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Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

Issue 9 • Date Sep 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 8 of 8
  • Safety tests of lithium 9-volt batteries for Navy applications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 34 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    COTS batteries are relatively inexpensive, readily accessible, and extremely versatile. These attributes allow the military to save time and money during the research and development stages. Of these COTS batteries, a 9-Volt (9 V) lithium/manganese dioxide battery is the subject of this paper. This 9 V battery has the ability to provide a low magnetic signature, which is very important to the Navy for many applications, Also, it is Underwriters Laboratories (UL) listed at the unit level; however, these UL tests cannot be directly related to the safety of these 9 V batteries when they are combined in various series and parallel configurations. Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Carderock was tasked to rate the safety of several such specialized battery packs. It was found that packs consisting of two 9 V batteries in parallel were relatively safe, experiencing no violent behavior. Battery packs with six 9 Vs in parallel vented and deformed the 9 V batteries, but no smoke or flames were noticed. A battery pack with thirty 9 V batteries, 2 in series with 15 legs, experienced venting, smoke, and flames under certain circumstances, After testing, the six and thirty 9 V packs were required to include the addition of various safety devices View full abstract»

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  • Large lithium ion batteries for aerospace and aircraft applications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 24 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Eagle-Picher Energy Products (EPEP) has been manufacturing and testing large lithium ion cells (up to 100-Ah) for several years. Recently, work has focused on the testing of different chemistries at variable temperatures and designing and fabricating 100-Ah cylindrical cells. For the aircraft application the largest concern is irreversible capacity loss at elevated temperatures (70°C). In contrast, for the aerospace application shelf-life and cycle life are critical. EPEP has found that the major contributor to the loss in low temperature performance due to high temperature testing, was the positive electrode. EPEP discuss recent results of variable temperature cycling and 100-Ah cell performance View full abstract»

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  • Segmented battery charger for high energy 28 V lithium ion battery

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 15 - 18
    Cited by:  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since they were first introduced in the early 1990s, lithium ion batteries have enjoyed unprecedented growth and success in the consumer marketplace. Combining excellent performance with affordability, they have become the product of choice for portable computers and cellular phones. Building on the same energy and life cycle attributes, which marked their consumer market success, but adding new high power storage capability, lithium ion technology is now poised to play a similar role in the transportation, military, and space sectors. With major program in various aspects of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, Saft has developed a family of battery products that address the power and energy storage where lightweight, long life, and excellent energy or power storage capabilities are needed. Significant progress in the packaging and control of high power, yet compact, batteries has been accomplished for a variety of vehicle applications. This paper discusses the charger and balancing strategies of one of this family of products View full abstract»

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  • Avionics system for aggressive maneuvers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 38 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An Xcell-60 5 foot rotor diameter hobby helicopter was instrumented to perform autonomous aggressive maneuvers. The avionics system, state estimator design, and vibration isolation are presented. An analysis of helicopter dynamics based on manual flight data is given View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic field detectors, the seaside, and the desert wind? [PERIFELD-M security fence]

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 4 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the early 1960s, the first ideas were developed by leading companies in Germany to design an intrusion detection system following a capacitance measurement principle. In 1982, Siemens AG was the first company in this market which analysed all outdoor influences and recognised the essential problems which cause any classic capacitive or electrostatic detector to suffer from high unwanted false alarm rates. The result was that, already in 1984, a complete new peripheral hardware design, with a very high electrical and capacitive stability, was created by Siemens AG which remains state-of-the-art. Nevertheless, even if this high-grade material is installed, it can happen in certain cases that apparently invisible peripheral influences are the cause of important electrical effects. This paper describes a practical case experienced in 1999 where a coincidental combination of seaside conditions and a local desert wind strongly interfered in the physics of a capacitive electrostatic field detector View full abstract»

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  • Reconfiguration of flight control systems for actuator failures

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 29 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the problem of designing fault tolerant control for transient failures in the flight control system caused by harsh electromagnetic environments. We examine principles of fault tolerant design and discuss integrated local supervisory control of these systems. As an example, we present a sample design of a control mixer to achieve fault tolerance in the event of failures in the actuators View full abstract»

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  • GPS based IPS for ERP vehicles

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 10 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    GPS is an innovative technique for an electronic road pricing (ERP) system. By using GPS technology, ERP systems will be extremely efficient and cost-effective. This paper describes the next generation of ERP in Singapore and proposes a GPS based multisensor positioning system for ERP vehicles. Multisensor fusion algorithms are presented for the integration system. The integrated positioning system (IPS) developed in this paper makes it possible to realize GPS based ERP with a simple composition and low cost View full abstract»

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  • Flight simulation in synthetic environments

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 19 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The VRAC, has the mission of applying virtual reality technology to the challenges of engineering and science. We typically create virtual worlds that allow the user to interact with 3D real-time graphics. We refer to the virtual worlds enabling this interaction as synthetic environments. A synthetic environment produces sufficient sensory cues to make users believe they are in a different geographic location with a different velocity and orientation than they have in the real world. Classical flight simulators are a subset of synthetic environments. Although they do not usually use stereoscopic displays, they do use large FOV visual systems, digital audio, force feedback via the flight controls, and force feedback on the simulator as a whole via a motion base. We believe the addition of stereoscopic 3D graphics will be particularly valuable in hovering, formation flying, and landing. VRAC uses two surround screen environments, the C2 and the C6. The C2 came on line in 1995. It is a room with four projected surfaces, three walls and the floor. The C6, which came on line in June 2000, is a cube-shaped room, the first of its kind in the US, with 3D graphics projected on all four walls, the floor, and the ceiling. The C2 and C6 are linked by a dedicated fiber network. This will enable collaboration between geographically separated virtual worlds. Many researchers believe that collaboration between geographically separate synthetic environments is the key to future breakthroughs in the use of SE technology. The C2/C6 combination will be an ideal testbed to support this kind of collaboration. In addition, the C2 and C6 are connected to a 250-person auditorium that has dual screens capable of simultaneously displaying real-time images from two sources. Our vision is simultaneous display of real-time graphics from the C2 and the C6 in the auditorium, enabling up to 250 people to study and, perhaps, participate in the real-time interactions. As quality of service, bandwidth, and latency challenges are met by emerging technology, we also look forward to interconnecting the C2, the C6, and the auditorium with off campus simulators View full abstract»

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The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles and tutorials concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.

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