minimized by adopting a micromachining technique for the use of a 1-μm-thick LT-GaAs epilayer as a substrate, and by using silver-paint-coated optical fibers for electrical connections View full abstract»

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  • A new reduced-order model of SAW interdigital transducers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1785 - 1791
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Green's function method is generally agreed to be the most satisfactory technique for the rigorous analysis of surface-acoustic-wave interdigital transducers (IDTs). However, its direct application to response investigations or optimization-based design activities is limited by its computational complexity. In this paper, we present a new reduced-order model of IDTs based on a moment-matching technique and on the singular value decomposition. Several numerical and experimental examples demonstrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the method View full abstract»

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  • A synthesis technique of time-domain interconnect models by MIMO type of selective orthogonal least-square method

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1708 - 1714
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes an efficient synthesis technique of time-domain models for interconnects characterized by sampled data. In this method, poles are derived from the sampled data in the frequency domain. Next, the dominant poles and the residues are obtained efficiently by multiinput-multioutput type of selective orthogonal least-square method. Furthermore, time-domain models are derived from the frequency-domain models. Finally, the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are substantiated by transient simulation of example circuits using this model View full abstract»

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  • Noise characterization of multiport amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1757 - 1763
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the issue of the definition and measurement of the noise figure and parameters to characterize multiport devices, particularly differential amplifiers. A parametrization in terms of the noise matrix appears to be the most practical. The noise figure for a given output port is defined and related to the noise matrix and scattering parameters of the device, as well as the correlations between different input noise waves. The degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio is obtained from a special choice of the input correlation function. Two examples are considered in detail: a three-port differential amplifier and a four-port mixed-mode amplifier, both with reflectionless terminations. The noise figures, effective input temperatures, and gains are related to the results of a series of hot-cold measurements, as in the familiar two-port case View full abstract»

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  • Characterization and modeling of multiple coupled on-chip interconnects on silicon substrate

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1733 - 1739
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A quasi-magnetostatic integral formulation approach is applied to compute the frequency-dependent series resistance and inductance parameters for coupled microstrip on-chip interconnects on silicon. The method is based on the simultaneous discretization of interconnect conductors and silicon substrate, and takes into account the substrate skin effect (eddy currents), as well as the conductor skin and proximity effects. An efficient equivalent-circuit model based on “effective substrate current loops” is extracted from the frequency-dependent R and L parameters for a class of coupled microstrip-type on-chip interconnects. The frequency response of the proposed model consisting of only passive R, L elements agrees well with the broad-band characteristics of the distributed resistance and inductance parameters of the interconnect obtained by electromagnetic simulation. Model extraction results are presented for asymmetric coupled interconnects to demonstrate the proposed method View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating co-channel distortion ratio in microwave power amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1777 - 1784
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Laboratory results, obtained with a novel setup for a corrected co-channel distortion ratio, validate the idea that no matter the notch width, a conventional noise-power-ratio test produces optimistic small-signal in-band distortion measurements, when compared to a hypothetical continuous spectrum excitation test by the authors. This paper also generalizes previous memoryless mildly nonlinear behavior predictions to saturated and frequency-dependent regimes. Finally, a close agreement between measurement results and harmonic-balance simulated data provided an alternative means of corrected co-channel power-ratio evaluation View full abstract»

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  • Systematic development of transmission-line models for interconnects with frequency-dependent losses

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1677 - 1685
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new method for the extraction of the frequency-dependent, per-unit-length (p.u.l.) resistance, and inductance parameters of multiconductor interconnects. The proposed extraction methodology is based on a new formulation of the magneto-quasi-static problem that allows lossy ground planes of finite thickness to be modeled rigorously. The formulation is such that the p.u.l. impedance matrix for the multiconductor interconnect is extracted directly at a prescribed frequency. Once the matrix has been calculated over the bandwidth of interest, rational function representations of its elements are generated through a robust matrix curve-fitting process. Such a formulation enables subsequent transient analysis of interconnects through a variety of approaches. Direct incorporation of the rational function model into a general-purpose circuit simulator and a standalone multiconductor-transmission-line simulator is demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • A stable and efficient admittance method via adjacence graphs and recursive thresholding

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 1750 - 1756
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The generalized admittance method is a rigorous full-wave approach for the analysis of waveguide circuits. Unfortunately, it may present the risk of ill conditioning, especially when very complex structures are analyzed with a considerably high number of modes. In this paper, the concepts of adjacence graph and recursive thresholding are proposed to solve its numerical problems. By applying the proposed strategy, the linear system representing the core of the analysis is partitioned into many independent and well-conditioned subsystems, thus improving the numerical stability of the approach and its efficiency. The attractive features of the proposed approach are its simplicity and immediate implementation. Results are given, referred to a real industrial case, a complex E/H-plane filter, whose analysis could not be performed via a standard admittance method when a very high number of modes were considered. With the present approach, the ill conditioning is avoided and considerable enhancements in computing times is achieved View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org