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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Jun 1988

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Displaying Results 1 - 6 of 6
  • Energy conversion system optimization study for multimegawatt space nuclear power applications

    Page(s): 1030 - 1040
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)  

    A detailed description of the energy conversion system analysis and optimization procedures are presented that were part of a broader preliminary study aimed at designing a multimegawatt (MMW) space nuclear power system. In optimizing the energy conversion system it is assumed that the most-massive component of the system is the radiator, and therefore the subject of optimization is the radiator mass. The closed-loop Brayton and the liquid-metal Rankine cycles are analyzed for a 165-MWe system. The radiator-mass-optimized systems based on both cycles are compared for a wide range of operating conditions. For a 165-MWe power output, the MMW power system mass is calculated using an open-loop Brayton cycle. For the desired electric power output, results show that the hydrogen-cooled/potassium Rankine cycle is the recommended energy conversion system since it is superior to any closed-loop Brayton cycle. Results also show that the open-loop Brayton cycle system with a hydrogen working fluid has mass comparable to the selected Rankine cycle system View full abstract»

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  • High speed pulse digitization in driftless gas scintillation proportional counters

    Page(s): 1022 - 1025
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    The experimental arrangement used to examine light pulses of the driftless-gas-scintillation proportional counter are described and two applications using pulse-shape parameters are discussed. Since true X-rays should have a profile at least similar to a particular shape, events with a widely different profile can be rejected immediately. Events that have no software-discernable plateau are labeled spurious. This procedure typically rejects 60% of all laboratory background events. The problem of the dependency of the integrated light pulse (pulse height) on burst length is the second application considered for use with higher-energy X-rays View full abstract»

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  • Development of fuel failure detection system for a high temperature gas cooled reactor. II

    Page(s): 1041 - 1045
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.34, p.567 (1987). A fuel failure detection (FFD) method based on selective detection of short-life and gaseous fission products, developed for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, is described. An improved precipitator was used as a detector for the fission products and the performance of the FFD system was tested using an irradiation rig at the Japan Material Testing Reactor. In the rig, three kinds of samples of coated-particle fuels were irradiated and each sample of the primary helium gas was fed to the FFD system. Failure rates of the three fuel samples called intact, normal, and slightly failed, were estimated at about 10-6, 10-5, and 10 -4, respectively. The FFD system showed a significantly increased response in counting rate for the sample gas with a failure rate of 10-4. The FFD system did not respond to the sample gas with the smaller failure rate of 10-5 even when the background level of long-life fission products in the primary coolant gas increased with fuel temperature and reactor power View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of electron-irradiated biaxially-oriented polypropylene films

    Page(s): 1026 - 1029
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    Post-radiation changes in the electrical and mechanical properties of capacitor-grade isotactic polypropylene films exposed to electron radiation were previously reported by the authors (ibid., vol.NS-34, no.6, p.1822-6, Dec. 1987). Based on the data obtained, it was suggested that crosslinking, chain scission and oxidative degradation were responsible for the radiation-induced changes in the film. In the present investigations, additional electrical characterizations that included the DC breakdown voltage and AC conductivity measurements were performed. Effects of the electron radiation on the physical and chemical properties were also evaluated to identify the actual degradation mechanisms. These studies included scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and sol-gel measurements. The results obtained confirm that crosslinking and chain scission of the polymer are responsible for the changes in the lower dose range, whereas oxidative degradation becomes predominant at higher dose levels View full abstract»

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  • The professional realities of modern electronic instrument design

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    After a brief historical overview of the electronic instrument design profession, the changes resulting from CAD/CAE (computer-aided design/computer-aided engineering) techniques are assessed. A traditional design cycle is identified consisting of design, prototyping, rework, final engineering, and documentation. It is felt that this new instrument design technology will destroy this cycle of design, development, and engineering. In its most elementary form, CAD can be regarded as a drafting tool; however, when a CAD system is surrounded by logic and analog simulators, by features such as autoplacement of parts and autorouting of connections, and even by automatic fabrication and test equipment, CAD becomes a tool that revolutionizes the instrument engineering process. Conventional prototyping is replaced by simulation and the roles of engineers and technicians change radically. It is argued that the experience of present designers is a valuable resource that should not be lost and that industry and government laboratories must provide institutional mechanisms, such as granting sabbatical time, to permit design engineers to catch up with the advances in technology and to maintain this forefront knowledge View full abstract»

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  • A high-resolution and high-stability charge-integration ADC for high-rate experiments

    Page(s): 1018 - 1021
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    A charge-integration analog-to-digital converter (ADC) of 12-bit resolution was designed and built for the time-of-flight counters in the VENUS experiment at TRISTAN. The sample-and-hold process is done in the following way: outputs of a gated integrator were sampled before and after the integration gate timing; the voltage difference between the outputs was then recorded. By using this scheme, the output deviation caused by a short reset time is significantly reduced. The maximum deviation of the ADC counts is somewhat dependent on the duration for the discharge and the amount of integrated charge before the discharge. These effects were at most 3 counts and 2 counts, respectively. The integral nonlinearity was found to be within ±1 LSB (least-significant bit) and did not depend on the time duration for the discharge. The temperature coefficient of the gain was typically 100 p.p.m./°C. The temperature coefficient of the pedestal value was typically 0.15 counts/°C View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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